List of proposed state mergers

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This is a list of proposed state mergers, including both current and historical proposals originating from sovereign states or organizations. The entities listed below differ from separatist movements in that they would form as a merger or union of two or more existing states, territories, colonies or other regions, becoming either a federation, confederation or other type of unified sovereign state.

Current proposals[edit]

Proposed state Component states Continent First proposed Notes
Canada  Canada
 Turks and Caicos Islands
North America 1917 The proposed Canadian annexation of the Turks and Caicos Islands has been an ongoing political discussion between the two nations since Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden first supported the idea in 1917.[1]
China  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China
Asia 1949 Unification of the territories of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China is the nominal goal of both governments, which both operate under the One-China policy.[2][3][4] However, within the free area of the Republic of China, there is a sizeable movement to formally declare a Taiwanese state, led by the Democratic Progressive Party,[5] which is currently in government.
India  Bangladesh
 India
 Pakistan
Asia 1953 Since the Partition of India there have been multiple calls to reunite the territories by the remerger of successor states.[6]
Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
Asia 1953 Korean reunification has been a goal for both Koreas since the 1953 armistice agreement. However, proposed strategies vary between the two Koreas, with both proposing unification under one sociopolitical system while abandoning the other, similar to German reunification.[7]
Saint Martin Saint Martin
 Sint Maarten
North America 1990 Proposed unification of the island.[8]
Romania  Moldova
 Romania
Europe 1991 Due to the Russian Revolution, the Bessarabia Governorate declared secession in 1917 as the Moldavian Democratic Republic and united unconditionally with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918, before the Soviet occupation in 1940. After Moldova gained independence following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, unification of Moldova and Romania has been proposed which is supported by the Moldovan minorities according to polls and the Romanian Government.
Union State of Russia and Belarus  Belarus
 Russian Federation
Europe 1999 Russia and Belarus signed an agreement to form the Union State in 1999 aiming to continue deeper integration, possibly until unification.[9][10]
 East African Federation  Burundi
 DR Congo
 Kenya
 Rwanda
 South Sudan
 Tanzania
 Uganda
Africa 2004 Proposed political union between the seven member states of the East African Community.[11] Federation was proposed in 2004, but in 2016 it was decided that confederation would be the short-term goal. South Sudan and the DR Congo are not as integrated as the other five members, as South Sudan only gained independence from the Sudan in 2011, and the DR Congo only joined the Community in 2022.[12]
Albania  Albania
 Kosovo
Europe 2008 Since Kosovo's Independence from Serbia, talks have been made for Albania and Kosovo to unite into a Greater Albania due to Kosovo's majority ethnic Albanian population.[13][14][15]
Central America  Costa Rica
 El Salvador
 Guatemala
 Honduras
 Nicaragua
Also invited:
 Belize
 Panama
North America 2018 Despite several historical efforts to reunite the countries that belonged to the United Provinces of Central America and later Federal Republic of Central America into one single state, the first major political figure to suggest it was the President of El Salvador Nayib Bukele.[16][17][18]
United Turkic States  Azerbaijan
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Turkey
 Uzbekistan
Also invited:
 Turkmenistan
Asia 2021 General Secretary Baghdad Amreyev announced that the Turkic Council aims for a united state overseeing the Turkic world.[19]

Historical[edit]

Early modern period[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Swiss Confederation  Uri
 Schwyz
 Unterwalden
1307 Yes Three cantons formed the initial Confederation in the 1307 Rütlischwur, followed by the 1315 Pact of Brunnen; ten more cantons joined over the life of the Confederacy.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1569 Yes Union of Lublin
Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite Commonwealth Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Tsardom of Russia
1574–1658 No
Estandarte Real de Felipe II.svg Iberian Union Coat of Arms of the Crown of Castile (16th Century-1715).svg Crown of Castile
Escudo de Aragón-Sicilia.svg Crown of Aragon
Coat of arms of Portugal (1640).svg Crown of Portugal
1580–1640 Yes Portugal became part of the realms of the Spanish Habsburg (Casa de Austria) following the death of Henry I of Portugal but resumed its independence 60 years later.
Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Cossack Hetmanate
1658–1659 No Treaty of Hadiach
Kingdom of Great Britain  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Scotland
1707 Yes Though having been ruled since 1603 in personal union when James VI succeeded both the English and Scottish crowns both countries remained separate sovereign nations states until 1706 when the Treaty of Union unified them into a single entity.
United States Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Maryland
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Virginia
1775–1788 Yes Constitution of the United States is ratified by the Thirteen Colonies, replacing the Articles of Confederation and thereby forming a Federal government.
 Dutch Republic  Dutch Republic
United Belgian States
1789–1790 No During the Brabant Revolution, Hendrik Van Der Noot, Prime Minister of the young Belgian state proposed incorporating the confederation into the Dutch Republic. Later Willem I admitted that his idea to unite the Low Countries under the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was influenced by Van Der Noots proposal.[20][21]

19th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland  Kingdom of Great Britain
 Kingdom of Ireland
1800 Yes Acts of Union 1800. Most of Ireland left the union as the Irish Free State in 1922, while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.
