List of private spaceflight companies

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This article is a list of non-governmental (privately owned) entities that currently offer—or are planning to offer—equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human.[inconsistent]

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Three-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Commercial astronauts[edit]

Manufacturers of space vehicles[edit]

Cargo transport vehicles[edit]

Company name Spacecraft Launch system Length (m) Dry mass (kg) Launch mass (kg) Payload (kg) Payload volume (m3) Return payload (kg) Diameter (m) Generated power (W) Automated docking Status
SpaceX Dragon Falcon 9 Block 5 6.1 4,200[4] 10,200 3,310 pressurized or unpressurized, in any mixture[5] 10.0 (pressurized), plus 14 (unpressurized), or 34 (unpressurized with extended trunk)[6] 2,500 capsule return[7] 3.7 2,000[8] No Retired (21/22)
Dragon 2 Falcon 9 Block 5 8.1 6,400 3,310 10.0 (pressurized), plus 14 (unpressurized) 2,500 3.7 Yes Operational (2/2)
Orbital Cygnus (standard) Antares 1x0 5.14 1,500[9] 2,000[9] 18.9[9] None 3.07 3,500[10] No Retired (3/4)
Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems Cygnus (enhanced) Antares 230
Atlas V 401
6.34 1,800[11] 3,500[11] 27[11] None 3.07 No Operational (7/7)
Sierra Nevada Corporation Dream Chaser Cargo System Atlas V
Vulcan[12]
5,000 pressurized, 500 unpressurized[13] 1,750[13] Yes Development
Planned: 2022

Crew transport vehicles[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Company name Spacecraft Range Launch
system
Crew
size
Length (m) Diameter (m) Launch mass (kg) Power
system
Generated
power (W)
First
spaceflight*
Status
Blue Origin Biconic Space Vehicle LEO New Glenn Planned date not known Development
Boeing CST-100 Starliner LEO Multiple, initially Atlas V 7[14] 5.03[15] 4.56[15] Solar panels Planned: First Crewed 2021
(First Uncrewed: 20 December 2019, Second Uncrewed: Spring 2021)
Development
Sierra Nevada Corporation Dream Chaser Space System LEO Multiple, initially Atlas V 7[16][17] 9[18] 11,300[19] Planned date not known Development
SpaceX Dragon 2 LEO Falcon 9 Block 5 7[note 1] 8.1[20] 3.7[21] Solar Crewed: May 30, 2020
(Uncrewed: 2 March 2019)
Operational (2/2)
Starship Mars[22][note 2] Super Heavy <=100 50[22] 9[22][note 3] 1,335,000[22] Solar panels Planned: 2021 without crew Development
* - Format: Crewed (Uncrewed), includes failures
  1. ^ Number of seats will be 4 for crew member rotations for the ISS
  2. ^ Although designed to be capable of flying to anywhere in the solar system, this vehicle's intended maximum range is Mars
  3. ^ Plus fins/legs

Suborbital[edit]

Company name Spacecraft Range Launch
system
Crew
size
Length (m) Diameter (m) Launch mass (kg) First
spaceflight*
Status
Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne 100 km (62 mi) White Knight 1 8.53 8.05 3,600 21 June 2004 Retired (3/3)[note 1]
Blue Origin New Shepard Crew Capsule 114 km (71 mi) (capsule, using the launch escape system motor) New Shepard 6 3.6 Planned April 2021 Testing (11/11)[note 2]
The Spaceship Company SpaceShipTwo 110 km (68 mi) White Knight Two 8 (2 Pilots, 6 Passengers) 18.3 8.3 9,740 13 December 2018 Testing (2/3)[note 3]
Copenhagen Suborbitals[note 4] Tycho Deep Space 105 km (65 mi)
Spica 1 13 0.955 4,000 Planned date not known Development
PD AeroSpace (Unknown) 110 km (68 mi)[23] (Unknown) 8 (6 passengers, 2 pilots) 14.8[24] >6,000 Planned date not known Development
* - Format: Crewed (Uncrewed), includes failures
  1. ^ Does not include crewed atmospheric flights
  2. ^ Does not include flights not reaching the Kármán line
  3. ^ Does not include powered flights not intended to reach space
  4. ^ Denmark's amateur human space program.

