List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human spaceflight.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Manufacturers of space vehicles[edit]

Crew and cargo transport vehicles[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Launcher
name
Launcher
type
Maximum
reach
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Notes
Romania ARCA Haas 2b capsule Haas 2b rocket sub-orbit 2 development [1]
Romania ARCA Super Haas capsule Super Haas rocket orbit 2 development [2]
United States Armadillo Aerospace Black Armadillo rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 1-3 cancelled [3][4]
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Boeing CST-100 capsule Atlas V[5] rocket LEO 7 testing First crew flight 2017[6]
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Lockheed Martin Orion Lite capsule Atlas 5 CTS or Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6-7 cancelled [7]
United States Blue Origin New Shepard capsule + booster Propulsion Module rocket sub-orbit 6 testing Commercial unmanned flights in 2016[8][9][10]
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Brahe cylinder HEAT-1X rocket sub-orbit 1 cancelled [11]
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Deep Space I and II capsule - rocket sub-orbit 1 development [11]
European UnionEADS Astrium unnamed craft spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 4 development [12]
Australia AusSpace LEOT capsule LEOT Launcher rocket LEO 1-3 development 2021 first flight planned
Isle of ManExcalibur Almaz TKS derivative capsule multiple rocket LEO 3 cancelled [13][14]
United States Interorbital Systems Solaris X capsule self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled [15]
United States Interorbital Systems Crew Module capsule Neptune TSAAHTO rocket lunar orbit 6 development [16]
Japan Japanese Rocket Society Kankoh-maru rocket self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 50 proposed Sponsors needed[17]
United StatesOrbital ATK Cygnus capsule Antares (rocket) rocket LEO - operational (3/4)
United StatesOrbital ATK Prometheus spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 4 cancelled [18]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO - cancelled [19][full citation needed]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL 2 spaceplane An 225 airplane LEO - cancelled [20]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. Skylon spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 5-20 development [20]
United States Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne spaceplane WhiteKnightOne airplane sub-orbit 2 retired (3/3) [21]
United StatesScaled Composites
United KingdomVirgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipTwo spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane sub-orbit 8 testing First powered flight test 2013[22]
United StatesScaled Composites
United KingdomVirgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipThree spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane LEO (or suborbital passenger-delivery)  ? proposed [23]
United States Space Adventures
Russia Myasishchev Design Bureau
Explorer (Cosmopolis XXI, C-21) spaceplane M-55X airplane sub-orbit 5 development [24]
United States Sierra Nevada Corporation Dream Chaser spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 7 proposed [25]
United States Sierra Nevada Corporation Dream Chaser Cargo System spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 0 testing
United States SpaceX Dragon (cargo) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 0 operational (8/9) [26]
United States SpaceX Dragon (V2) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 7 testing unveiled 29 May 2014, first crew flight 2017 [6][27]
United States SpaceX Interplanetary Spaceship capsule ITS launch vehicle rocket deep space (Oort Cloud) 100-200 development [28]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries NOVA capsule Starchaser 4 rocket sub-orbit - testing [29]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderstar capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 3 development [30]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderbird capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 6 development [30]
United States t/Space CXV capsule QuickReach rocket LEO and lunar orbit 6 development [31]
United States Venturer Aerospace S-550 capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6 cancelled [32]
United States World View Enterprises Voyager capsule self-powered helium balloon near space 8 (6 passengers, 2 pilots) development [33]
United States XCOR Xerus spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 2 cancelled [34]
United States XCOR Lynx spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 2 (pilot + passenger) cancelled First test flight now planned for Q2 2016.[35][36][37][38]
Spain zero2infinity bloon capsule self-powered helium balloon near space 6 (4 passenger, 2 pilots) development [39]

Space stations[edit]