 United Kingdom of the Netherlands  Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands
Provisional Government of Belgium (1814)
1815 Yes
Gran Colombia United Provinces of New Granada
Second Republic of Venezuela
Real Audiencia of Quito
1819–1830 Yes
First Mexican Empire First Mexican Empire
Captaincy General of Guatemala
1822–1823 Yes Central America was annexed into the First Mexican Empire. After the dissolution of the Empire only Chiapas choose to remain part of Mexico, the rest became the Federal Republic of Central America. Costa Rica in particular was split between inner factions in favor and against the annexation ending in a Civil War. The pro-Mexican provinces declared membership but were not recognized by the pro-independence provinces.
Federal Republic of Central America El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Guatemala
Los Altos
Costa Rica
1823–1841 Yes
Costa Rica Costa Rica
Nicoya
1824 Yes Annexation of Nicoya
Federation of the Andes Colombia
Peru
Bolivia
1826 No Proposed merger of the countries liberated by Simón Bolivar into a single state.
Peru–Bolivian Confederation Peru
Bolivia
1829–1836 Yes
Italian United Provinces Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Romagna
1831 Yes
Rio Uruguay Riograndense Republic
Uruguay
1836 No Riograndense forces were financially and indirect military supported by the Uruguayan government led by José Fructuoso Rivera.[22] The Uruguayans had the intention of creating a political union with the Riograndense Republic to create a new stronger state.[22]
United States United States
Upper Canada
1837–1838 No Rebellions of 1837–1838. Republicans in Upper Canada pursued annexation by the United States.[23]
United States United States
Second Federal Republic of Mexico
1846–1848 No During the Mexican–American War there were some calls and debates regarding American annexation of Mexico in its entirety.[24]
United Kingdom of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia Ecuador
Peru
Bolivia
1846 No Plan by Juan José Flores to re-conquer the former Bourbon Crown territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru.[25]
Danubian Confederation[26] Hungary
Romania
Vojdovina
Croatia
Slovakia
1850 No The Hungarian Statesman Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) attempted at different stages of his exile following the Hungarian War of Independence in 1849 to organize a Danubian Confederation. He intended to accommodate the forces of nationalism within the Danubian basin while preserving Hungary's territorial integrity and replacing Austria's position in the European balance of power[26]
Federation of Central America El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
1852 Yes Second attempt at unification that lasted for less than a month.
Liberia Republic of Liberia
Republic of Maryland
1854–1857 Yes Republic of Maryland was officially named Maryland in Liberia during its independence referendum on 29 May 1854.
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia Principality of Moldavia
Principality of Wallachia
1859 Yes Becomes Kingdom of Romania in 1881.
United Provinces of Central Italy Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Romagna
1859 Yes
Kingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia
United Provinces of Central Italy
1860 Yes
Belgium–Netherlands Confederation  Belgium
 Netherlands
1860 No Belgian Prime Minister Charles Rogier proposed a personal union of Belgium and the Netherlands due to fear of French invasion.[27]
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Papal States
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
1860–1870 Yes Expedition of the Thousand. Although the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861, the Italian unification is generally considered to have been incomplete until after the annexation of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia in 1866 and the capture of Rome in 1870.
Confederate States of America State of South Carolina
State of Mississippi
State of Florida
State of Alabama
State of Georgia
State of Louisiana
State of Texas
Commonwealth of Virginia
State of Arkansas
State of North Carolina
State of Tennessee
1861 Yes American Civil War
Spanish Empire Spanish Empire
First Dominican Republic
1861 Yes In 1861 general Pedro Santana asked Queen Isabella II of Spain to retake control of the Dominican Republic after a period of only 17 years of independence. Spain accepted his proposal and made the country a colony again.[28][29]
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece
United States of the Ionian Islands
1864 Yes Treaty of London (1864)
North German Confederation  Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Saxony
 Grand Duchy of Hesse
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Duchy of Anhalt
Duchy of Brunswick
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Saxe-Meiningen
Various other small principalities and free cities
1866 Yes Following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the annexation by Prussia of Austria's northern German ally states Otto von Bismarck proposed to unify Prussia and its own German ally states into a single Federation. Consequently the North German Constitution was adopted, with the provision that the southern German minor states could enter into the union when politically feasible.
Dominion of Canada Province of Canada
 Province of New Brunswick
 Province of Nova Scotia
1867 Yes Canadian Confederation
 United States  United States
 Greenland
1867–2019 No The idea for the United States to buy Greenland was first proposed during the administration of President Andrew Johnson, when, in 1867, Secretary of State William H. Seward unsuccessfully proposed buying Greenland and Iceland from the Danish Kingdom. A post-World War II bid was also declined by Denmark.[30] In 2018 and 2019, President Donald Trump spoke to aides about acquiring the island; Greenlandic and Danish officials firmly rebuffed the suggestion that the island could be sold.[31][32]
Antillean Confederation Captaincy General of Cuba
Captaincy General of Puerto Rico
Second Dominican Republic
1869–1870 No Proposed by Ramón Emeterio Betances.
