List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human spaceflight.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Manufacturers of space vehicles[edit]

Crew and cargo transport vehicles[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Launcher
name
Launcher
type
Maximum
reach
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Notes
Romania ARCA Haas 2b capsule Haas 2b rocket sub-orbit 2 development [1]
Romania ARCA Super Haas capsule Super Haas rocket orbit 2 development [2]
United States Armadillo Aerospace Black Armadillo rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 1-3 cancelled [3][4]
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Boeing CST-100 capsule Atlas V[5] rocket LEO 7 testing First crew flight 2017[6]
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Lockheed Martin Orion Lite capsule Atlas 5 CTS or Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6-7 cancelled [7]
United States Blue Origin New Shepard capsule + booster Propulsion Module rocket sub-orbit 6 testing Commercial unmanned flights in 2016[8][9][10]
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Brahe cylinder HEAT-1X rocket sub-orbit 1 cancelled [11]
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Deep Space I and II capsule - rocket sub-orbit 1 development [11]
European UnionEADS Astrium unnamed craft spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 4 development [12]
Isle of ManExcalibur Almaz TKS derivative capsule multiple rocket LEO 3 cancelled [13][14]
United States Interorbital Systems Solaris X capsule self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled [15]
United States Interorbital Systems Crew Module capsule Neptune TSAAHTO rocket lunar orbit 6 development [16]
Japan Japanese Rocket Society Kankoh-maru rocket self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 50 proposed Sponsors needed[17]
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus capsule Antares (rocket) rocket LEO - operational (3/4)
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Prometheus spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 4 cancelled [18]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO - cancelled [19][full citation needed]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL 2 spaceplane An 225 airplane LEO - proposed [20]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. Skylon spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 5-20 development [20]
United States Rocketplane Kistler K-1 rocket self-powered (TSTO) self-powered (TSTO) LEO - cancelled [21][full citation needed]
United States Rocketplane Kistler Rocketplane XP spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled [22][full citation needed]
United States Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne spaceplane WhiteKnightOne airplane sub-orbit 2 retired (3/3) [23]
United StatesScaled Composites
United KingdomVirgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipTwo spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane sub-orbit 8 testing First powered flight test 2013[24]
United StatesScaled Composites
United KingdomVirgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipThree spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane LEO (or suborbital passenger-delivery)  ? proposed [25]
United States Space Adventures
Russia Myasishchev Design Bureau
Explorer (Cosmopolis XXI, C-21) spaceplane M-55X airplane sub-orbit 5 development [26]
United States Sierra Nevada Corporation Dream Chaser spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 7 testing [27]
United States Sierra Nevada Corporation Dream Chaser Cargo System spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 0 proposed
United States SpaceX Dragon (cargo) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 0 operational (8/9) [28]
United States SpaceX Dragon (V2) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 7 testing unveiled 29 May 2014, first crew flight 2017 [6][29]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries NOVA capsule Starchaser 4 rocket sub-orbit - testing [30]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderstar capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 3 development [31]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderbird capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 6 development [31]
United States t/Space CXV capsule QuickReach rocket LEO and lunar orbit 6 development [32]
United States Venturer Aerospace S-550 capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6 cancelled [33]
United States World View Enterprises Voyager capsule self-powered helium balloon near space 8 (6 passengers, 2 pilots) development [34]
United States XCOR Xerus spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 2 cancelled [35]
United States XCOR Lynx spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 2 (pilot + passenger) development First test flight now planned for Q2 2016.[36][37][38][39]
Spain zero2infinity bloon capsule self-powered helium balloon near space 6 (4 passenger, 2 pilots) development [40]

Space stations[edit]