Launch vehicle manufacturers[edit]

Company name Launcher
name
Launcher
type
No. of
stages
Maximum
reach
Launcher
status
Maiden
flight
Ref
Agnikul Cosmos Agnibaan Light Rocket 2 LEO Development 2021 (planned)
ARCA Space Haas 2b Suborbital crewed rocket 1 Suborbital Development [25]
Haas 2CA Light rocket 1 LEO Development [26]
Super Haas Medium rocket 2 LEO Proposed [27]
Australian Space Research Institute AUSROC Nano Light rocket 2 LEO Development [28]
Astra Space Astra Rocket 1 Sounding rocket 2 Suborbital Retired (0/1) 2018 [29][30][31]
Astra Rocket 2 Sounding rocket 2 Suborbital Operational (0/1) 2018 [32]
Astra Rocket 3 Light rocket 2 LEO Development (1/3) 2020 [33]
SALVO Light rocket 2 LEO Cancelled [34][35][36]
Bellatrix Aerospace Chetak Light Rocket 2 LEO Development 2023 (planned)
Blue Origin New Shepard Reusable Suborbital rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (12/12) 2015
New Glenn Reusable Heavy rocket 2 or 3 GTO Development Q4 2022 (planned) [37][38][39]
New Armstrong Reusable Super-heavy rocket 3 HCO Proposed ~2030 (proposed)
BluShift Aerospace Stardust Reusable Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (1/1) 2020
Starless Rogue Sounding rocket 2 Suborbital Development Q4 2021 (planned)
Red Dwarf Light rocket 3 LEO Development Q2 2024 (planned)
Borneo SubOrbitals TBA Sounding rocket 2 or 3 Suborbital Development 2021/2022 (planned) [40][41][42]
Canadian Arrow Canadian Arrow Suborbital crewed rocket 2 Suborbital Cancelled [43]
Datiotec Aeroespacial / INMEU A.C. JFCR.2000-Pollux Sounding socket 1 Suborbital Development [44][45]
Exos Aerospace SARGE Reusable Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (3/4) 2018 [46][47]
Firefly Aerospace Firefly Alpha Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2020 (planned)
Firefly Beta Light rocket 2 + 2 boosters LEO Development
General Astronautics Urania Medium rocket 3 LEO Cancelled [48][49]
Gilmour Space Technologies RASTA Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Retired (1/1) 2016 [50]
Eris Light rocket 3 LEO Development 2022 (Planned) [50]
Generation Orbit X-60A (GOLauncher 1) Air-launched sounding rocket 1 + airplane Suborbital Development [51][52]
GOLauncher 2 Air-launch-to-orbit 2 + airplane LEO Development
Independence-X Aerospace DNLV (Dedicated Nano Launch Vehicle) Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2023 (planned) [53][54]
Interorbital Systems NEPTUNE N series Light rocket 3–4 LEO Development [55][56]
NEPTUNE N36 Light rocket 4 TLI Proposed [55][56]
Neptune TSAAHTO Medium rocket TLI Proposed [55]
Interstellar Technologies Momo Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (1/4) 2017 [57][58]
Isar Aerospace Spectrum Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2022 (planned) [59]
Launcher[60] Engine-2[61] Light rocket 1 LEO Development 2024 (planned)
Leaf Space Primo Light rocket 2 LEO Proposed [62][63]
Lin Industrial Taymyr Light rocket 3 LEO Development 2020 (planned) [64][65]
Lockheed Martin VentureStar Reusable spaceplane 1 LEO Cancelled [66]
Athena Medium rocket 2 or 3 TLI Retired (5/7) 1995
Mishaal Aerospace M-SV Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Development [67][68][69]
M-OV Light rocket 1 + 6 Boosters LEO Development [67][68][70]
M-LV Light rocket 1 + 8 boosters TLI Development [67][68][71]
OneSpace OS-X Sounding rocket 2 Suborbital Operational (2/2) 2018 [72]
OS-M1 Light rocket 3 LEO Operational (0/1) 2019 [73]
OS-M2 Light rocket 3 + 2 boosters LEO Development [74]
OS-M4 Light rocket 3 + 4 boosters LEO Development [75]
Orbex Prime Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2022 (planned) [76]
OrbitX Haribon SLS-1 Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2023–2024 (planned)
Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems Antares Medium rocket 3 LEO Operational (10/11) 2013 [77]
Minotaur-C, formerly Taurus Light rocket 4 LEO Operational (7/10) 1994 [78][79][80]