Private Company name Space Craft name Space Craft type Internal
volume
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Orbit Around Ref
Axiom Space Axiom Module? Rigid Module ? 7 proposed Earth [40]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis I Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[41] unmanned currently in LEO Earth [42]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis II Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[43] unmanned currently in LEO Earth [44]
Bigelow Aerospace Galaxy Inflatable module 16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[45] unmanned cancelled Earth [46]
Bigelow Aerospace Sundancer Inflatable module 180 m3 (6,357 cu ft) 3 cancelled Earth [47]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 330 Inflatable module 330 m3 (11,654 cu ft) 6 testing Earth [48]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 2100 Inflatable module 2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft) 16 proposed Earth
Excalibur Almaz Almaz derivative Rigid module  ? 3 inactive Earth [13][14]
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Earth Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Earth Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Lunar Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 3 proposed Moon
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Lunar Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 12 proposed Moon
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Martian Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Mars
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Martian Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 9 proposed Mars
Galactic Suite Ltd. Galactic Suite Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth [49]
Global Space Organization GSO Lunar Station One 3D Printed  ? 10 proposed Earth [50]
Orbital Technologies/RSC Energia Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station Rigid Module The first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³. 7 development Earth [51]
Gateway Galactic, Inc. Antaios (Depot) Propellant Depot  ? unmanned development Earth [52]

Launch vehicles[edit]

Further information: List of orbital launch systems
Company name Launcher
name
Launcher
type
No. of
stages
Maximum
reach
Launcher
status
Maiden
flight
Ref
RomaniaARCA Haas 2b light rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [1]
RomaniaARCA Super Haas medium rocket 2 LEO development  ? [2]
AustraliaAustralian space research institute AUSROCKS light rocket 2 LEO development ? [53]
United StatesBlue Origin New Glenn heavy Rocket 2 or 3 GTO development 2019

(Planned)

[54]
CanadaCanadian Arrow Canadian Arrow rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [citation needed]
MexicoDatiotec Aeroespacial / INMEU A.C. JFCR-2000A light rocket 1 suborbit development 2017 (planned) [55]
United StatesGeneral Astronautics Urania medium rocket 3 LEO cancelled [56]
United StatesInterorbital Systems NEPTUNE

N series

light-to-medium rocket 1-9 LEO development  ? [16]
United StatesInterorbital Systems NEPTUNE N36 heavy rocket 36 lunar orbit proposed  ? [16]
United StatesInterorbital Systems Neptune TSAAHTO heavy rocket lunar orbit proposed  ? [16]
RussiaLin Industrial Taymyr light rocket 3 LEO proposed ? [57]
United StatesLockheed Martin VentureStar reusable spaceplane 1 LEO cancelled [58]
United StatesLockheed Martin Athena medium rocket 2 or 3 LEO development 1995
United StatesMishaal Aerospace M-SV light rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [59][60]
United StatesMishaal Aerospace M-OV light rocket 1+2-10 Boosters LEO development  ? [59][60]
United StatesOrbital ATK Antares medium rocket 3 LEO operational (4/5) 2013 [61]
United StatesOrbital ATK Minotaur-C, formerly Taurus light rocket 4 LEO operational (6/9) 1994 [62][63][64]
United StatesOrbital ATK Pegasus light rocket 3 LEO operational (37/45) 1990
GermanyOrbital Transport & Raketen AG OTRAG medium rocket variable LEO retired 1977 [citation needed]
SpainPLD Space Arion 1 light rocket 1 suborbit development 2018 (planned) [65][66]
SpainPLD Space Arion 2 light rocket 2 LEO development 2020 (planned) [66]
New ZealandRocket Lab ATEA-1 light rocket 2 suborbit operational (1/1) 2009 [67][68]
New ZealandRocket Lab Electron light rocket 2 LEO development 2016 (Planned) [69]
United StatesSpace Services Inc. of America Percheron light rocket 1 suborbit cancelled [70]
United StatesSpace Services Inc. of America Conestoga 1620 medium rocket 4 LEO retired (0/1) [70]
United Kingdom SpaceLS Prometheus-1 light rocket 2 LEO development  ? [71][72]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 1 light rocket 2 LEO retired (2/5) 2008 [73]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 1e light rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [73]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 5 medium rocket 2 GTO cancelled [74]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 v1.0 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (5/5) 2010 [75]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (14/15) 2013 [75]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 full thrust medium rocket (first stage reusable) /
heavy rocket (expendable configuration)
2 TMI[76] operational (8/8) 2015 [75]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon Heavy heavy rocket (first stage core and side boosters reusable) / super heavy rocket (expendable configuration) 2+boosters deep space (Pluto)[77] development 2016 (planned) [75][78]
United StatesSpaceX ITS Launch Vehicle super heavy rocket 2 deep space (Oort Cloud)[79] development ? [80]
United StatesUnited Launch

Alliance

Atlas V medium rocket 2 GTO Operational (64/65) 2002 [81]
United StatesUnited Launch