Private Company name Space Craft name Space Craft type Internal
volume
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Orbit Around Ref
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis I Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[41] unmanned currently in LEO Earth [42]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis II Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[43] unmanned currently in LEO Earth [44]
Bigelow Aerospace Galaxy Inflatable module 16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[45] unmanned cancelled Earth [46]
Bigelow Aerospace Sundancer Inflatable module 180 m3 (6,357 cu ft) 3 cancelled Earth [47]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 330 Inflatable module 330 m3 (11,654 cu ft) 6 testing Earth [48]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 2100 Inflatable module 2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft) 16 proposed Earth
Excalibur Almaz Almaz derivative Rigid module  ? 3 inactive Earth [13][14]
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Earth Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Earth Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Lunar Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 3 proposed Moon
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Lunar Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 12 proposed Moon
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Martian Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Mars
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Martian Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 9 proposed Mars
Galactic Suite Ltd. Galactic Suite Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth [49]
Global Space Organization GSO Lunar Station One 3D Printed  ? 10 proposed Earth [50]
Orbital Technologies/RSC Energia Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station Rigid Module The first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³. 7 development Earth [51]
Gateway Galactic, Inc. Antaios (Depot) Propellant Depot  ? unmanned development Earth [52]

Launch vehicles[edit]

Further information: List of orbital launch systems
Company name Launcher
name
Launcher
type
No. of
stages
Maximum
reach
Launcher
status
Maiden
flight
Ref
United StatesAirLaunch LLC QuickReach light rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [53]
RomaniaARCA Haas 2b light rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [1]
RomaniaARCA Super Haas medium rocket 2 LEO development  ? [2]
United StatesBeal Aerospace BA-2 medium rocket 3 GTO cancelled [54]
CanadaCanadian Arrow Canadian Arrow rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [citation needed]
MexicoDatiotec Aeroespacial / INMEU A.C. JFCR-2000A light rocket 1 suborbit development 2017 (planned) [55]
United StatesDIRECT Leviathan-140 rocket 2 GTO development  ? [56]
United StatesFirefly Space Systems Firefly Alpha light rocket 2 LEO development 2017 (planned)[57] [58]
JapanUnited StatesGalaxy Express GX medium rocket 2 SSO cancelled [59]
United StatesGeneral Astronautics Urania medium rocket 3 LEO cancelled [60]
United StatesInterorbital Systems NEPTUNE

N series

light - medium rocket 1-9 LEO development  ? [16]
United StatesInterorbital Systems NEPTUNE N36 heavy rocket 36 lunar orbit proposed  ? [16]
United StatesInterorbital Systems Neptune TSAAHTO heavy rocket lunar orbit proposed  ? [16]
United StatesLockheed Martin VentureStar reusable spaceplane 1 LEO cancelled [61]
United StatesMishaal Aerospace M-SV light rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [62][63]
United StatesMishaal Aerospace M-OV light rocket 1+2-10 Boosters LEO development  ? [62][63]
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Minotaur-C, formerly Taurus light rocket 4 LEO operational (6/9) 1994 [64][65][66]
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Antares medium rocket 3 LEO operational (4/5) 2013 [67]
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Pegasus light rocket 3 LEO operational (37/45) 1990
GermanyOrbital Transport & Raketen AG OTRAG medium rocket variable LEO retired 1977 [citation needed]
SpainPLD Space Arion 1 light rocket 1 suborbit development 2018 (planned) [68][69]
SpainPLD Space Arion 2 light rocket 2 LEO development 2020 (planned) [69]
New ZealandRocket Lab ATEA-1 light rocket 2 suborbit operational (1/1) 2009 [70][71]
United StatesRocket Lab Electron light rocket 2 LEO development 2016 (Planned) [72]
United StatesSpace Services Inc. of America Percheron light rocket 1 suborbit cancelled [73]
United StatesSpace Services Inc. of America Conestoga 1620 medium rocket 4 LEO cancelled [73]
United StatesSpace Transport Corp. Spartan light rocket 3 suborbit cancelled
United Kingdom SpaceLS Prometheus-1 light rocket 2 LEO development  ? [74][75]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 1 light rocket 2 LEO retired (2/5) 2008 [76]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 1e light rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [76]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 5 medium rocket 2 GTO cancelled [77]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 v1.0 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (5/5) 2010 [78]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (14/15) 2013 [78]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 full thrust medium rocket (first stage reusable) /
heavy rocket (expendable configuration)
2 TMI[79] operational (4/4) 2015 [78]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon Heavy heavy rocket (first stage core and side boosters reusable) / super heavy rocket (expendable configuration) 2+boosters deep space (Pluto)[80] development 2016 (planned) [78][81]
United StatesTexas Spacelines Inc / TSI. Sol Cazador light rocket 7 HEO/lunar/escape cancelled [82][83]
United StatesVentions SALVO light rocket 2 LEO testing 2015 (planned) [84][85]
United KingdomUnited StatesVirgin Galactic LauncherOne light rocket 2 LEO testing 2016 (planned) [86]
Spainzero2infinity bloostar Rockoon system (high-altitude balloon and in-space rocket launcher) 3 + high-altitude balloon ascent LEO development 2018 [87]
BrazilCTA VLS Alfa rocket 3 LEO development  ?