Pegasus Air-launch-to-orbit 3-4 + airplane HEO Operational (39/44) 1990
Omega Medium rocket 3 + 0-6 boosters GEO Cancelled (Was planned for 2021)
Orbital Transport & Raketen AG OTRAG Medium rocket variable LEO (designed)
Suborbital (achieved)
Retired (15/18) 1977 [81]
Perigee Aerospace Blue Whale 1 Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2020 (planned) [82][83]
PLD Space Miura 1 Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Development 2020-2021 (planned) [84][85][86][87]
Miura 5 Light rocket 3 LEO Development 2022 (planned) [85]
Relativity Space Terran 1 Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2020 (planned) [88]
Rocket Crafters Intrepid-1 Light rocket 2 LEO Development [89][90]
Rocket Lab Ātea-1 Sounding rocket 2 Suborbital Retired (1/1) 2009 [91][92]
Ātea-2 Sounding rocket 2 Suborbital Cancelled [93]
Electron Reusable Light rocket 2 LEO Operational (17/20) 2017 [94]
Neutron Medium rocket 2 GTO Development 2024 (planned)
RocketStar Star-Lord Light rocket 2 LEO Development [95]
Rocket Factory Augsburg RFA One Light rocket 3 LEO Development 2022 (planned) [96][97]
Skyroot Aerospace Vikram-1 Light rocket 3 LEO Development 2021 (planned) [98]
Vikram-II Light rocket 3 LEO Development
Vikram-III Light rocket 3 LEO Development
Skyrora Skyrora 1 Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Development 2020 (planned) [99][100][101]
Skyrora XL Light rocket 3 LEO Development 2021 (planned) [102][103][104]
SpaceForest Bigos Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (5/5) 2015 [105]
Candle-2 Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (1/1) 2016 [106][107][108]
Perun Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Operational (1/1) 2020[109] [110]
SIR (Suborbital Inexpensive Rocket) Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Development 2022 (planned) [105][111]
Space Services Inc. Percheron Sounding rocket 1 Suborbital Cancelled [112]
Conestoga 1620 Medium rocket 4 LEO (designed)
Suborbital (achieved)
Retired (0/1) 1995 [112]
SpaceLS Prometheus-1 Light rocket 2 LEO Development [113][114]
SpaceX Falcon 1 Light rocket 2 LEO Retired (2/5) 2006 [115]
Falcon 1e Light rocket 2 LEO Cancelled [115]
Falcon 5 Medium rocket 2 GTO Cancelled [116]
Falcon 9 v1.0 Medium rocket 2 GTO (designed)
LEO (achieved)
Retired (5/5) 2010 [117]
Falcon 9 v1.1 Medium rocket 2 HCO Retired (14/15) 2013 [117]
Falcon 9 Full Thrust
Block 1-4
Reusable Medium rocket /
Heavy rocket (expendable)
2 TMI[118] Retired (36/36) 2015 [117]
Falcon 9 Block 5 Reusable Medium rocket /
Heavy rocket (expendable)
2 TMI[118] Operational (66/66) 2018 [119][120]
Falcon Heavy Reusable Heavy rocket /
Super-heavy rocket (expendable)
2 + 2 boosters Deep space (Pluto)[121] Operational (3/3) 2018 [117][122]
Starship Super-Heavy Reusable Super-heavy rocket 2 Deep space Development 2021 (planned)[123] [124]
United Launch Alliance Atlas V Medium rocket 2 + 0-5 boosters TMI Operational (80/81) 2002 [125]
Delta II 6000 Medium rocket 2-3 + 9 boosters GTO Retired (17/17) 1989 [126]
Delta II 7000 Light rocket 2-3 + 3, 4 or 9 boosters GTO Retired (130/132) 1990 [126]
Delta II 7000H Medium rocket 2-3 + 9 boosters TMI Retired (6/6) 2003 [126]
Delta IV Medium rocket 2 + 0, 2 or 4 boosters GTO Retired (28/28) 2003 [127]
Delta IV Heavy Heavy rocket 2 + 2 boosters GTO Operational (10/11) 2004 [128]
Vulcan Heavy rocket 2 + 0-6 boosters GTO Development 2021 (planned) [129]
Vector Launch Vector-R Light rocket 2 LEO Development 2023 (2 prototype launches in 2017)
Vector-RE1 Light rocket 2 or 3 LEO Cancelled
Vector-H Light rocket 2 LEO Cancelled
Vector-HE1 Light rocket 2 or 3 LEO Cancelled
Virgin Orbit LauncherOne Air-launch-to-orbit 2 + airplane LEO Operational (1/2) 2020 (First successful attempt Jan 2021) [130]
Zero2infinity Bloostar Rockoon system (high-altitude balloon and space launcher) 3 + high-altitude balloon LEO Development Unknown [131]

