List of protected areas of Tanzania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Parks Tanzania.svg

Protected areas in Tanzania are extremely varied, ranging from sea habitats over grasslands to the top of the Kilimanjaro, the tallest mountain in Africa. About a third of the country's total area is protected to a certain degree as a national park, game reserve, marine park, forest reserve or the like.

The following list gives an overview on the various protected areas in Tanzania including their predominant habitat, wildlife and flora. Especially remarkable species (endemics or those occurring in unusually large numbers) are set in bold.

National parks[edit]

Twenty two national parks together comprise an area of more than 99,306.5 square kilometres (38,342.5 sq mi). They are administered by the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA). Names like Arusha and Serengeti are well known, partly due to films about African wildlife.[1]

National Park Habitat Flora/Fauna Comments Picture
Arusha National Park
established:[2] 1960
renamed:[3] 1967
enlarged: 1973
area: 137 km²
dense forest, swamp, grassland, lakes, alpine highland, rocks
1,525–4,565 m
giraffe, Cape buffalo, elephant, zebra, dik-dik, hippopotamus, waterbuck, warthog, leopard, eland, spotted hyena, klipspringer, baboon, blue monkey, black-and-white colobus, greater flamingo, lesser flamingo, sacred ibis, Maccoa duck, Egyptian goose, turaco, Narina trogon, red-hot poker, giant lobelia 400 bird species Arusha-NatPark-Ngurdoto-Crater.jpg
Gombe Stream National Park
established:[4] 1943
gazetted:[5] 1968
area: 52 km²
miombo woodland, gallery forest
750–1,500 m
chimpanzee, olive baboon, red-tailed monkey, red colobus, diademed monkey, leopard, bushbuck, buffalo, waterbuck, barbet, palm-nut vulture, Forbes' plover, African fish eagle, Peters's twinspot Jane Goodall worked here Entrance to Gombe Stream National Park.jpg
Katavi National Park
established:[4] 1951
gazetted:[5] 1974
area: 4,471 km²
miombo woodland, river, lakes, floodplain
900 m
eland, sable antelope, roan antelope, hippopotamus, crocodile, lion, leopard, elephant, zebra, buffalo, topi, pelican, waterfowl more than 400 bird species Katavi sunset.jpg
Kilimanjaro National Park
established: 1910s,[4] 1921[6]
gazetted: 1973[5]
world heritage: 1987
area: 753 km²
montane forest, moorland, alpine desert
1,830–5,895 m
Abbott's duiker, grey duiker, red forest duiker, bushbuck, eland, elephant, leopard, buffalo, small antelope, blue monkey, black-and-white colobus, galago crassicaudatus, Kilimanjaro tree hyrax, Abbot's starling, raven, papilio sjoestedti, giant lobelia, moss, lichen highest freestanding mountain in the world, world's tallest summit that can be climbed without technical equipment. Kibo Mt. Kilimanjaro 6.JPG
Kitulo National Park
gazetted:[5] 2002
area: 412.9 km²
montane grassland at 2,600 m red-hot poker, aloe, protea, pelargonium geranium, giant lobelia, lilies, asters, Denham's bustard, blue swallow, mountain marsh widow, cisticola njombe, Kipengere seedeater, mountain reedbuck, eland, chameleon, lizards, frogs 350 species of vascular plants among which 45 varieties of terrestrial orchid, many bird species Kitulo National Park Entry.JPG
Lake Manyara National Park
established:[4] 1957
established:[5] 1960
area: 325 km²
enlarged: 2009
area: 644 km²
lake (2/3), forest, grassland
960–1,478 m
elephant, Cape buffalo, lion, hippopotamus, impala, giraffe, zebra, wildebeest, bushbuck, leopard, baboon, lesser flamingo, greater flamingo, white pelican, yellow-billed stork, white-breasted cormorant, palm-nut vulture, Ayres's hawk-eagle, Nile monitor, cobra greatest biomass density in the world; tree-climbing lions Lake Manyara.jpg
Mahale Mountains National Park
gazetted:[5] 14 June 1985
area: 1,613 km²
miombo forest, Kasoge (lowland) forest, montane rainforest
773–2,460 m
chimpanzee, red colobus, red-tailed monkey, blue monkey, giant squirrel, red-legged sun squirrel, brush-tailed porcupine, bushy-tailed mongoose, Angolan black-and-white colobus, Sharpe's grysbok, red-collared widowbird, speckled mousebird, crowned eagle, bee-eater, roller, crested guineafowl, Ross' turaco, white-browed robin-chat, red-winged starling, violet-backed starling, parrots savanna and forest adapted species, 90% of 193 fish species in the lake are endemic Mahale.jpg
Mikumi National Park
established: 1964
extended: 1975
area: 3,230 km²
floodplain, grassland, wooded savanna, miombo covered hills
550–1,257 m
eland, greater kudu, yellow baboon, vervet monkey, serval, sable antelope, hippopotamus, zebra, lion, wildebeest, impala, buffalo, giraffe, elephant, lilac-breasted roller, yellow-throated longclaw, bateleur eagle, waterbirds more than 400 bird species Mikumi panorama.jpg
Mount Meru (Tanzania)
See Arusha National Park
part of Arusha National Park Meru.jpg
Mkomazi National Park
established:[4] 2006
area: 3,254 km²
semi–arid savanna oryx, kudu, African wild dog, black rhinoceros, also big mammals famous for African wild dog and black rhinoceros Mkomazi National Park-3.jpg
Nyerere National Park
established:[4] 1922
gazetted:[5] 2019
area: 30,893 km²
miombo woodland, open wooded grassland, riverine swamps
80–1,300 m
African wild dog, elephant, cheetah, giraffe, hippopotamus, buffalo, crocodile, white rhinoceros, wildebeest, hyena largest national park in Tanzania; formerly the northern part of Selous Game Reserve TZ Selous Game Reserve Aeroview.JPG
Ruaha National Park
established:[4] 1910
gazetted:[5] 1964
area: 20,226 km²
miombo woodland, savanna
750–1,830 m
elephant, hornbill, kingfisher, sunbird, white stork, African wild dog, sable antelope, greater kudu, crested barbet, yellow-collared lovebird more than 400 bird species, high diversity of antelopes Ruaha National Park Panorama.jpg
Rubondo Island National Park
established:[5] 1977
area: 240 km²
humid forest, lakeside papyrus beds, open grassland
1,134 - 1,381 m
yellow-spotted otter, Nile perch, African fish eagle, hippopotamus, vervet monkey, genet, mongoose, bushbuck, sitatunga, grey parrot, malachite kingfisher, paradise flycatcher, herons, storks, spoonbills TANAPA Land Rover Defender.jpg
Saadani National Park
established:[4] 1969
gazetted:[5] 2002
area: 1,062 km²
coast, river, forest, savanna giraffe, buffalo, warthog, waterbuck, reedbuck, hartebeest, wildebeest, red forest duiker, greater kudu, eland, sable antelope, yellow baboon, vervet monkey, elephant, lion, leopard, spotted hyena, black-backed jackal, hippopotamus, crocodile, mangrove kingfisher, lesser flamingo, green turtle only sanctuary bordering the sea Saadani beach.jpg
Saanane Island National Park
established: 2013
gazetted: 2013
area: 2.18 km²
located within the city Saa Nane Island.jpg
Serengeti National Park
established:[4] 1929
gazetted:[5] 1951
world heritage: 1981
area: 14,763 km²
grassland plains, savanna, riverine forest, woodland;
920–1,850 m
wildebeest, zebra, lion, leopard, elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo, cheetah, gazelle, giraffe, spotted hyena, jackal, aardwolf, serval, agama lizard, rock hyrax, secretary bird, ostrich, black eagle most visited park in Tanzania; famous for massive migration of ungulates; more than 500 bird species Vultures and Marabou Stork in Serengeti.jpg
Tarangire National Park
established: 1970 [5]
area: 2,850 km²
grassland, savanna;
1,000–1,500 m
oryx, gerenuk, elephant, baobab, lesser kudu, African wild dog, lion kori bustard, ground hornbill, ostrich, yellow-collared lovebird, rufous-tailed weaver, ashy starling, dwarf mongoose, red-and-yellow barbet 550 bird varieties; largest concentration of wildlife behind Serengeti Tarangire-Natpark800600.jpg
Udzungwa Mountains National Park
established:[5] 1994
area: 1,990 km²
tropical rainforest, mountain forest, miombo woodland, grassland, steppe
250–2,600 m
rufous-winged sunbird, Udzungwa partridge, sanje crested mangabey, Iringa red colobus, rungwecerbus kipunji, matundu dwarf galago, mountain dwarf galago, reptiles and amphibians, hyrax, squirrel, also big mammals more than 400 bird species, 2,500 plant species; many endemics (25% of plant species, 5 primates); second-largest biodiversity in Africa Udzungwa Mountains-2.jpg