Landers, rovers and probes[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Craft status Ref
Armadillo Aerospace unnamed craft rocket module testing [88]
BlastOff! Corporation Lunar 1 rover cancelled [89]
Odyssey Moon MoonOne (M-1) rover development [90]
Astrobotic Technology Artemis Lander lunar lander development [91]
Astrobotic Technology Red Rover rover development [92]
Astrobotic Technology Griffin lunar lander negotiating [93]
Hakuto Moon Raker rover development [94]
Hakuto Tetris rover development [95]
Interorbital Systems RIPPER lander development [96]
Masten Space Systems XEUS lunar lander negotiating [93]
Moon Express MX-1 family lunar lander testing [93][97]
Team Italia rover development [98]
Mars One unnamed lander development [99]
Team FREDNET development [100]
TransOrbital TrailBlazer lunar orbiter cancelled [101]
ARCASPACE ELE lunar orbiter development [102]
STELLAR development [103]
Omega Envoy development [104]
Independence-X development [105]
SYNERGY MOON rover development [106]
Euroluna ROMIT development [107]
Puli Space Technologies Puli rover fundraising [108]
Golden Spike Company Manned lunar lander proposed [109]
Lunar Mission One unnamed lunar lander + deep drill development [110]

Research craft and tech demonstrators[edit]

Further information: List of sounding rockets
Company name Craft name Craft purpose Craft status Ref
ARCA Demonstrator 2b demonstrate reusable monopropellant engine retired
Armadillo Aerospace Quad demonstrate VTOL retired
Blue Origin Goddard demonstrate VTOL retired
Interorbital Systems Neutrino systems testing operational
Interorbital Systems Tachyon systems testing operational [111]
Lockheed Martin X-33 demonstrate SSTO cancelled
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1 demonstrate VTOL retired
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1B Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1 operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E Lunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flights operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E2 commercial flights development
McDonnell Douglas DC-X demonstrate VTOL retired (11 test flights)
Rotary Rocket Roton ATV demonstrate VTOL retired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc. Conestoga I systems testing retired (1 test) [73]
SpaceX Grasshopper demonstrate VTOL retired (8 tests) [112]
SpaceX F9R Dev1 refine VTOL (low altitude) destroyed (5 flights) [113]
SpaceX F9R Dev2 refine VTOL (high altitude) development
Swedish Space Corp. Maxus payload to 700 km operational
Swedish Space Corp. Maser payload to 300 km operational
UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL payload to 140 km operational [114]
World View Enterprises Tycho Platform payload up to 46 km and 300 kg operational [115]
zero2infinity nanobloon 1.0 payload to 32 km operational [116]
zero2infinity nanobloon 2.0 payload to 33 km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 1.0 payload to 24 km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 2.0 payload to 31 km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 3.0 payload to 27 km operational

Space mining[edit]

