List of prolific inventors

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Thomas Edison was widely known as the world's most prolific inventor.[1][2] He held a total of 1,093 U.S. patents (1,084 utility patents and 9 design patents).[3] In 2003, he was passed by Japanese inventor Shunpei Yamazaki.[4] On February 26, 2008, Yamazaki was passed by Australian inventor Kia Silverbrook.[5]

Prolific inventors with 200 or more worldwide utility patent families are shown in the following table. In many cases, this number is also the number of U.S. utility patents granted. A patent family is a set of patents filed in various countries to protect a single invention.

Inventor # of Patent Families Country # of INPADOC patents Lived Main fields of invention Ref
Kia Silverbrook 4712  Australia 9888 19??– Printing, Digital paper, Internet, Electronics, CGI, Chemical, DNA, Lab-on-a-chip, MEMS, Mechanical, VLSI [6][7][4][5][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
Shunpei Yamazaki 4052  Japan 14284 19??– Thin film transistors, Liquid crystal displays, Solar cells, Flash memory, OLED [17][18][4][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][19]
Paul Lapstun 1276  Australia 3142 19??– Printing, Digital paper, Internet, Electronics, CGI, VLSI [20][21][4][10][11][12][13][14][15]
Gurtej Sandhu 1169  India 1934 19??– Thin film processes and materials, VLSI, Semiconductor device fabrication [22][23][8][9][10][19]
Thomas Edison 1084  USA 2332 1847–1931 Electric power, Lighting, Batteries, Phonograph, Cement, Telegraphy, Mining [2][3][4][5][24][25]
Lowell L. Wood, Jr. 1083  USA 1229 19??– Mosquito laser, Nuclear weapons [26][27][16]
Jun Koyama 1082  Japan 3490 19??– Thin film transistors, Liquid crystal displays, OLED [28][29]
Leonard Forbes 1078  Canada 1387 19??– Semiconductor Memories, CCDs, Thin film processes and materials, VLSI [30][31][4][9][10][11][13]
Donald E. Weder 998  USA 1992 19??– Florist supplies [32][33][4][8][9][10][19]
George Albert Lyon 993  Canada NA 1882–1961 Automotive, Stainless steel products [4][34]
John F. O'Connor 949  USA NA 1864–1938 Railway draft gearing [4][35]
Melvin De Groote 925  USA NA 1895–1963 Chemical de-emulsifiers [2][4]
Francis H. Richards 894  USA NA 1850–19?? Mechanical, automation [2][4]
Jay S. Walker 867  USA 2176 19??– Gaming machines [36][37][10][15]
Roderick A. Hyde 858  USA 2889 19??– Various [38][39][16]
Edward K. Y. Jung 785  USA 2150 19??– Various [40][41][16]
Warren Farnworth 768  USA 931 19??– Semiconductor packaging [42][43][8][9][10]
Ahmadreza Rofougaran 761  USA 1369 19??– Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits [44][45]
Carleton Ellis 753  USA NA 1876–1941 Margarine, Polyester, Anti-knock gasoline, Paint stripper [35][46]
Hideo Ando 726  Japan 2509 19??– Optical recording [47][48][15]
George Spector 722  USA 747 19??– Gadgets, Toys [49][50][8][9]
Salman Akram 714  USA 878 19??– Semiconductor packaging [51][52][8][9][10]
William H. Eby 705  USA 718 19??– Transgenic soybeans [53][54]
Elihu Thomson 696  UK NA 1853–1937 Electric power, Arc lamp, Electric motors, Lightning arrester, Arc welder [2][35]
Michael J. Sullivan 686  USA 1446 19??– Golf balls [55][56]
Tetsujiro Kondo 682  Japan 4123 19??– Signal processing, Image processing [57][58]
Austin L. Gurney 675  USA 3873 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [59][60][11][12]
William I. Wood 653  USA 3625 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [61][62][11][12]
Shou-Shan Fan 652  China 1845 19??– Carbon nanotubes and applications of carbon nanotubes [63][64]
Simon R. Walmsley 651  Australia 1250 19??– Printing, Electronics, VLSI, Cryptography [65][66][14][15]
Rick Allen Hamilton II 643  USA 994 19??– Various [67][68][16]
Clarence T. Tegreene 642  USA 1979 19??– Various [69][70]
Audrey D. Goddard 622  USA 3487 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [71][72][11][12]
Jerome Lemelson 606  USA NA 19??–1997 Toys, Industrial robots, Cordless telephones, Fax machines, Videocassette recorders [73][2][19][74]
Jeyhan Karaoguz 598  USA 1462 19??– Wireless communications, Computer networks [75][76]
Béla Barényi 595  Hungary 1244 19??–1997 Passive safety in automobiles [77][78]
Kie Y Ahn 585  USA 705 19??–2012 Thin film processes and materials, VLSI, Semiconductor device fabrication [79][80]
Tadahiro Ohmi 580  Japan 2681 19??– Thin film processes and materials, Semiconductor device fabrication [81][82]
Paul J. Godowski 579  USA 2681 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [83][84][11][12]
Artur Fischer 570  Germany 3097 19??– Fasteners, Construction toys [85][86][87]
Louis L. Hsu 547  USA 901 19??– Various [88][89]
Kangguo Cheng 536  USA 1005 19??– Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor memory, Semiconductor device [90][91][92]
Edwin H. Land 535  USA 1236 19??–1991 Instant photography, Polarizing film [93][94]
Edward J. Nowak 526  USA 1109 19??– Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor memory, Semiconductor device [95][96]
Henri Dreyfus 524   Switzerland 2117 1882–1944 Polymers, Synthetic fibers, Dyes [97][98]
Nathan Myhrvold 515  USA 1493 19??– Various [99][100]
Clyde C. Farmer 513  USA 830 18??–19?? Railway air brakes [101][35][102]
Heinz Focke 512  Germany 2898 19??– Cigarette packaging [103][104][8]