German Empire Lesser Germany:
North German Confederation
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Württemberg
Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Alsace-Lorraine
Greater Germany also comprended:
Austrian Empire
1871 Yes The German question regarding the competing ideas of "Greater Germany" and "Lesser Germany" (whether or not a united Germany should include the Austrian Empire) was settled with the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, in which Prussia assumed leadership of the various minor German nation states. The Unification of Germany (excluding Austria) was completed after German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War.
Bulgaria–Romania Bulgaria
Romania
1878–1879 No Proposed personal union, German prince Alexander of Battenberg is elected instead.[33]
United States of Peru–Bolivia Peru
Bolivia
1880 No Proposed state by Nicolás de Piérola and Narciso Campero, also called the Federal Repulic of the Incas.[34]
Kingdom of Spain Kingdom of Spain
Captaincy General of the Philippines
1880–1898 No By the Propaganda Movement led by Filipinos educated in Europe which advocated the Philippine islands be converted from a colony to a province of Spain.[35]
Principality of Bulgaria Bulgaria
Autonomous Province of East Rumelia
1885–1886 Yes After Bulgaria defeated Serbia in the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885, Bulgaria nearly doubled in size when East Rumelia was incorporated within its borders. Bulgaria officially annexed it from the Ottoman Empire in 1885.
Bulgaria–Romania Bulgaria
Romania
1886–1887 No Proposed personal union, rejected by Carol I of Romania due to Russian pressure.[33]
Dominion of Canada Dominion of Canada
Jamaica
1890 No In the late 19th century, there was some discussion of some form of political union between Canada and Jamaica.[36]
Greater Republic of Central America El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Considered joining:
Costa Rica
 Guatemala
1895–1898 Yes
the Imperial Federation or Angloworld  United Kingdom
United States
Canada
New South Wales Colony of New South Wales
Queensland Colony of Queensland
Western Australia Colony of Western Australia
South Australia Colony of South Australia
Tasmania Colony of Tasmania
Victoria (Australia) Colony of Victoria
New Zealand Colony of New Zealand
Cape Colony Cape Colony
Colony of Natal Colony of Natal
Orange River Colony Orange River Colony
Transvaal Colony Transvaal Colony
1860–1914 No Numerous prominent transatlantic thinkers proposed a union of the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as a consolidation of the United Kingdom and its remaining white settler colonies (Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand).[37][38]

20th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
 Commonwealth of Australia  New South Wales
 Queensland
South Australia
 Tasmania
 Victoria
 Western Australia
Also invited:
Colony of Fiji
New Zealand Colony of New Zealand
1901 Yes Federation of Australia. New Zealand had many disagreements with the Australian government and decided to not join. Fiji also did not join.
Franco-British Union  France
 United Kingdom
1904–1956 No A Franco-British Union is a concept for a union between the two independent sovereign states of the United Kingdom and France. Such a union was proposed during certain crises of the 20th century; it has some historical precedents. In April 1904 France and the United Kingdom signed a series of agreements, known as the Entente Cordiale, which marked the end of centuries of intermittent conflict between the two powers, and the start of a period of peaceful co-existence. Nationalist political leaders from both sides were uncomfortable with the idea of such a merging.
 Union of South Africa  Cape Colony
 Colony of Natal
 Orange River Colony
 Transvaal Colony
1909 Yes Union of South Africa
Balkan Socialist Federation  Kingdom of Yugoslavia
 Principality of Albania
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
1910–1916 No
Dominion of Canada Dominion of Canada
The Bahamas
1911 No In 1911, at the request of the Bahamian House of Assembly, the Canadian and the Bahamian governments began serious negotiations for Bahamian accession to the Canadian confederation.[39] However, a racial panic ignited by the migration of over one thousand African-Americans fleeing violence in Oklahoma derailed the discussions. Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier turned against the idea, citing incompatible "ethnical origin". After Laurier lost the September 1911 federal election, Bahamian Governor William Grey-Wilson travelled to Canada to reopen accession talks with newly elected PM Robert Borden.[40] In a meeting between Grey and Borden on 18 October 1911, Borden rejected the possibility of taking the Bahamas into the Canadian confederation. His reasoning was that the events of the past year had proved that Canadian public opinion would not countenance the admission of a majority-black province. The British Colonial Office concurred: "No doubt for the moment the Dominion government would safeguard their interests, but there are signs of the rise of a colour question in Canada and in any case it cannot be long before U.S. opinion gives the tone to Canada in regard the Negro."[41]
 Kingdom of Greece  Cretan State
 Kingdom of Greece
1913 Yes Crete rebelled against Ottoman rule during the Cretan Revolt of 1866-69 and used the motto "Crete, Enosis, Freedom or Death". The Cretan State was established after the intervention of the Great Powers, and Cretan union with Greece occurred de facto in 1908 and de jure in 1913 by the Treaty of Bucharest.
