List of proposed state mergers

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"Proposed states" redirects here. For proposed separatist states, see Lists of active separatist movements.
For proposed annexations of non-sovereign territories, see List of irredentist claims or disputes.

This is a list of proposed state mergers, including both current and historical proposals originating from sovereign states or organizations. The entities listed below differ from separatist movements in that they would form as a merger or union of two or more existing states, territories, colonies or other regions, becoming either a federation, confederation or other type of unified sovereign state.

Current[edit]

Proposed state Components Notes
China  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Unification of the Greater China Region is the stated goal of both governments, though support in Taiwan is decreasing over time. Supported by Chinese nationalists in both states.[1][2][3]
Cyprus  Republic of Cyprus
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Proposed re-unification of the two Cypriot states to end the Cyprus dispute. Talks are ongoing, although specific plans, such as the Annan Plan, have so far failed.[4]
 East African Federation  Burundi
 Kenya
 Rwanda
 South Sudan
 Tanzania
 Uganda
Proposed political union between the six member states of the East African Community.[5]
Korea Korea  North Korea
 South Korea
Korean reunification has been a goal for both Koreas since the 1953 armistice agreement. However, proposed strategies vary between the two Koreas.[6]
 Romania  Romania
 Moldova
The unification of Romania and Moldova became a popular concept in the two countries during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and remains a commonly discussed aspiration for some in both countries.[citation needed]

Historic[edit]

21st century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
 Russia  Russia
Crimea
2014 Yes
(de facto)
Crimea unilaterally seceded from Ukraine and later conducted a referendum to join the Russian Federation and was later annexed by Russia. The referendum was controversial and most countries continue to recognize Crimea as part of Ukraine.
Peru–Bolivian Confederation  Bolivia
 Peru
2011 No President Ollanta Humala of Peru proposed Bolivian president Evo Morales to reunite the countries in a confederation.[7][8] The Cabinets of the two countries have held joint meetings.[9]