Mark I. Gardner 511  USA 587 19??– Consumer electronics, Energy, Computers, Semiconductors, Physics [105][106][8][9]
Louis H. Morin 503  USA 720 18??–19?? Fasteners, Locks, Bobbins [107][102]
Ravi K. Arimilli 499  India 767 19??– Computer architecture, Semiconductor memory, Cache coherence, Symmetric multiprocessing [108][109]
Mark Malamud 499  USA 1617 19??– Various [110][111][16]
Royce A. Levien 498  USA 1675 19??– Various [112][113][16]
Tobin A. King 496  Australia 1226 19??– Printing, Digital paper, Mechanical [114][115]
Jack A. Mandelman 481  USA 889 19??– Various [116][117]
Muriel Y. Ishikawa 472  USA 1486 19??– Various [118][119][120]
Robert W. Lord 468  USA 1563 19??– Various [121][122]
Eberhard Ammermann 450  Germany 5174 19??– Fungicides [123][124][19]
Thomas E. Murray 449  USA 462 1860–1929 Electrical, HVAC, Wheels, Metal working, Light dimmer [125][126]
James M. Hart 441  USA 1102 19??– Motor vehicle transmission [127][128]
Akira Nakazawa 440  Australia 1261 19??– Printing, Mechanical [129][130]
Hongyong Zhang 438  Japan 804 19??– Thin film transistors, Liquid crystal displays [131][132]
Jeffrey P. Gambino 431  USA 762 1957– MEMS, CMOS, BiCMOS, DRAM, Image Sensors, RF, Biosensors, 3D Integrated Circuits [133][134]
Scott H. Wittkopp 424  USA 1003 19??– Motor vehicle transmission [135][136][15]
John Hays Hammond, Jr. 417  USA 460 1888–1965 Radio control, Radio communications, Torpedoes [137][138]
Wilhelm Brandes 411  Germany 2932 19??– Fungicides [139][140]
Eric C. Leuthardt 411  USA 1184 19??– Medical devices [141][142]
Stanford R. Ovshinsky 400  USA 1649 19??–2012 Batteries, Solar cells, Liquid crystal displays, Hydrogen fuel cells, Computer data storage [143][144][145]
John M. Santosuosso 385  USA 655 19??– Various [146][147]
Josef Theurer 384  Austria 5055 19??– Railroad maintenance machines [148][149][19]
Bruce B. Doris 384  USA 740 19??– Integrated Circuits, CMOS, DRAM, Semiconductor device fabrication [150][151]
Hans-Joachim Santel 377  Germany 2627 19??– Herbicides, Pesticides, Organic chemistry [152][153][19]
Gisela Lorenz 373  Germany 4152 19??– Fungicides, Organic chemistry [154][155][19]
Jordin T. Kare 373  USA 1263 1956– Various [156][157]
George P. Liang 370  China 496 1947– Gas turbine cooling [158][159]
Robert S. Langer 369  USA 1615 19??– Biotechnology, Drug delivery, Tissue engineering [160][161]
Garry R. Jackson 365  Australia 653 19??– Printing, Mechanical [162][163]
George Westinghouse 361  USA NA 1846–1914 Electric power, Electricity meter, Railway air brake, Steam engines [164][165][166]
Paul W. Dent 361  USA 2245 19??– Wireless communications [167][168]
Anthony K. Stamper 361  USA 674 1959– MEMS, CMOS, BiCMOS, Silicon-germanium [169][170]
David V. Horak 358  USA 597 19??– Various [171][172]
Ronald S. Cok 356  USA 723 19??– OLED displays; image processing [173][174]
Cary L. Bates 351  USA 546 1961– Programming tools, DBX, Memory debuggers [175][176][177]
Robert R. Schmidt 350  Germany 2467 19??– Herbicides, Fungicides, Organic chemistry [178][179]
Norman M. Berry 344  Australia 510 19??– Printing, Mechanical [180][181]
Mark W. Kroll 336  USA 455 19??– Implantable medical devices [182][183][184]
Kai-Li Jiang 330  China 748 19??– Carbon nanotubes and applications of carbon nanotubes [185][186]
Vincent J. Zimmer 323  USA 878 1970– Computer software and firmware [187][188]
Chih-Chao Yang 312  USA 638 19??– Integrated Circuits [189][190]
Victoria Y. H. Wood 302  USA 896 19??– Various [191][192]
Jeffrey E. Stahmann 301  USA 588 19??– Artificial cardiac pacemakers [193][194]
Brent A. Anderson 301  USA 433 19??– Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor memory, Semiconductor device [195][196]
Victoria Smith 300  USA 2049 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [197][198]
William Daniel Hillis 300  USA 230 1956– Various [199][200]
Liang Liu 295  China 770 19??– Carbon nanotubes and applications of carbon nanotubes [201][202]
Carl J. Radens 295  USA 612 19??– Integrated Circuits, CMOS, DRAM, Semiconductor device fabrication [203][204]
Steven L. Teig 293  USA 355 19??– Integrated Circuits [205][206]
William R. Tonti 290  USA 441 19??– Integrated Circuits, CMOS, DRAM, Semiconductor device fabrication [207][208]
Wael W. Diab 281  USA 730 19??– Computer networks [209][210]
Hartley Owen 267  USA 751 19??– Fluid catalytic cracking [211][212]
Brian M. O'Connell 261  USA 534 19??– Various [213][214]
Yoshihiro Kikuchi 255  Japan 971 19??– Video processing [215][216]
Victor S. Moore 255  USA 414 19??– Various [217][218]
Adam Heller 253  Romania 683 1933– Solar cells, Glucose meters, Lasers [219][220][221]
Devendra K. Sadana 251  India 678 19??– Solar cells, OLED, Integrated Circuits, CMOS, DRAM, LEDs [222][223]
Nobuyuki Taniguchi 245  Japan 967 19??– Cameras [224][225]
Daniel J. Winarski 243  USA 464 19??– Various [226][227]
Keith R. Walker 242  Saudi Arabia 300 19??– Various [228][229]
Gregory J. Boss 239  USA 503 19??– Various [230][231]
Clifford A. Pickover 238  USA 561 19??– Various [232][233]
Philip S. Yu 231  USA 156 19??– Various [234][235]
Takeshi Chujoh 215  Japan 1026 19??– Video processing [236][237]
Johnny M. Shieh 209  USA 433 19??– Various [238][239]
Dean L. Kamen 206  USA 1025 1951– Battery-powered electric vehicles, Medical devices, Stirling engines, Water purification, Wheelchairs [240][241]
Hiroshi (You) Yoshioka 205  Japan 134 19??– Cameras [242][243]