Hungary–Romania  Kingdom of Romania
Republic and Kingdom of Hungary
1917–1920 No Federation or personal union between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom/Republic of Hungary under one monarch. Proposals were mostly enhanced in 1919 and 1920, but they continued to exist up to the Second World War.[42][43][44][45]
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Montenegro
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
1918 Yes Creation of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Romania  Kingdom of Romania
Moldavian Democratic Republic
Bukovina
Transylvania
1918 Yes Great Union, Union of Bessarabia with Romania, Union of Bukovina with Romania, Union of Transylvania with Romania
Intermarium  Belarusian People's Republic
 Czechoslovak Republic
 Estonia
 Finland
Hungarian People's Republic
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Polish Republic
 Kingdom of Romania
 Ukrainian People's Republic
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
November or December 1918 No Also called "Międzymorze" in Polish. Suggested shortly after World War I to combat the influences of Germany and Russia.
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic  Democratic Republic of Georgia
 Democratic Republic of Armenia
 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
1918 Yes A short-lived South Caucasian state that extended across what are now the modern-day countries of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas. The state only lasted for a month before Georgia declared independence, followed shortly by Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Weimar Republic Weimar Republic
Republic of German-Austria
1918–1919 No Following the disintegration of Austria-Hungary in the final days of World War I the German-speaking territories of the former Austria-Hungary attempted to begin a process of integration into Weimar Germany. The Allies did not favor the idea, and forced the Austrian rump state to sign the Treaty of Saint Germain, which prohibited Austria from uniting with Germany.
Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
1919 Yes Act Zluky
Patria Grande Argentina
Bolivia Bolivia
Chile Chile
Colombia Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
El Salvador El Salvador
Ecuador
Guatemala Guatemala
Honduras Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Puerto Rico
Uruguay Uruguay
Venezuela
1922 No The concept of a shared homeland or community encompassing all of Spanish America, and sometimes all of Latin America and the Caribbean. The term is associated with political ideas of Ibero-American integration, rejecting the balkanization of the Spanish Empire in the Americas that followed the Spanish American wars of independence. The term may be also used to talk specifically about projects of Hispanic American unity held by Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Byelorussian SSR
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
1922 Yes Treaty on the Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Union of South Africa  Union of South Africa
 Colony of Southern Rhodesia
1922 No The 1922 Southern Rhodesian government referendum was held in the colony on 27 October 1922. Voters, almost all of them White, were given the options of establishing responsible government or joining the Union of South Africa.[46] After 59% voted in favour of responsible government, it was officially granted on 1 October 1923.
Baltoscandia  Denmark
 Sweden
 Finland
 Norway
 Iceland
 Estonia
 Lithuania
 Latvia
1928–1960 No The term Baltoscandia was first used by Sten de Geer in an article in "Geografiska Annaler" in 1928 and further developed by Kazys Pakštas.[47] He envisioned Baltoscandia as an economic, political and military unit.[48] Kazys Pakštas proposed that one of the ways for the small nations to withstand the influence coming from the large ones is to unite and to cooperate more closely among each other. As he mentions, unification is possible only among nations that are similar by their size, geographical environment, religion and culture.
Greater Indonesia  Dutch East Indies
British Malaya
Crown Colony of Sarawak
 Crown colony of North Borneo
 Protectorate of Brunei
 Crown colony of Singapore
Portuguese Timor
1928 No A political concept that sought to bring the so-called Malay race together by uniting the territories of Dutch East Indies (and Portuguese Timor) with the British Malaya and British Borneo. It was espoused by students and graduates of Sultan Idris Training College for Malay Teachers in the late 1920s, and individuals from Sumatra and Java including Mohammad Yamin and Sukarno in the 1950s. Indonesia Raya was later adapted as the name of the Indonesian national anthem in 1924.
German Reich German Reich
Federal State of Austria
1938 Yes Anschluss
 Turkey  Turkey
 Hatay State
1939 Yes On 2 September 1938 the Sanjak of Alexandretta declared itself separate from the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon, becoming the Hatay State. On 29 June 1939, the legislature voted to merge with Turkey.
Polish–Czechoslovak confederation  Polish Republic
 Czechoslovak Republic
1939–1948 No Proposed by Władysław Sikorski.
Greek–Yugoslav confederation Strictest definition:
 Kingdom of Greece
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Loosest definition also includes:
 Albanian Kingdom
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Romania
1942–1944 No The Greek-Yugoslav confederation was a political concept during World War II, sponsored by the United Kingdom and involving the Greek government-in-exile and the Yugoslav government-in-exile. The two governments signed an agreement pushing the proposal ahead, but it never got beyond the planning stage because of opposition from within the Greek and the Yugoslav governments, real world events, and the opposition of the Soviet Union. The proposal envisioned the creation of a confederation of Greece and Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union  Soviet Union
 Tuvan People's Republic
1943–1944 Yes Tuvan underwent intense Russification of social and economic practices, and virtually all remaining opposition to Stalinist policy was eradicated. The Soviets desired the mineral resources of the republic and a permanent end to Mongolian-Chinese geopolitical intrigues in the region. This process culminated in the absorption of Tuva in 1944, under the rule of General Secretary Salchak Toka and his wife, Head of State Khertek Anchimaa-Toka.[49]
Ewe Land[50] France French Togoland
British Togoland
1945–1956 No In 1945 various members of Ewe and wider Togolese leadership began the construction of political organizations which sought to decolonize French Togoland. These developed as the Comité de l'Unité Togolaise, led by Sylvanus Olympio, and the Mouvement la Jeunesse Togolaise. Both possessed political platforms that included the reunification of the French Togoland and British Togoland.[50]
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
People's Socialist Republic of Albania
People's Republic of Bulgaria
1946–1948 No Josip Broz Tito came extremely close to persuading Albania to accept integration into Yugoslavia, but relations cooled in 1948 over fears that Yugoslavia only intended to use Albania for raw materials, subsequently resulting in the expulsion of Yugoslav diplomats. Yugoslav/Bulgarian negotiations fell through when Moscow attempted to force both countries into accepting Soviet control over the merge, which caused Yugoslavia to withdraw from negotiations and precipitated the Tito–Stalin split.