20th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
 Germany  East Germany
 West Germany
1990 Yes German reunification
 Yemen  North Yemen
 South Yemen
1990 Yes Yemeni unification
Senegambia Confederation  The Gambia
 Senegal
1982–1989 Yes
(1 January 1982 – 30 September 1989)
A loose confederation was formed, but ended due to the Gambia's lack of interest in integration.
Egypt Federation of Arab Republics  Libya
 Egypt
 Syria
Also invited:
 Iraq
 Sudan
1972–1977 Yes
(1 January 1972 – 19 November 1977)
An attempt by Muammar Gaddafi to build a Pan-Arab state.
 Vietnam  North Vietnam
 South Vietnam
1976 Yes Unified due to military conquest. See Reunification Day and the Fall of Saigon.
 India  India
Sikkim
1975 Yes After independence in 1947, joining the new Indian Union was rejected by popular vote. Sikkim grew closer to India over time, becoming a protectorate and later a suzerainty of India. With Indian pressure and support, Sikkim voted to join India in 1975.[10][11]
 United Arab Emirates  Abu Dhabi
Dubai Dubai
 Sharjah
 Ajman
Umm al-Qaiwain
Fujairah
 Ras Al Khaimah
Also invited:
Bahrain
Qatar
1971 Yes Six independent emirates formed the United Arab Emirates in December 2, 1971. Ras Al Khaimah later joined the federation.
Arab Islamic Republic  Libya
 Tunisia
1974 No Proposed by Muammar Gaddafi.
 Tanzania  Tanganyika
Zanzibar
1964 Yes
Malaysia  Malaya
North Borneo
Sarawak
 Singapore
Also invited:
 Brunei
1963 Yes Singapore was expelled from the federation on 9 August 1965 due to political conflict and power tension.
North Borneo Federation North Borneo
Sarawak
 Protectorate of Brunei
1956–1960 No
Arab Federation  Kingdom of Iraq
 Jordan
1958 Yes
(14 February 1958 – 2 August 1958)
An attempt to unify the two Hashemite kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan. While successful, the short-lived union was disestablished after a military coup deposed King Faisal II of Iraq.
 United Arab Republic Republic of Egypt
Syrian Republic
1958 Yes
(22 February 1958 – 28 September 1961)
A short-lived Pan-Arab state.
 West Indies Federation British Barbados
British Jamaica
British Leeward Islands
British Trinidad and Tobago
British Windward Islands
1958 Yes
(1958–1962)
The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state, however, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts.
United Arab States  United Arab Republic
 Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
1958 Yes
(8 March 1958 – 26 December 1961)
Loose confederation between the United Arab Republic and (North) Yemen.
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland  Nyasaland
 Northern Rhodesia
 Southern Rhodesia
1953 Yes
(1953–1963)
A semi-independent state.
Canada Canada
Newfoundland
1949 Yes Newfoundland Act
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
People's Socialist Republic of Albania
People's Republic of Bulgaria
1946–1948 No Josip Broz Tito came extremely close to getting Albania into accepting integration into Yugoslavia, but relations cooled in 1948 over fears that Yugoslavia only intended to use Albania for raw materials, subsequently resulting in the expulsion of Yugoslav diplomats. Yugoslav/Bulgarian negotiations fell through when Moscow attempted to force both countries into accepting Soviet control over the merge, which caused Yugoslavia to withdraw from negotiations and precipitated the Tito–Stalin split.
 India  India
Hyderabad
1948 Yes Integration of Hyderabad
 India  India
Junagadh
1947–1948 Yes Integration of Junagadh
 India  India
Jammu and Kashmir
1947 Yes Instrument of Accession
Greek-Yugoslav confederation Strictest definition:
 Kingdom of Greece
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Loosest definition also includes:
 Albanian Kingdom
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Romania
1942–1944 No
Polish-Czechoslovak confederation  Czechoslovak Republic
 Polish Republic
1939–1948 No Proposed by Władysław Sikorski.
 Republic of Turkey  Republic of Turkey
 Hatay State
1939 Yes Hatay was a disputed territory between Syria and Turkey until 2004. Territory ceded from Syria to Turkey during the French Mandate of Syria, never formally recognized by Syria, but gave it up in 2004.
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Federal State of Austria
1938 Yes
(1938–1945)
Anschluss
Soviet Union Byelorussian SSR
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
1922 Yes
(1922–1991)
Treaty on the Creation of the USSR
Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
1919 Yes
(1919)
Act Zluky
 Kingdom of Romania  Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Hungary
1919 No Proposed federation between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Hungary in personal union under the Romanian King.[12]
Weimar Republic Weimar Republic
Republic of German-Austria
1918–1919 No Following the disintegration of Austria-Hungary in the final days of World War I, the German-speaking territories of the Empire attempted to begin a process of integration into Weimar Germany. The Allies did not favor the idea, and forced the Austrian rump state to sign the Treaty of Saint Germain, which prohibited Austria from uniting with Germany.
Międzymorze  Belarusian People's Republic
 Czechoslovak Republic
 Estonia
 Finland
Hungarian People's Republic
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Polish Republic
 Kingdom of Romania
 Ukrainian People's Republic
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
November or December 1918 No Also called "Intermarium". Suggested shortly after World War I to combat the influences of Germany and Russia.
Kingdom of Romania  Kingdom of Romania
Transylvania (Part of Hungary)
Banat Republic
Duchy of Bukovina
1918 Yes
(1918–1947)
Unification of Greater Romania
Kingdom of Romania  Kingdom of Romania
Moldavian Democratic Republic
1918 Yes
(1918)
See Treaty of Bucharest
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Montenegro
Kingdom of Serbia
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
1918 Yes
(1918–1992)
Creation of Yugoslavia
Balkan Socialist Federation  Principality of Albania
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1910–1916 No
Commonwealth of Australia  New South Wales
 Queensland
 South Australia
 Tasmania
 Victoria
 Western Australia
Also invited:
Fiji
 New Zealand
1901 Yes Federation of Australia