This table was current as of June 23, 2015. The columns are defined as follows:

  • Inventor: The name of the inventor.
  • # of Patent Families: This is the number of families of utility patents that have been issued. In many cases above, it is also the number of issued U.S. utility patents. There is a direct correspondence between the number of patent families and the number of unique patented inventions. Conversely, the total number of worldwide patents does not correspond closely to the number of inventions, as each separate invention must be filed as a separate patent in each country for which patent protection is sought. Only utility patents (or the international equivalent) are listed, as a utility patent is a patent for an invention. Not all patents are for inventions. Other patent types are: design patents for the ornamental design of an object; plant patents for plant varieties; and reissue patents, where a correction is made to an already granted patent. This list does not include patent applications (patents pending) as there is no guarantee that a patent application actually describes a novel invention until the patent is granted.
  • # of INPADOC patents: This is the worldwide number of patents of all types (utility, design, plant, etc.) This includes patent applications, and duplication of the same patent in multiple countries, so is usually an overestimate of the total number of inventions. This data is primarily from INPADOC, an international patent collection produced and maintained by the European Patent Office (EPO). For some inventors active before computer records were available, the total number of patents is not available (NA).
  • Country: This is the country of birth or upbringing of the inventor, where known. If unknown, this is the country of residence identified in the inventor's patent filings.
  • Lived: These are the birth and death years of the inventor, where known.
  • Main fields of invention: These are the main areas that the inventor is or was active in.