 India  India
Junagadh State
Other states
1947–1948 Yes Political integration of India, Annexation of Junagadh
United States of Indonesia Bangka
Banjar
Biliton
Central Java
East Borneo
East Indonesia
East Java
East Sumatra
Great Dayak
Indonesia

Madura
Pasundan
South Sumatra
Southeast Borneo
Riouw
West Borneo

1946–1949 Yes Following discussions between Dutch authorities and Indonesian nationalist leaders, the Linggadjati Agreement was signed on 15 November 1946, in which the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia agreed to the principle of a federal Indonesia including the territory controlled by the Republic and other territory in the region which the Dutch controlled at that point. The Dutch then organised the December 1946 Denpasar Conference, which led to the establishment of the State of East Indonesia, followed by a state in West Borneo. Further states were set up in former territory of the Republic after they were conquered by the Dutch in 1947. Further Dutch military action faced increasing resistance from governments of the states they had established, and this combined with international pressure caused the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference to take place in The Hague from August to November 1949. This Conference resulted in the Dutch agreeing to hand over sovereignty to a federal union of these states, which officially became the Republic of the United States of Indonesia. This federation lasted only a year, as its member states agreed to dissolve themselves into a unitary state, the last stage of which took place on 17 August 1950.
 India  India
British Raj Princely states
1947–1950 Yes Instrument of Accession
 Pakistan  Pakistan
British Raj Princely states
1947–1950 Yes Instrument of Accession
 India  India
Hyderabad
1948 Yes Annexation of Hyderabad
Dominion of Canada Dominion of Canada
Dominion of Newfoundland
1948–1949 Yes In two rounds of referendums in 1948, the Dominion of Newfoundland had the choice of becoming an independent state, merging with the Dominion of Canada, or remaining as a British dominion. The Newfoundland Act of 1949, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the then-separate Dominions of Canada and Newfoundland on 23 March 1949.
Dominion of Canada Dominion of Canada
Bermuda
1949 No In 1949 Henry Vassey, then Chairman of the Bermuda Trade Development Board, urged the House of Assembly of Bermuda to pursue a political union with Canada. Four Methodist church congregations in Bermuda are part of the United Church of Canada, forming Bermuda Presbytery of the United Church's Maritime Conference headquartered in Sackville, New Brunswick. The same Salvation Army Church territory serves both Canada and Bermuda with many of their pastors travelling between countries.[51] In January 2009, Nova Scotia's Premier, Rodney MacDonald, and the Premier of Bermuda, Ewart Brown, signed a five-year agreement that would strengthen Nova Scotia's ties with Bermuda and enhance service export opportunities, tourism, transportation and health links in both jurisdictions. Bermuda's ties to Canada include the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Bermuda being overseen by Canada's Chartered Professional Accounting profession.
Greece Greece
Cyprus
1950 No An unofficial referendum on enosis (reunification) with Greece was held in Cyprus between 15 and 22 January 1950, and the proposal was approved by 95.71% of those taking part.
 Indonesia  Indonesia
Netherlands New Guinea
1950–1969 Yes Following Dutch recognition of Indonesian Independence, Indonesia continued to claim the remaining Dutch territory in the region, Netherlands New Guinea, as its rightful territory. The dispute escalated into low-level conflict in 1962 following Dutch moves in 1961 to establish a New Guinea Council. Facing diplomatic pressure from the United States, fading domestic support and continual Indonesian threats to invade the territory, the Netherlands decided to relinquish control of the disputed territory in August 1962. Following a short period of UN administration, the territory was transferred to Indonesia on 1 May 1963.
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland  Protectorate of Nyasaland
 Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia
 Colony of Southern Rhodesia
1953 Yes
 West Germany  West Germany
 Saar Protectorate
1955–1957 Yes 1955 Saar Statute referendum. Saarland became a state of Germany and exited France's economic union.
 United Kingdom  United Kingdom
Crown Colony of Malta
1956 No 1956 Maltese United Kingdom integration referendum
Ghana Gold Coast
United Kingdom British Togoland
1956 Yes In the 1956 British Togoland status plebiscite 58% of voters supported a union with Ghana, whereas 42% voted in favor of remaining a United Nations Trust Territory under British control until neighbouring French Togoland had decided its future.[52]
North Borneo Federation Crown Colony of North Borneo
Crown Colony of Sarawak
 Protectorate of Brunei
1956–1960 No Sarawak and North Borneo merged with the independent Federation of Malaya several years later, forming Malaysia, while Brunei later became an independent state on its own.