19th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
United States of America United States of America
Republic of Hawaii
1898 Yes United States annexation of the Territory of Hawaii
German Empire North German Confederation
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Württemberg
Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Alsace-Lorraine
Austrian Empire
1871 Partial
(1871–1918)
Unification of Germany (excluding Austria) after German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War. See also, the German Question regarding the competing ideas of "Greater Germany" and "Lesser Germany" (whether or not a united Germany should include the Austrian Empire). The matter was settled with the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, in which Prussia assumed leadership of the various minor German nation states.
Antillean Confederation Captaincy General of Cuba
Captaincy General of Puerto Rico
 Dominican Republic
1869–1870 No Proposed by Ramón Emeterio Betances.
North German Confederation  Kingdom of Prussia
 Kingdom of Saxony
 Grand Duchy of Hesse
 Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
 Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
 Duchy of Anhalt
 Duchy of Brunswick
 Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
 Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen
Various other small principalities and free cities
1866 Yes
(1867–1871)
Following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the annexation by Prussia of Austria's northern German ally states, Otto von Bismarck proposed to unify Prussia and its own German ally states into a single Federation. Consequently, the North German Constitution was adopted, with the provision that the southern German minor states could enter into the union when politically feasible.
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Sardinia
Papal States
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Part of Austrian Empire)
1848–1870 Yes Although the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861, the Italian Unification is generally considered to have been incomplete until after the integration of Venetia in 1866 and the capture of Rome in 1870. See Italian Unification and Expedition of the Thousand.
Dominion of Canada Province of Canada (Ontario and Quebec)
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
1867 Yes Canadian Confederation
Greater Republic of Central America El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Considered joining:
Costa Rica
 Guatemala
1895–1898 Yes
(1896–1898)
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece
United States of the Ionian Islands
1864 Yes Treaty of London (1864)
United Principalities Wallachia
Moldavia
1862 Yes Becomes Kingdom of Romania in 1881.
Confederate States of America South Carolina
Mississippi
Florida
Alabama
Georgia
Louisiana
Texas
Virginia
Arkansas
North Carolina
Tennessee
1861 Yes
(1861-1865)
American Civil War
United States of America United States of America
Republic of Texas
1845 Yes Texas annexation
Peru–Bolivian Confederation Bolivia
Peru
1829–1839 Yes
(1836–1839)
Gran Colombia Viceroyalty of New Granada
Venezuela
Free Province of Guayaquil
1819–1830 Yes
(1819–1830)
Scandinavia  Denmark
 Norway
 Sweden
Mid-19th century No
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland  Kingdom of Great Britain
 Kingdom of Ireland
1800 Yes
(1801–1922)

18th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Kingdom of Great Britain  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Scotland
1707 Yes Though having been ruled since 1603 in Personal Union when James I succeeded both the English and Scottish crowns both countries remained separate sovereign nations states until 1706 when the Treaty of Union unified them into a single entity.
United States of America Vermont Republic
United States of America
1777–1791 Yes
United States of America  Connecticut
 Delaware
 Georgia
 Maryland
 Massachusetts
 New Hampshire
 New Jersey
 New York
 North Carolina
 Pennsylvania
 Rhode Island
 South Carolina
 Virginia
1786-1788 Yes United States Constitution is ratified by the Thirteen Original Colonies, replacing the Articles of Confederation and thereby forming a Federal government, ending the individual sovereignty of the US States.

17th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Coat of arms of the January Uprising.svg Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Cossack Hetmanate
1658–1659 No Treaty of Hadiach

16th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite Commonwealth Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Tsardom of Russia
1574–1658 No
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1569 Yes
(1569–1795)
See Union of Lublin

15th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Jagiellonian Union Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
1440 Yes
(1440–1444)
See Union of Hungary and Poland

14th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Angevin Union Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)
1370 Yes
(1370–1382)
See Union of Hungary and Poland

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lynch, David (9 October 2014). "China's Long Game With Taiwan Just Got Longer". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  2. ^ Nylander, Johan (4 November 2014). "Taiwan president will deal with China but not at expense of sovereignty". CNN. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Chung, Lawrence (25 September 2014). "Ruling on Hong Kong poll a hammer blow to Taiwan reunification hopes". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  4. ^ "Basis for a Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem" (PDF). GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  5. ^ LAMU (3 September 2009). "An East African Federation: Big ambitions, big question-marks". The Economist. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  6. ^ Babones, Salvatore (17 October 2014). "2015: The Year of Korean Reunification?". The National Interest. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  7. ^ "Humala Invites Morales to Consider the Re-Unification of Peru and Bolivia". mercopress.com. June 22, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Humala Says Dreams of Peru-Bolivia Reunification". buenosairesherald.com. June 22, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Peru and Bolivia reach gas deal at 'bi-national cabinet'". perureports.com. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  10. ^ "The Forgotten Kingdom". FP. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  11. ^ "25 years after SIKKIM". Nepali Times. 23 March 2001. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  12. ^ Béla K. Király, Gunther Erich Rothenberg, War and Society in East Central Europe: Trianon and East Central Europe antecedents and repercussions, p. 114