Landers, rovers and orbiters[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Craft status Ref
ARCASPACE ELE (European Lunar Explorer) lunar orbiter Cancelled [132]
Astrobotic Technology Red Rover lunar rover Development [133]
Griffin (previously Artemis Lander) lunar lander Negotiating [134]
Peregrine Lander lunar lander Development [135]
Euroluna ROMIT lunar rover Cancelled [136]
Golden Spike Company
(defunct)
unnamed crewed lunar lander Cancelled [137]
Hakuto Sorato lunar rover Development [138][139]
Tetris lunar rover Cancelled [140]
Independence-X Aerospace SQUALL (Scientific Quest Unmanned Autonomous Lunar Lander) lunar lander Cancelled [141]
Interorbital Systems RIPPER (Robotic InterPlanetary Prospector Excavator Retriever) lunar lander Development [142]
Intuitive Machines Nova-C lander, and Universal Reentry Vehicle (URV)[143] lunar lander; reusable orbital vehicle Development [144]
Lunar Mission One unnamed lunar lander Proposed (2014) [145]
Masten Space Systems XEUS lunar lander Negotiating [134]
Masten Space Systems XL-1 lunar lander Development [146]
Moon Express MX-1 lunar lander Testing [134][147]
Odyssey Moon MoonOne (M-1) lunar rover Cancelled [148]
Omega Envoy Sagan lunar rover Cancelled [149]
OrbitBeyond Z-01 lunar landers and rovers Proposed (2018) [150][151]
PTScientists Audi Lunar quattro lunar rover Testing [152]
PTScientists ALINA (Autonomous Landing and Navigation Module) lunar lander Development [153]
Puli Space Technologies Puli lunar rover Fundraising [154]
Team FREDNET Picorover lunar rover Cancelled [155]
Team Italia AMALIA (Ascensio Machinae Ad Lunam Italica Arte) lunar rover Cancelled [156]
Team Indus HHK-1 lunar lander Development
Team Indus ECA lunar rover Development
TransOrbital TrailBlazer lunar orbiter Cancelled [157]
Team Plan B Plan B lunar rover Cancelled
Spacebit Asagumo lunar rover Development [158]
Space IL Beresheet lunar lander Crashed upon landing
Space Explration Corp Defiant lunar lander Cancelled [159]
Synergy Moon Tesla lunar rover Development [160]

Research craft and tech demonstrators[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft purpose Craft status Ref
ARCA Demonstrator 2b demonstrate reusable monopropellant engine Retired
Armadillo Aerospace Quad demonstrate VTOL Retired
ASRI AUSROC I systems Testing Retired
AUSROC II payload to 10 km Retired
AUSROC 2.5 systems Testing Testing
AUSROC III payload of 150 kg to 500 km Development
Blue Origin Goddard demonstrate VTOL Retired
Interorbital Systems Neutrino systems Testing Operational
Tachyon systems Testing Operational [161]
Lockheed Martin X-33 demonstrate SSTO Cancelled
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1 demonstrate VTOL Retired
XA-0.1B Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1 Operational
XA-0.1E Lunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flights Retired (12 flights)
XA-0.1E2 commercial flights Destroyed (115 flights)
XA-0.1E4 commercial flights Retired (75 flights)
XA-0.1E5 commercial flights Operational
XL-1T terrestrial test bed for the XL-1 lunar lander Development
Xeus commercial flights Development
McDonnell Douglas DC-X demonstrate VTOL Retired (11 test flights)
Origin Space Yang Wang-1 space mineral resources developer Development [162]
Rotary Rocket Roton ATV demonstrate VTOL Retired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc. Conestoga I systems Testing Retired (1 test) [112]
SpaceX Grasshopper demonstrate VTOL Retired (8 tests) [163]
F9R Dev1 refine VTOL (low altitude) Destroyed (5 flights) [164]
F9R Dev2 refine VTOL (high altitude) Cancelled
Starhopper demonstrate VTOL Retired (2 test flights)
Starship prototypes demonstrate VTOL Operational (2 test flight)
Swedish Space Corp. Maxus payload to 700 km Operational
Maser payload to 300 km Operational
UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL payload to 140 km Operational [165]
World View Enterprises Tycho Platform payload up to 46 km and 300 kg Operational [166]
zero2infinity nanobloon 1.0 payload to 32 km Operational [167]
nanobloon 2.0 payload to 33 km Operational
microbloon 1.0 payload to 24 km Operational
microbloon 2.0 payload to 31 km Operational
microbloon 3.0 payload to 27 km Operational