Threshold for inclusion[edit]

As the average number of patents per inventor is around 3, some sources define prolific inventors as five times above the average (in terms of patents), leading to a threshold of 15 patents.[244] However, this table currently has an arbitrary cut-off limit for inclusion of 200 patent families. This is purely for practical reasons – there are 115 inventors throughout history with more than 200 utility patent families, but tens of thousands of inventors with more than 15 patents. The threshold of 200 patents means that some famous prolific inventors such as Nikola Tesla are not included in this list, as Tesla had 111 patents.[245][246]

Significance of inventions[edit]

This table is a ranking of the most prolific inventors, not necessarily the most significant inventors. The significance of inventions is often not apparent until many decades after the invention has been made. For recent inventors, it is not yet possible to determine their place in history.

The common symbol for inventiveness – the light bulb – is a perfect example. The first incandescent light bulb was invented by British chemist Sir Humphry Davy in 1802. Many subsequent inventors improved Davy's invention prior to the successful commercialization of electric lighting by Thomas Edison in 1880, 78 years later. Electric lighting continued to be developed. Edison's carbon filament light bulb was made obsolete by the tungsten filament light bulb, invented in 1904. It is this that forms the popular conception of a light bulb, though there are other major forms of lighting. The principle of fluorescent lights was known since 1845, and various inventors, including Edison and Nikola Tesla worked on them without commercial success. Various improvements were made by many other inventors, until General Electric introduced "fluorescent lumiline lamps" commercially in 1938, first available to the public at the 1939 World's Fair. LED lamps also have a long history, with the first light-emitting diode (LED) invented in 1927 by Oleg Losev. LEDs were initially of low brightness, and have been used as indicator lamps and seven-segment displays since 1968. It wasn't until the development of high efficiency blue LEDs by Shuji Nakamura in the 1980s that white LEDs for lighting applications became practical. Although higher cost than incandescent light bulbs, LEDs have higher efficiency and longer life and may finally displace light bulbs in general lighting applications. In each case, more than 50 years passed between the initial invention and commercial success in general lighting applications.

Various published lists[edit]

Rankings of prolific inventors have been published at various times. However, until the patent records were digitized, these lists were very tedious to prepare, as many thousands of patent records had to be checked manually. Even after digitization, it is still not a simple process. While the USPTO keeps statistics for annual rankings of inventions assigned to companies, it no longer publishes rankings of individual inventors. The last such list was published by the USPTO in 1998.[19] Also, patents predating 1976 have not yet been digitized in the USPTO records. This means that patents before 1976 will not be included in a USPTO search by inventor name, and the number of patents granted before 1976 must be added to current searches.

Popular Science (1936)[edit]

In January 1936, Popular Science published a list of the "most prolific living inventors to be found in America today".[35]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 John F. O'Connor 949
2 Elihu Thomson 696
3 Carleton Ellis 648
4 Henry A. Wise Wood 434
5 John Hays Hammond Jr. 360
6 Clyde C. Farmer 344
7 Ethan I. Dodds 321
8 Edward Weston 309

Thomas Edison was not included in the list, as he died in 1931, five years earlier.

Time Magazine (2000)[edit]

On December 4, 2000, Time Magazine published a list of the "top five inventors".[2]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Thomas Edison 1,093
2 Melvin De Groote 925
3 Francis H. Richards 894
4 Elihu Thomson 696
5 Jerome Lemelson 554

This list only included U.S. inventors, so omitted Canadian inventor George Albert Lyon, with 993 U.S. patents at the time of publication, Japanese inventor Shunpei Yamazaki, with 745 U.S. patents, and Béla Barényi, with 595 German patents. Also omitted were John F. O'Connor with 949 U.S. patents, and Carleton Ellis, with 753 U.S. patents at the time of publication.

USA Today (2005)[edit]

On December 13, 2005 USA Today published a list of "the top 10 living U.S. patent holders":[8]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Shunpei Yamazaki 1,432
2 Donald Weder 1,322
3 Kia Silverbrook 810
4 George Spector 723
5 Gurtej Sandhu 576
6 Warren Farnworth 547
7 Salman Akram 527
8 Mark Gardner 512
9 Heinz Focke 508
10 Joseph Straeter 477

This research was performed by ipIQ of Chicago (now "The Patent Board"[247]) and 1790 Analytics[248] of New Jersey. This list only considered living inventors, and thus did not include such prolific inventors as Thomas Edison, Melvin De Groote, and Elihu Thomson. This list included design patents, which are not patents for inventions.

Condé Nast Portfolio (2007)[edit]

On October 15, 2007 Condé Nast Portfolio Magazine published a list[9] of "the world's most prolific inventors alive":

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Shunpei Yamazaki 1,811
2 Kia Silverbrook 1,646
3 Donald Weder 1,350
4 George Spector 722
5 Gurtej Sandhu 674
6 Leonard Forbes 671
7 Warren Farnworth 635
8 Salman Akram 612
9 Mark Gardner 515
10 Joseph Straeter 485

This research was performed by The Patent Board,[247] a Chicago patent research and advisory firm. As with the USA Today list, the Portfolio list only considered living inventors, and thus did not include such prolific inventors as Thomas Edison. This list also included design patents, which are not patents for inventions.