United States of Latin Africa Angola
Belgian Congo
Ruanda-Urundi
French Congo
Ubangi-Shari
French Chad
French Cameroon
French Gabon
Spanish Guinea
São Tomé and Príncipe
1957–1959 No Proposed union of Romance-language-speaking Central African countries envisioned by Barthélemy Boganda. Boganda first called for it in May 1957.[53] The idea's implementation was cut short by Boganda's death in a plane crash on 29 March 1959.[54] Boganda viewed this entity to be a counterweight to the powerful British-influenced southern bloc of South Africa and the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.[53]
Cameroon Cameroon
Spanish Guinea
1958–1963 No The Equatoguinean independence leader Enrique Nvo and the first formal Equatoguinean political party, IPGE, advocated for independence from Spain and a political union between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.[55] The idea of a union was deemed unfeasible after the 1963 Spanish Guinean autonomy referendum.[55]
 West Indies Federation British Barbados
British Jamaica
British Leeward Islands (except the Virgin Islands)
British Trinidad and Tobago
British Windward Islands
Also invited:
Crown Colony of the Bahama Islands
British Guiana
British Honduras
British Virgin Islands
1958 Yes The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state. However, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts.
 United Arab Republic Republic of Egypt
Syrian Republic
1958 Yes A short-lived Pan-Arab state.
United Arab States  United Arab Republic
 Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
1958 Yes Loose confederation between the United Arab Republic and North Yemen.
Arab Federation  Kingdom of Iraq
 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1958 Yes An attempt to unify the two Hashemite kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan. While successful, the short-lived union was disestablished after a military coup deposed Faisal II of Iraq.
Somali Republic Trust Territory of Somalia
State of Somaliland
1960 Yes On 26 June 1960 the former British Somaliland protectorate briefly obtained independence as the State of Somaliland, with the Trust Territory of Somaliland following suit five days later.[56][57] The following day, on 27 June 1960, the newly convened Somaliland Legislative Assembly approved a bill that would formally allow for the union of the State of Somaliland with the Trust Territory of Somaliland on 1 July 1960.[58] Following the collapse of Barre's government in early 1991, local authorities, led by the SNM, unilaterally declared independence from Somalia on 18 May of the same year and reinstated the borders of the former short-lived independent State of Somaliland.
East African Federation Kenya Colony
Tanganyika Territory
Uganda Protectorate
Sultanate of Zanzibar
1960–1964 No Proposed political union between the four territories (one colony, two protectorates and one League of Nations mandated territory) under British rule in East Africa in the 1960s. Tanganyika proposed to delay its imminent independence in 1960 so that the four territories might achieve independence together as one federation. In 1963 the leaders of all of the territories (some now independent) pledged to work towards a federation by 1964, but ultimately disputes over the nature of the federation and concerns about sharing power led to the collapse of effort to federate. Only Tanganyika and Zanzibar eventually united in 1964.
Cameroon Cameroon
British Cameroon
1961 Partial (Southern Cameroons) In the 1961 British Cameroons referendum, the Christian majority in the south of British Cameroon voted to integrate with Cameroon, whereas the Muslim-majority Northern areas voted to integrate with Nigeria.
 Nigeria  Nigeria
British Cameroon
Partial (Northern Cameroons)
 India  India
 Portuguese State of India
1961 Yes Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Annexation of Goa
 India  India
 French Settlements in India
1962 Yes
Federation of the Emirates of the South  Fadhli
Audhali
 Beihan
 Dhala
 Lower Yafa
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom
Alawi
Aqrabi
Dathina
Haushabi
 Lahej
Lower Aulaqi
Maflahi
Shaib
 Wahidi
1962 Yes The Federation of the Emirates of the South (Arabic: اتحاد إمارات الجنوب العربي‎ Ittiḥād ʾImārāt al-Janūb al-ʿArabiyy) was an organization of states within the British Aden Protectorate in what would become South Yemen. The Federation of six states was inaugurated in the British Colony of Aden on 11 February 1959, and the Federation and Britain signed a “Treaty of Friendship and Protection,” which detailed plans for British financial and military assistance. It subsequently added nine states and, on 4 April 1962, became known as the Federation of South Arabia. This was joined by the Aden Colony on 18 January 1963.
Maphilindo  Malaya
 Indonesia
 Philippines
1963 No Proposals to create a union of the people of the Malay race and deal with the continued decolonisation of Southeast Asia led to leaders of the three countries signing the Manila Accord on 5 August 1963. However, cooperation quickly broke down following the formation of Malaysia by Malaya and other former British colonies in the region, which was opposed by Indonesia and the Philippines.[59]
Malaysia  Federation of Malaya
Crown Colony of North Borneo
Crown Colony of Sarawak
 Colony of Singapore
Also invited:
 Brunei
1963 Yes Singapore was expelled from the federation on 9 August 1965, later forming the Republic of Singapore. Brunei Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III accepted the idea but rejected after the Brunei revolt.