Alliance

Delta II 6000 medium rocket 2 GTO Retired (17/17) 1989 [82]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Delta II 7000 light rocket 2 GTO Operational (128/130) 1990 [82]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Delta II 7000H heavy rocket 2 HCO Retired (6/6) 2003 [82]
United StatesUnited Launch

Alliance

Delta IV medium rocket 2 GTO Operational (32/33 2003 [83]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy heavy rocket 2 GTO Operational (8/9) 2004 [84]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Vulcan heavy rocket 2 GTO Development 2019

(planned)

[85]
United StatesVentions SALVO light rocket 2 LEO testing 2015 (planned) [86][87]
United KingdomUnited StatesVirgin Galactic LauncherOne light rocket 2 LEO testing 2016 (planned) [88]
Spainzero2infinity bloostar Rockoon system (high-altitude balloon and in-space rocket launcher) 3 + high-altitude balloon ascent LEO development 2018 [89]
BrazilCTA VLS Alfa rocket 3 LEO development  ?

Landers, rovers and probes[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Craft status Ref
ARCASPACE ELE lunar orbiter development [90]
Armadillo Aerospace unnamed craft rocket module testing [91]
Astrobotic Technology Artemis Lander lunar lander development [92]
Astrobotic Technology Red Rover rover development [93]
Astrobotic Technology Griffin lunar lander negotiating [94]
Euroluna ROMIT development [95]
Golden Spike Company Manned lunar lander proposed [96]
Hakuto Moon Raker rover development [97]
Hakuto Tetris rover development [98]
Independence-X development [99]
Interorbital Systems RIPPER lander development [100]
Lunar Mission One unnamed lunar lander + deep drill development [101]
Mars One unnamed lander development [102]
Masten Space Systems XEUS lunar lander negotiating [94]
Moon Express MX-1 family lunar lander testing [94][103]
Odyssey Moon MoonOne (M-1) rover development [104]
Omega Envoy development [105]
Part Time Scientists Audi Lunar quattro rover development
Puli Space Technologies Puli rover fundraising [106]
Team FREDNET development [107]
Team Italia rover development [108]
Team Indus HHK1 lunar lander+ 2 rovers development
TransOrbital TrailBlazer lunar orbiter cancelled [109]
Team Plan B Plan B development
Space IL Sparrow nano-ship development
STELLAR development [110]
SYNERGY MOON Tesla rover development [111]

Research craft and tech demonstrators[edit]

Further information: List of sounding rockets
Company name Craft name Craft purpose Craft status Ref
ARCA Demonstrator 2b demonstrate reusable monopropellant engine retired
Armadillo Aerospace Quad demonstrate VTOL retired
ASRI AUSROCKS I systems testing retired
ASRI AUSROCKS II payload to 10 km retired
ASRI AUSROCKS 2.5 systems testing testing
ASRI AUSROCKS III payload of 150 kg to 500 km development
Blue Origin Goddard demonstrate VTOL retired
Interorbital Systems Neutrino systems testing operational
Interorbital Systems Tachyon systems testing operational [112]
Lockheed Martin X-33 demonstrate SSTO cancelled
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1 demonstrate VTOL retired
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1B Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1 operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E Lunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flights operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E2 commercial flights development
McDonnell Douglas DC-X demonstrate VTOL retired (11 test flights)
Rotary Rocket Roton ATV demonstrate VTOL retired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc. Conestoga I systems testing retired (1 test) [70]
SpaceX Grasshopper demonstrate VTOL retired (8 tests) [113]
SpaceX F9R Dev1 refine VTOL (low altitude) destroyed (5 flights) [114]
SpaceX F9R Dev2 refine VTOL (high altitude) development
Swedish Space Corp. Maxus payload to 700 km operational
Swedish Space Corp. Maser payload to 300 km operational
UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL payload to 140 km operational [115]
World View Enterprises Tycho Platform payload up to 46 km and 300 kg operational [116]
zero2infinity nanobloon 1.0 payload to 32 km operational [117]
zero2infinity nanobloon 2.0 payload to 33 km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 1.0 payload to 24 km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 2.0 payload to 31 km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 3.0 payload to 27 km operational

Space mining[edit]