Business Insider (2011)[edit]

On 6 May 2011 Business Insider published an article titled: "The Ten Greatest Inventors In The Modern Era"[4] containing the following list:

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 3,847
2 Shunpei Yamazaki 2,061
3 Thomas Edison 1,084
4 George Albert Lyon 993
5 Paul Lapstun 969
6 Donald Weder 951
7 John F. O'Connor 949
8 Leonard Forbes 948
9 Melvin De Groote 925
10 Francis H. Richards 894

This list included living and dead inventors, and only included granted utility patents (patents for inventions).

Strutpatent.com (2012)[edit]

Strutpatent.com publishes a list of the "Top 10 Inventors" [10] listing inventors ranked by US patents (of all types) issued since 1990:

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 4,279
2 Shunpei Yamazaki 1,664
3 Donald Weder 1,310
4 Paul Lapstun 1,098
5 Leonard Forbes 959
6 Gurtej Sandhu 728
7 Warren Farnworth 685
8 Salman Akram 653
9 Jay Walker 644
10 Chang-Hwan Hwang 634

This list included only patents granted since 1990, and includes design patents as well as utility patents.

Annual lists (2007–2012)[edit]

Strutpatent.com publishes weekly, monthly, and annual lists of the top ten categories, inventors and assignees of US patents since 2007. These lists include all patent types, not just patents for inventions (utility patents).

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2007:[11]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 502
2 Audrey Goddard 232
3 William I. Wood 232
4 Austin L. Gurney 225
5 Chang-Hwan Hwang 203
6 Paul J. Godowski 193
7 Shunpei Yamazaki 139
8 Paul Lapstun 129
9 Leonard Forbes 120
10 Victoria Smith 112

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2008:[12]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 576
2 Chang-Hwan Hwang 198
3 Audrey Goddard 168
4 Austin L. Gurney 167
5 William I. Wood 166
6 Paul J. Godowski 153
7 Shunpei Yamazaki 143
8 Paul Lapstun 137
9 Chang-Soo Lee 129
10 Victoria Smith 122

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2009:[13]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 444
2 Shunpei Yamazaki 137
3 Paul Lapstun 113
4 Bartley K. Andre 92
5 Daniele De Iuliis 92
6 Jonathan Ive 92
7 Matthew Rohrbach 92
8 Richard P. Howarth 91
9 Duncan Robert Kerr 91
10 Leonard Forbes 91

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2010:[14]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 709
2 Paul Lapstun 191
3 Shunpei Yamazaki 162
4 Simon Walmsley 115
5 Bartley K. Andre 114
6 Matthew Rohrbach 109
7 Richard P. Howarth 108
8 Jonathan Ive 108
9 Duncan Robert Kerr 108
10 Daniel J. Coster 106

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2011:[15]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 754
2 Paul Lapstun 268
3 Shunpei Yamazaki 163
4 Hideo Ando 162
5 You Yoshioka 153
6 Scott H. Wittkopp 126
7 James M. Hart 125
8 Edward Jung 112
9 Simon Walmsley 112
10 Jay S. Walker 99

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2012:[16]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 220
2 Edward Jung 180
3 Shunpei Yamazaki 172
4 Lowell Wood 169
5 Roderick Hyde 140
6 Bin Li 124
7 Royce Levien 122
8 Mark Malamud 119
9 Shunpei Yamazaki 118
10 John Rinaldo 117

This table omitted Rick Allen Hamilton II. The USPTO database shows Hamilton was an inventor or co-inventor of 128 US patents granted in 2012,[249] which would place Hamilton at 6th rank for 2012.

Differences between lists[edit]

Differences in patent numbers between the various lists are due to several reasons:

  • The lists were created on different dates. As many of the inventors in the lists are still active, the number of patents they hold are increasing.
  • While the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is the primary source for U.S. patent information, only patents issued since 1976 can be electronically searched by the inventor's name at the USPTO website.[250] For some of the listed inventors, such as Thomas Edison, all of their patents predate 1976, so other sources must be used.
  • Often entities list the worldwide total number of patents that they hold. This is not the same as the number of inventions, as a patent in one country may be for the same invention as a patent in another country. The set of patents covering a single invention in different countries is a Patent family.
  • The Time, USA Today and Portfolio lists show the total number of U.S. patents, including patents for designs (Design patents) as well as patents for inventions (Utility patents).
  • The annual lists from strutpatent.com list only those patents issued in the particular year to the inventor, not all of the inventor's patents.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas Alva Edison Biography at Rutgers University
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Man-Made Marvels Time Magazine, Dec 4, 2000
  3. ^ a b List of Edison patents
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Ten Greatest Inventors In The Modern Era Business Insider, 6 May 2011
  5. ^ a b c The True Inventor Basson-Booyens website
  6. ^ US Patents of Kia Silverbrook
  7. ^ Worldwide Patents of Kia Silverbrook
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j You really can find identities of top patent holders USA Today, Dec 13, 2005
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Masters of invention Portfolio, October 15, 2007
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Strutpatent list of the top 10 inventors since 1990
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2007 StrutPatent.com website
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2008 StrutPatent.com website
  13. ^ a b c d e List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2009 StrutPatent.com website
  14. ^ a b c d e List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2010 StrutPatent.com website
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2011 StrutPatent.com website
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2012 StrutPatent.com website
  17. ^ US Patents of Shunpei Yamazaki
  18. ^ Worldwide Patents of Shunpei Yamazaki
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i USPTO publication: Prolific Inventors Receiving Utility Patents 1988-1997
  20. ^ US Patents of Paul Lapstun
  21. ^ Worldwide Patents of Paul Lapstun
  22. ^ US Patents of Gurtej Sandhu
  23. ^ Worldwide Patents of Gurtej Sandhu
  24. ^ Edison's Foreign Patents
  25. ^ The Complete Thomas Alva Edison U.S. Patent Collection
  26. ^ US Patents of Lowell L. Wood, Jr.
  27. ^ Worldwide Patents of Lowell L. Wood, Jr.
  28. ^ US Patents of Jun Koyama
  29. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jun Koyama
  30. ^ US Patents of Leonard Forbes
  31. ^ Worldwide Patents of Leonard Forbes
  32. ^ US Patents of Donald E. Weder
  33. ^ Worldwide Patents of Donald E. Weder
  34. ^ Archived Boliven Patents by George Albert Lyon(s)
  35. ^ US Patents of Jay S. Walker
  36. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jay S. Walker
  37. ^ US Patents of Roderick A. Hyde
  38. ^ Worldwide Patents of Roderick A. Hyde
  39. ^ US Patents of Edward K. Y. Jung
  40. ^ Worldwide Patents of Edward K. Y. Jung
  41. ^ US Patents of Warren Farnworth
  42. ^ Worldwide Patents of Warren Farnworth
  43. ^ US Patents of Ahmadreza Rofougaran
  44. ^ Worldwide Patents of Ahmadreza Rofougaran
  45. ^ B. Zorina Khan, The Democratization of Invention: Patents and Copyrights in American Economic Development, 1790-1920 (Cambridge University Press, 2005) pp209-210
  46. ^ US Patents of Hideo Ando
  47. ^ Worldwide Patents of Hideo Ando
  48. ^ US Patents of George Spector
  49. ^ Worldwide Patents of George Spector
  50. ^ US Patents of Salman Akram
  51. ^ Worldwide Patents of Salman Akram
  52. ^ US Patents of William H. Eby
  53. ^ Worldwide Patents of William H. Eby
  54. ^ US Patents of Michael J. Sullivan
  55. ^ Worldwide Patents of Michael J. Sullivan