 United Republic of Tanzania  Republic of Tanganyika
People's Republic of Zanzibar
1964 Yes
 Australia  Australia
Nauru
1964–1965 No In 1963 the Australian Government proposed that the citizens of Nauru, a United Nations trust territory under Australian administration, would move to Curtis Island and become Australian citizens.[60][61] By that time, Nauru had been extensively mined for phosphate by companies from Australia, Britain and New Zealand damaging the landscape so much that it was thought the island would be uninhabitable by the 1990s. The cost of resettling the Nauruans on Curtis Island was estimated to be £10 million, which included housing and infrastructure and the establishment of pastoral, agricultural, and fishing industries.[62] However, the Nauruan people did not wish to become Australian citizens and wanted to be given sovereignty over Curtis Island to establish themselves as an independent nation, which Australia would not agree to.[63] Nauru rejected the proposal to move to Curtis Island, instead choosing to become an independent nation operating their mines in Nauru.[64] Nauru became self-governing in January 1966, and following a two-year constitutional convention, it became independent in 1968 under founding president Hammer DeRoburt.[65]
Territory of the Marianas  Territory of Guam
 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
1969 No 1958 Saipan integration referendum, 1961 Northern Mariana Islands status referendum, 1963 Northern Mariana Islands integration referendum, 1969 Guamanian unification with the Northern Mariana Islands referendum, 1969 Northern Mariana Islands status referendum
 United Arab Emirates  Abu Dhabi
Emirate of Dubai Dubai
 Sharjah
 Ajman
Umm Al Quwain
Fujairah
 Ras Al Khaimah
Also invited:
Bahrain
Qatar
1971 Yes Six independent emirates formed the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971. Ras Al Khaimah later joined the federation.
Egypt Federation of Arab Republics  Libya
Egypt
Syria
Also invited:
 Iraq
 Sudan
1972–1977 Yes An attempt by Muammar Gaddafi to build a Pan-Arab state.
Arab Islamic Republic  Libya
 Tunisia
1974 No Proposed by Muammar Gaddafi.
Indochinese Federation[66]  North Vietnam
South Vietnam
Democratic Kampuchea
 Laos
1975 No Despite Kampuchea's cooperation with the Vietnamese, the Khmer Rouge leadership feared that the Vietnamese communists were planning to form an Indochinese federation, which would be dominated by Vietnam. In order to pre-empt any attempt by the Vietnamese to dominate them, the Khmer Rouge leadership began, as the Lon Nol government capitulated in 1975, to purge Vietnamese-trained personnel within their own ranks. Then, in May 1975, the newly formed Democratic Kampuchea began attacking Vietnam, beginning with an attack on the Vietnamese island of Phú Quốc.[67][68][69]
 India  India
Sikkim
1975 Yes After independence in 1947, joining the new Indian Union was rejected by popular vote. Sikkim grew closer to India over time, becoming a protectorate and later a suzerainty[citation needed] of India. With Indian pressure and support, Sikkim voted to join India in 1975.[70][71]
Guinea and Cape Verde  Guinea-Bissau
 Cape Verde
1975 No The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) advocated for the independence of the colonies of Portuguese Guinea and Portuguese Cape Verde, and governed both countries immediately after independence (1974 for Guinea-Bissau, and 1975 for Cape Verde) with the goal of unifying the two. However, following a 1980 coup in Guinea-Bissau, the Cape Verde branch of the party separated to form the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), ending plans for a union.[72]
 Indonesia  Indonesia
East Timor
1975–1976 Yes Indonesian invasion of East Timor
 Vietnam  North Vietnam
South Vietnam
1976 Yes Fall of Saigon, Reunification Day
 Solomon Islands  Solomon Islands
Republic of the North Solomons
1976 No The Interim Provincial Government announced that they would declare independence on 1 September, ahead of Papua New Guinea's own planned independence day of 16 September. On 1 September, they issued the 'Unilateral Declaration of Independence of the Republic of the North Solomons'. They sought international recognition through the United Nations, but were unsuccessful. They also failed in an attempt to unite with the Solomon Islands.
Socialist Union of the Horn of Africa[73] Ethiopia
Somalia
South Yemen
1977 No In early 1977, Castro brought together the leaders of Somalia, Ethiopia and South Yemen to create a socialist federal state in the region. General Mohamed Nur Galal was the former deputy defense minister of Somalia and the vocal point of Somalia's military contacts with Cuba at that time. He was present at the meeting in Aden in March 1977.[74][75]
 Swaziland  Swaziland
 KaNgwane
Also invited:
 KwaZulu
1982–1989 No An attempt to transfer the bantustan, along with parts of the Zulu homeland KwaZulu, to the neighbouring country of Swaziland in 1982 was never realized.[76][77] This would have given land-locked Swaziland access to the sea. The deal was negotiated by the governments, but was met by popular opposition in the territory meant to be transferred.[78] The homeland's territory had been claimed by King Sobhuza of Swaziland as part of the Swazi monarchs' traditional realm, and the South African government hoped to use the homeland as a buffer zone against guerrilla infiltration from Mozambique. South Africa responded to the failure of the transfer by temporarily suspending the autonomy of KaNgwane, then restoring it in December 1982 and granting it nominal self-rule in 1984.[79][80]
Senegambia Confederation  Senegal
 The Gambia
1982–1989 Yes A loose confederation was formed, but ended due to the Gambia's lack of interest in integration.