Propulsion manufacturers[edit]

Company name Engine Engine type Applications Status Ref
Accion Systems Inc. MAX-1, TILE electrospray ion small satellite/CubeSat Development [168][169]
Ad Astra Rocket Company VASIMR plasma propulsion space tug/orbital transfer vehicle Development [170]
ARCA Executor LOX/RP-1 IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas Development
ArianeGroup Vulcain LH2/LOX Ariane 5/Ariane 6 Main stage Operational
Blue Origin BE-3 LH2/LOX New Shepard Operational
Blue Origin BE-4 LOX/CH
4
Vulcan, New Glenn Development
CU Aerospace PUC microcavity discharge small satellite/CubeSat Development [171][172]
CU Aerospace CHIPS resistojet small satellite/CubeSat Development [172][173]
CU Aerospace PPT-11 pulsed plasma small satellite/CubeSat Development [174][175]
Exo Terra Resource Halo Hall effect small satellite/CubeSat Development [176]
Reaction Engines Ltd. SABRE hybrid air-breathing/chemical Skylon Development [177]
SpaceDev RocketMotorOne hybrid SpaceShipOne Retired [178]
SpaceX Kestrel LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1 second stage Retired
SpaceX Merlin LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1, Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy first stage/boosters Operational [179][180][121]
SpaceX Merlin Vacuum LOX/RP-1 Falcon 9 second stage, Falcon Heavy second stage Operational [180][121]
SpaceX Raptor LOX/CH
4
SpaceX Mars transportation infrastructure Testing [181]
Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo hybrid SpaceShipTwo Development
Ursa Major Technologies Hadley Jet-A/LOX Hypersonics, Boost Stage, Upper Stage Operational [182]

Satellite launchers[edit]

Company Launch vehicles Private Refs
Antrix Corporation GSLV, PSLV No; owned by India
Arianespace Ariane, Vega Partial; minority owned by some EU states
Eurockot Launch Services Rockot No; 49% owned by Russia, and 51% by Kazakhstan
Glavcosmos Soyuz No; owned by Russia
IHI Corporation Epsilon Yes; some R&D by JAXA
International Launch Services Proton No; 51%+ owned by Russia
ISC Kosmotras Dnepr No; Owned by Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries H-IIA Yes; own launchers, R&D done by JAXA. [183]
Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems Antares, Minotaur Partial; own launchers, funded by NASA
Rocket Lab Neutron, Electron Yes; own launchers
SpaceX Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy Yes; own launchers
Sea Launch Zenit Yes; owned by S7 Airlines
Starsem Soyuz No; 25% Owned by Russia, 25% Samara, 35% EADS SPACE Transportation, 15% EU
United Launch Alliance Atlas V, Delta IV Heavy Yes; 50% owned by Lockheed Martin, 50% Boeing

Space-based economy[edit]

Space manufacturing[edit]

Company name Products Manufacturing craft Status Ref
Shackleton Energy Company propellant, space infrastructure, propellant depot Unknown Defunct (2020) [184]
Made In Space 3D printing in ISS, in-space antenna systems, fiber optics Unknown Operational (2018) [185]
Deep Space Industries propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites MicroGravity Foundry Defunct (2020) [186]
Cosmic Shielding Corporation Space Materials; Multifunctional polymers for spacecraft and habitat structural and shielding components Unknown Operational (2021) [187]

Space mining[edit]