  56. ^ US Patents of Tetsujiro Kondo
  57. ^ Worldwide Patents of Tetsujiro Kondo
  58. ^ US Patents of Austin L. Gurney
  59. ^ Worldwide Patents of Austin L. Gurney
  60. ^ US Patents of William I. Wood
  61. ^ Worldwide Patents of William I. Wood
  62. ^ US Patents of Shou-Shan Fan
  63. ^ Worldwide Patents of Shou-Shan Fan
  64. ^ US Patents of Simon R. Walmsley
  65. ^ Worldwide Patents of Simon R. Walmsley
  66. ^ US Patents of Rick Allen Hamilton II
  67. ^ Worldwide Patents of Rick Allen Hamilton II
  68. ^ US Patents of Clarence T. Tegreene
  69. ^ Worldwide Patents of Clarence T. Tegreene
  70. ^ US Patents of Audrey D. Goddard
  71. ^ Worldwide Patents of Audrey D. Goddard
  72. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jerome Lemelson
  73. ^ The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention & Innovation web site, Jerome Lemelson's Patents.
  74. ^ US Patents of Jeyhan Karaoguz
  75. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jeyhan Karaoguz
  76. ^ Worldwide Patents of Béla Barényi
  77. ^ German Patents of Béla Barényi
  78. ^ US Patents of Kie Y Ahn
  79. ^ Worldwide Patents of Kie Y Ahn
  80. ^ US Patents of Tadahiro Ohmi
  81. ^ Worldwide Patents of Tadahiro Ohmi
  82. ^ US Patents of Paul J. Godowski
  83. ^ Worldwide Patents of Paul J. Godowski
  84. ^ US Patents of Artur Fischer
  85. ^ Worldwide Patents of Artur Fischer
  86. ^ Reference to German patents of Artur Fischer
  87. ^ US Patents of Louis L. Hsu
  88. ^ Worldwide Patents of Louis L. Hsu
  89. ^ US Patents of Kangguo Cheng
  90. ^ Worldwide Patents of Kangguo Cheng
  91. ^ Bio of Kangguo Cheng
  92. ^ Worldwide Patents of Edwin H. Land
  93. ^ Victor K. McElheny, Insisting on the impossible: The Life of Edwin Land (Perseus Books, 1998)
  94. ^ US Patents of Edward J. Nowak
  95. ^ Worldwide Patents of Edward J. Nowak
  96. ^ Worldwide Patents of Henri Dreyfus
  97. ^ Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation
  98. ^ US Patents of Nathan Myhrvold
  99. ^ Worldwide Patents of Nathan Myhrvold
  100. ^ Worldwide Patents of Clyde C. Farmer
  101. ^ a b Archived Boliven.com website
  102. ^ US Patents of Heinz Focke
  103. ^ Worldwide Patents of Heinz Focke
  104. ^ US Patents of Mark I. Gardner
  105. ^ Worldwide Patents of Mark I. Gardner
  106. ^ Worldwide Patents of Louis H. Morin
  107. ^ US Patents of Ravi K. Arimilli
  108. ^ Worldwide Patents of Ravi K. Arimilli
  109. ^ US Patents of Mark Malamud
  110. ^ Worldwide Patents of Mark Malamud
  111. ^ US Patents of Royce A. Levien
  112. ^ Worldwide Patents of Royce A. Levien
  113. ^ US Patents of Tobin A. King
  114. ^ Worldwide Patents of Tobin A. King
  115. ^ US Patents of Jack A. Mandelman
  116. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jack A. Mandelman
  117. ^ US Patents of Muriel Y. Ishikawa
  118. ^ Worldwide Patents of Muriel Y. Ishikawa
  119. ^ Bio of Muriel Y. Ishikawa
  120. ^ US Patents of Robert W. Lord
  121. ^ Worldwide Patents of Robert W. Lord
  122. ^ US Patents of Eberhard Ammermann
  123. ^ Worldwide Patents of Eberhard Ammermann
  124. ^ Full patent listing for Thomas E. Murray
  125. ^ Thomas E. Murray web site
  126. ^ US Patents of James M. Hart
  127. ^ Worldwide Patents of James M. Hart
  128. ^ US Patents of Akira Nakazawa
  129. ^ Worldwide Patents of Akira Nakazawa
  130. ^ US Patents of Hongyong Zhang
  131. ^ Worldwide Patents of Hongyong Zhang
  132. ^ US Patents of Jeffrey P. Gambino
  133. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jeffrey P. Gambino
  134. ^ US Patents of Scott H. Wittkopp
  135. ^ Worldwide Patents of Scott H. Wittkopp
  136. ^ Worldwide Patents of John Hays Hammond, Jr.
  137. ^ The Infography of John Hays Hammond, Jr.
  138. ^ US Patents of Wilhelm Brandes
  139. ^ Worldwide Patents of Wilhelm Brandes
  140. ^ US Patents of Eric C. Leuthardt
  141. ^ Worldwide Patents of Eric C. Leuthardt
  142. ^ US Patents of Stanford R. Ovshinsky
  143. ^ Worldwide Patents of Stanford R. Ovshinsky
  144. ^ US Patents of Stanford Ovshinsky
  145. ^ US Patents of John M. Santosuosso
  146. ^ Worldwide Patents of John M. Santosuosso
  147. ^ US Patents of Josef Theurer
  148. ^ Worldwide Patents of Josef Theurer
  149. ^ US Patents of Bruce B. Doris
  150. ^ Worldwide Patents of Bruce B. Doris
  151. ^ US Patents of Hans-Joachim Santel
  152. ^ Worldwide Patents of Hans-Joachim Santel