 Yemen  North Yemen
 South Yemen
1990 Yes Yemeni unification
 Germany  West Germany
 East Germany
1990 Yes German reunification
Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics Russian SFSR
 Byelorussian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
 Azerbaijan SSR
 Kazakh SSR
 Kirghiz SSR
 Tajik SSR
 Turkmen SSR
 Uzbek SSR
Also invited:
Abkhaz ASSR
South Ossetian AO
Gagauz Republic
Pridnestrovian SSR
1990–1991 No 1991 Soviet Union referendum
 FR Yugoslavia  SR Serbia
 Montenegro
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
1991 No Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement
 FR Yugoslavia  SR Serbia
 Montenegro
1992 Yes
Balkania  SR Serbia
 Montenegro
 Kosova
1993–2006 No Suggested by the Kosovo Albanian politician Adem Demaçi
 South Africa  South Africa
 Bophuthatswana
 Ciskei
 Transkei
 Venda
1994 Yes During apartheid the South African Government granted nominal independence to four autonomous bantustans within it. While no external country recognized these states, South Africa strongly promoted their independence and the four mutually recognized each other. As South Africa moved to end apartheid, the African National Congress (ANC) party advocated reintegration of all bantustans, including the nominally independent ones, into a unitary South African state. Resistance to integration by leaders of some bantustans led to violence, such as in the Bisho massacre and the Bophuthatswana crisis. Nonetheless, inhabitants of all four independent bantustans participated in the 1994 South African general election, during which a new constitution came into effect which reintegrated all bantustans into South Africa.

21st century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
United Republic of Cyprus Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus
2004 No A referendum was held in Cyprus on 24 April 2004.[81] The two communities were asked whether they approved of the fifth revision of the United Nations proposal for reuniting the island, which had been divided since 1974. While it was approved by 65% of Turkish Cypriots, it was rejected by 76% of Greek Cypriots.
New Sudan  Southern Sudan
 Sudan
2005–2011 No New Sudan is a concept for restructuring the Sudanese state, which was proposed by the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement during the Second Sudanese Civil War. The original SPLA/M Manifesto outlined 'New Sudan' as a proposed united and secular Sudanese state. The vision of 'New Sudan' was developed by Dr. John Garang, who advocated the 'New Sudan' as a democratic and pluralistic state.
 Russian Federation  Russian Federation
 Transnistria
2006 No Proposed Russian annexation of Transnistria
Gran Colombia  Colombia
Ecuador
 Panama
 Venezuela
2008 No Reunification of Gran Colombia, In 2008, Hugo Chávez, president of Venezuela, announced the proposal of the political restoration of the Gran Colombia, under the Bolivarian revolution.[82]
Lucayan Federation  Bahamas
 Turks and Caicos Islands
2010 No The Lucayan Archipelago (named for the original native Lucayan people), also known as the Bahama Archipelago, is an island group comprising the Commonwealth of The Bahamas and the British Overseas Territory of the Turks and Caicos Islands. The archipelago is in the western North Atlantic Ocean, north of Cuba along with the other Antilles, and east and southeast of Florida. In 2010 the leaders of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands discussed the possibility of forming a federation.[83]
Peru–Bolivian Confederation  Bolivia
 Peru
2011 No President Ollanta Humala of Peru proposed Bolivian president Evo Morales to reunite the countries in a confederation.[84][85] The Cabinets of the two countries have held joint meetings.[86]
 Russian Federation  Russian Federation
Crimea
2014 Partial (Disputed) Crimea seceded from Ukraine and later conducted a referendum to join the Russian Federation and was later annexed by Russia. The referendum was extremely controversial and most countries continue to recognize Crimea as part of Ukraine.
 Novorossiya  Donetsk People's Republic
 Luhansk People's Republic
2014 No Novorossiya (Full name: Federal State of Novorossiya) was a proposed confederation between the two self-declared nations of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic. The Confederation was declared on 22 May 2014. On 20 May 2015 the constituent members announced the freezing of the Novorossiya project.
 Russian Federation  Russian Federation
 South Ossetia
2022 No On 30 March 2022, President Anatoly Bibilov suggested a referendum on joining Russia,[87] which was to be held on 17 July 2022; the referendum was cancelled on 30 May 2022.[88]
 Russian Federation  Russian Federation
 Donetsk People's Republic
 Luhansk People's Republic
Kherson military–civilian administration
Zaporizhzhia military–civilian administration
2022 Partial (Disputed) In late September 2022, Russian-installed officials in some parts of Ukraine[89] organized referendum on annexation of occupied territories of Ukraine.[90][91][92] On 27 September, Russian officials of the Central Election Commission in Zaporizhzhia claimed that the referendum passed, with 93.11% of voters in favour of joining the Russian Federation.[93] According to the data provided by the commission, the support for the annexation was 90.01% in the Melitopol Raion, while in its administrative center, Melitopol, it was 96.78%.[94] On 29 September, Russia announced that it would formally annex the four regions Luhansk, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhia and Kherson the next day, on 30 September.[95] The referendums were illegal under international law[96] and most countries continue to recognize as part of Ukraine.[97]

See also[edit]

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