Company name Body to be mined Mining craft Mining status Ref
Final Frontier Technologies Moon, Asteroid Belt proposed Unknown
Infinite Space Dynamics Near-Earth Asteroids, Moon, Asteroid Belt Development Development
Shackleton Energy Company Moon Architecture Architecture
Moon Express Moon Unknown Unknown
Planetary Resources Near-Earth asteroids Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300 development [117]
Deep Space Industries Near-Earth asteroids press conference
Global Space Organization Moon, Near-Earth asteroids Robotic Systems proposed [118]
Stott Space Inc. Near-Earth asteroids fundraising [119][relevant? ]

Space manufacturing[edit]

Company name Products Manufacturing craft status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Propellant, Space Infrastructure, Propellant depot, communications platforms, space solar power satellites
Shackleton Energy Company propellant, space infrastructure, Propellant depot
Deep Space Industries propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites

Space Colonization[edit]

Company name Colony location Status Ref
Mars Colonial Transporter Mars development
Final Frontier Technologies Mars proposed
Final Frontier Technologies Moon proposed
Mars One Mars Fundraising and assessing astronaut applications [120]

Propulsion manufacturers[edit]

Company name Engine Engine type Applications Ref
Accion Systems Inc. MAX-1 and TILE electric, electrospray ion
Ad Astra Rocket Company VASIMR magnetoplasma may be used for future Mars missions[121]
AE Aerospace HIRE[122][123] hybrid ion rocket
AE Aerospace Scearamjet[124][full citation needed] Electric Scramjet
American Rocket Company hybrid rocket The company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCA Executor (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
CU Aerospace PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11 MCD[125] / Resistojet / PPT[126] Small satellite / CubeSat missions[127]
Reaction Engines Ltd. SABRE precooled air-breathing rocket planned to be used in Skylon [128]
Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo hybrid rocket SpaceShipTwo
SpaceDev hybrid rocket SpaceShipOne[citation needed]
SpaceX Kestrel (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceX Merlin (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1,[129] Falcon 9,[130] Falcon 9 Heavy first stage[citation needed]
SpaceX Merlin Vacuum LOX/RP-1 Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Heavy second stage[citation needed]
SpaceX Raptor (rocket engine) LOX/Liquid methane "a highly reusable methane staged-combustion engine that will power the next generation of SpaceX launch vehicles designed for the exploration and colonization of Mars."[131]
TerraTrac Aerospace S.P. Ion-sublight Engine

Satellite launchers[edit]

Company Launch vehicles Private Refs
Arianespace Ariane, Vega No; Owned by some of the EU
Eurockot Launch Services Rockot No; 49% owned by Russia, and 51% by Kazakhistan
International Launch Services Proton No; 51%+ owned by Russia
ISC Kosmotras Dnepr No; Owned by Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Orbital ATK Partial; own launchers, funded by NASA
SpaceX Yes; own launchers
Sea Launch Zenit No; Bankrupt. Owned by Russia.
Starsem Soyuz No; 25% Owned by Russa, 25% Samara, 35% EADS SPACE Transportation, 15% EU

Spaceliner companies[edit]

Company name Contracts for Craft utilised Status Notes Refs
Benson Space Company SpaceDev Dream Chaser waiting for hardware[citation needed]
MirCorp none Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir defunct, Mir deorbited
Space Adventures none Soyuz and the ISS active (7 tourists sent)
RocketShip Tours XCOR Lynx rocketplane waiting for hardware
Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo waiting for hardware

Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers[edit]

Company Production Notes Refs
Altius Space Machines
Advanced Space Advanced Space is a software and services company that leverages its unique subject matter expertise to improve the fundamentals of spaceflight.
Andrews Space
EADS Astrium Satellites
EADS Astrium Space Transportation
Made in Space [132]
Rocketstar Robotics, Inc. [citation needed]
Thortek Laboratories, Inc. [citation needed]
Starsys merged with SpaceDev [citation needed]
SpaceDev
Space Environment Technologies Space Environment Technologies provides services, products, and hardware for the operational space environment. It offers operational capabilities for forecasting Low Earth Orbit densities and for specifying surface charging, internal charging, single event effect, and radiation environments.
SpaceQuest, Ltd.
Talis Enterprises, Ltd. [citation needed]

See also[edit]

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