  153. ^ US Patents of Gisela Lorenz
  154. ^ Worldwide Patents of Gisela Lorenz
  155. ^ US Patents of Jordin T. Kare
  156. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jordin T. Kare
  157. ^ US Patents of George P. Liang
  158. ^ Worldwide Patents of George P. Liang
  159. ^ US Patents of Robert S. Langer
  160. ^ Worldwide Patents of Robert S. Langer
  161. ^ US Patents of Garry R. Jackson
  162. ^ Worldwide Patents of Garry R. Jackson
  163. ^ George Westinghouse article at ideafinder.com
  164. ^ Hubert, P. G. (1894). Men of achievement. Inventors. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Page 296+
  165. ^ George Westinghouse article in Encyclopaedia Britannica
  166. ^ US Patents of Paul W. Dent
  167. ^ Worldwide Patents of Paul W. Dent
  168. ^ US Patents of Anthony K. Stamper
  169. ^ Worldwide Patents of Anthony K. Stamper
  170. ^ US Patents of David V. Horak
  171. ^ Worldwide Patents of David V. Horak
  172. ^ US Patents of Ronald S. Cok
  173. ^ Worldwide Patents of Ronald S. Cok
  174. ^ US Patents of Cary L. Bates
  175. ^ Worldwide Patents of Cary L. Bates
  176. ^ Bio of Cary L. Bates
  177. ^ US Patents of Robert R. Schmidt
  178. ^ Worldwide Patents of Robert R. Schmidt
  179. ^ US Patents of Norman M. Berry
  180. ^ Worldwide Patents of Norman M. Berry
  181. ^ US Patents of Mark W. Kroll
  182. ^ Worldwide Patents of Mark W. Kroll
  183. ^ Bio of Mark Kroll
  184. ^ US Patents of Kai-Li Jiang
  185. ^ Worldwide Patents of Kai-Li Jiang
  186. ^ US Patents of Vincent J. Zimmer
  187. ^ Worldwide Patents of Vincent J. Zimmer
  188. ^ US Patents of Chih-Chao Yang
  189. ^ Worldwide Patents of Chih-Chao Yang
  190. ^ US Patents of Victoria Y. H. Wood
  191. ^ Worldwide Patents of Victoria Y. H. Wood
  192. ^ US Patents of Jeffrey E. Stahmann
  193. ^ Worldwide Patents of Jeffrey E. Stahmann
  194. ^ US Patents of Brent A. Anderson
  195. ^ Worldwide Patents of Brent A. Anderson
  196. ^ US Patents of Victoria Smith
  197. ^ Worldwide Patents of Victoria Smith
  198. ^ US Patents of William Daniel Hillis
  199. ^ Worldwide Patents of William Daniel Hillis
  200. ^ US Patents of Liang Liu
  201. ^ Worldwide Patents of Liang Liu
  202. ^ US Patents of Carl J. Radens
  203. ^ Worldwide Patents of Carl J. Radens
  204. ^ US Patents of Steven L. Teig
  205. ^ Worldwide Patents of Steven L. Teig
  206. ^ US Patents of William R. Tonti
  207. ^ Worldwide Patents of William R. Tonti
  208. ^ US Patents of Wael W. Diab
  209. ^ Worldwide Patents of Wael W. Diab
  210. ^ US Patents of Hartley Owen
  211. ^ Worldwide Patents of Hartley Owen
  212. ^ US Patents of Brian M. O'Connell
  213. ^ Worldwide Patents of Brian M. O'Connell
  214. ^ US Patents of Yoshihiro Kikuchi
  215. ^ Worldwide Patents of Yoshihiro Kikuchi
  216. ^ US Patents of Victor S. Moore
  217. ^ Worldwide Patents of Victor S. Moore
  218. ^ US Patents of Adam Heller
  219. ^ Worldwide Patents of Adam Heller
  220. ^ The 12 US Patents of Adam Heller prior to 1976
  221. ^ US Patents of Devendra K. Sadana
  222. ^ Worldwide Patents of Devendra K. Sadana
  223. ^ US Patents of Nobuyuki Taniguchi
  224. ^ Worldwide Patents of Nobuyuki Taniguchi
  225. ^ US Patents of Daniel J. Winarski
  226. ^ Worldwide Patents of Daniel J. Winarski
  227. ^ US Patents of Keith R. Walker
  228. ^ Worldwide Patents of Keith R. Walker
  229. ^ US Patents of Gregory J. Boss
  230. ^ Worldwide Patents of Gregory J. Boss
  231. ^ US Patents of Clifford A. Pickover
  232. ^ Worldwide Patents of Clifford A. Pickover
  233. ^ US Patents of Philip S. Yu
  234. ^ Worldwide Patents of Philip S. Yu
  235. ^ US Patents of Takeshi Chujoh
  236. ^ Worldwide Patents of Takeshi Chujoh
  237. ^ US Patents of Johnny M. Shieh
  238. ^ Worldwide Patents of Johnny M. Shieh
  239. ^ US Patents of Dean L. Kamen
  240. ^ Worldwide Patents of Dean L. Kamen
  241. ^ US Patents of Hiroshi (You) Yoshioka
  242. ^ Worldwide Patents of Hiroshi (You) Yoshioka
  243. ^ Prolific Inventors: Who are They and Where do They Locate? International Centre for Economic Research Working Paper No. 14/2010
  244. ^ List of Nikola Tesla patents
  245. ^ Jim Bieberich's Complete Nikola Tesla U.S. Patent Collection
  246. ^ a b The Patent Board website
  247. ^ 1790 Analytics website
  248. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Rick Allen Hamilton II for 2012
  249. ^ USPTO Patent Search website