Company name Body to be mined Mining craft Mining status Ref
Deep Space Industries Near-Earth asteroids Prospector-1, Harvestor 1 Defunct (2019) [188][189]
ispace Moon Hakuto-R Development [190][191]
Moon Express Moon MX-1, MX-2, MX-5, MX-9 Development [192]
Planetary Resources Near-Earth asteroids Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300 Cancelled [193]
Shackleton Energy Company Moon TBD Defunct (2020) [184]
Space Development Nexus Near-Earth asteroids SDNx BR-1, BR-2, Proposed (2016) [194]

Space stations[edit]

Private Company name Space Craft name Space Craft type Internal
volume
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Orbit Around Ref
Axiom Space Axiom International Commercial Space Station Rigid Module 8[195] In development (2016) Earth [196][197]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis I subscale test spacecraft Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[198] Uncrewed Derelict, on orbit[199] Earth [200]
Genesis II subscale test spacecraft Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[201] Uncrewed Derelict, on orbit[199] Earth [202]
Galaxy Inflatable module 16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[203] Uncrewed Cancelled Earth [204]
Sundancer Inflatable module 180 m3 (6,357 cu ft) 3 Cancelled Earth [205]
BA 330 Inflatable module 330 m3 (11,654 cu ft) 6 Cancelled[206] Earth [207][208][209]
BA 2100 Inflatable module 2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft) 16 Cancelled[206] Earth [210]
Space Complex Alpha Inflatable space station 690 m3 (24,367 cu ft) 12 Cancelled Earth
Excalibur Almaz Almaz derivative Rigid module 3 Cancelled Earth [211][212][213]
Galactic Suite Ltd. Galactic Suite Rigid module 6 Proposed (2007) Earth [214]
Orion Span Aurora Space Station Rigid module 160 m3 (5,650 cu ft) 6 (2 Crew, 4 Tourists) Proposed (2018) Earth [215][216]
Sierra Nevada Corporation Large Inflatable Fabric Environment Inflatable module 300 m3 (10,594 cu ft) 4 Testing Moon/Mars [217]

Space settlement[edit]

Company name Colony location Status Ref
SpaceX Mars Development [218][219][220]
Mars One Mars Defunct (2019) [221][222]

Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers[edit]

Company Products Refs
Altius Space Machines Rendezvous and capture technology for uncooperative satellites; magnetoshell aerocapture and aerobraking technology for CubeSats; lightweight robotic manipulators[when?] [citation needed]
Andrews Space Reusable space vehicles; HTHL spacecraft; magnetorquers[when?] [citation needed]
Alén Space NanoSats and CubeSats [223]
Astranis MicroGEO Satellites
TESBL Aerospace Corporation In-space services; Solar Array Drive Actuators (SADA); microgravity payload integration, as of 2019 [224]

[225]

Axelspace CubeSats [226][227]
Craig Technologies Small satellite deployment services (up to 110 kg); microgravity payload integration[when?] [228]
EADS Astrium Satellites Spacecraft and ground segment elements [citation needed]
EADS Astrium Space Transportation Launchers and orbital infrastructure [citation needed]
Innovative Solutions In Space CubeSat manufacture and operation, as of 2018 [229]
Made in Space 3D printers for use in microgravityas of 2013 [230]
Mynaric Laser communication for satellites and aircraft [citation needed]
RUAGSpace, AG Antenna Pointing Mechanisms; Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA); satellite components; launchers and structures as of 2009 [231]
SpaceDev Small spacecraft; propulsion products and services; space components, mechanisms and structures[when?] [citation needed]
SpaceQuest, Ltd. Spacecraft and spacecraft components[when?] [citation needed]
Xplore Satellite payload transport and hosting in Earth orbit and Beyond Earth orbit (BEO) destinations, including flight to asteroids, Venus, and Mars. Active as of 2020 [232]
Cosmic Shielding Corporation Radiation Shielding materials for spacecraft and spacesuits; Space Weather Forecasting and Mitigation [187]

Spaceliner companies[edit]

Company name Contracts for Craft utilised Status Notes Refs
Axiom Space SpaceX Crew Dragon Development SpaceX Axiom Space-1 planned for 2021 [233]
Benson Space Company SpaceDev Dream Chaser Defunct [234]
MirCorp none Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir Defunct Mir deorbited
Space Adventures none Soyuz and the ISS Active 7 tourists sent
RocketShip Tours XCOR Lynx rocketplane Defunct
Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites Spaceship Two, White Knight 2 Development 7 Spaceship Two glide flights successfully completed

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]