Company name Body to be mined Mining craft Mining status Ref
Deep Space Industries Near-Earth asteroids press conference
Final Frontier Technologies Moon, Asteroid Belt proposed Unknown
Global Space Organization Moon, Near-Earth asteroids Robotic Systems proposed [118]
Infinite Space Dynamics Near-Earth Asteroids, Moon, Asteroid Belt Development Development
Kepler Energy and Space Engineering Near-Earth Asteroids proposed fundraising [119]
Moon Express Moon Unknown Unknown
Planetary Resources Near-Earth asteroids Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300 development [120]
Shackleton Energy Company Moon Architecture Architecture
Stott Space Inc. Near-Earth asteroids fundraising [121][relevant? ]

Space manufacturing[edit]

Company name Products Manufacturing craft status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Propellant, Space Infrastructure, Propellant depot, communications platforms, space solar power satellites
Shackleton Energy Company propellant, space infrastructure, Propellant depot
Deep Space Industries propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites

Space settlement[edit]

Company name Colony location Status Ref
Interplanetary Transport System Mars development[122]
Final Frontier Technologies Mars proposed[citation needed]
Final Frontier Technologies Moon proposed[citation needed]
Mars One Mars Fundraising and assessing astronaut applications[when?] [123]

Propulsion manufacturers[edit]

Company name Engine Engine type Applications Ref
Accion Systems Inc. MAX-1 and TILE electric, electrospray ion [124][125]
Ad Astra Rocket Company VASIMR magnetoplasma may be used for future Mars missions[126]
AE Aerospace HIRE hybrid ion rocket [127][128]
AE Aerospace Scearamjet Electric Scramjet [129][full citation needed]
American Rocket Company hybrid rocket The company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCA Executor (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
Blue Origin BE-3 LH2/LOX rocket engine New Shepard
Blue Origin BE-4 LOX/Liquid methane Vulcan, New Glenn
CU Aerospace PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11 MCD[130] / Resistojet / PPT[131] Small satellite / CubeSat missions[132]
Reaction Engines Ltd. SABRE precooled air-breathing rocket planned to be used in Skylon [133]
Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo hybrid rocket SpaceShipTwo
SpaceDev hybrid rocket SpaceShipOne[citation needed]
SpaceX Kestrel (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceX Merlin (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1,[134] Falcon 9,[135] Falcon 9 Heavy first stage[citation needed]
SpaceX Merlin Vacuum LOX/RP-1 Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Heavy second stage[citation needed]
SpaceX Raptor (rocket engine) LOX/Liquid methane "a highly reusable methane staged-combustion engine that will power the next generation of SpaceX launch vehicles designed for the exploration and colonization of Mars."[136]

Satellite launchers[edit]

Company Launch vehicles Private Refs
Arianespace Ariane, Vega No; Owned by some of the EU
Eurockot Launch Services Rockot No; 49% owned by Russia, and 51% by Kazakhistan
International Launch Services Proton No; 51%+ owned by Russia
ISC Kosmotras Dnepr No; Owned by Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Orbital ATK Partial; own launchers, funded by NASA
SpaceX Yes; own launchers
Sea Launch Zenit No; Bankrupt. Owned by Russia.
Starsem Soyuz No; 25% Owned by Russa, 25% Samara, 35% EADS SPACE Transportation, 15% EU

Spaceliner companies[edit]

Company name Contracts for Craft utilised Status Notes Refs
Benson Space Company SpaceDev Dream Chaser waiting for hardware[citation needed]
MirCorp none Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir defunct, Mir deorbited
Space Adventures none Soyuz and the ISS active (7 tourists sent)
RocketShip Tours XCOR Lynx rocketplane waiting for hardware
Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo waiting for hardware

Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers[edit]

Company Production Notes Refs
Altius Space Machines
Advanced Space Advanced Space is a software and services company that leverages its unique subject matter expertise to improve the fundamentals of spaceflight. [137]
Andrews Space
EADS Astrium Satellites
EADS Astrium Space Transportation
Made in Space [138]
NanoRacks [139]
Rocketstar Robotics, Inc. [140]
Starsys merged with SpaceDev [citation needed]
SpaceDev
Space Environment Technologies Space Environment Technologies provides services, products, and hardware for the operational space environment. It offers operational capabilities for forecasting Low Earth Orbit densities and for specifying surface charging, internal charging, single event effect, and radiation environments. [141]
SpaceQuest, Ltd.
Talis Enterprises, Ltd. [142]

See also[edit]

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