Game Reserves and other protected areas[edit]

Name Habitat Flora/Fauna Comments Picture
Ngorongoro Conservation Area
established: 1959
world heritage: 1979
area: 8,288 km²
grassland, lakes, swamp, woodland, heath, dense mountain forest
1,500–3,648 m
wildebeest, zebra, gazelle, black rhinoceros, lion, hartebeest, spotted hyena, hippopotamus, buffalo, elephant, mountain reedbuck, leopard, serval, ostrich, kori bustard, papilio sjoestedti many archeological and paleontological sites: Olduvai Gorge, Laetoli, Lake Ndutu Ngorongoro-Crater-animals.jpg
Selous Game Reserve
established:[7] 1922
world heritage: 1982
area: 44,800 km²
miombo woodland, open wooded grassland, riverine swamps
80–1,300 m
African wild dog, elephant, cheetah, giraffe, hippopotamus, buffalo, crocodile, white rhinoceros, largest game reserve in Africa; 350 bird species SelousSandRivers.jpg
Uwanda Game Reserve
established: 1971
area: 5,000 km²
floodplain, grassland, woodland
1,200 m
puku, zebra, topi, buffalo, elephant Katavi sunset.jpg

Marine Parks and Reserves[edit]

Name Habitat Flora/Fauna Comments Picture
Mafia Island Marine Park
established:[8] 1 July 1995
area: 882 km²
coral reefs, sea grass beds, mangroves, inter-tidal flats, coastal forest dugong, gold-striped fusilier, cigar wrasse, queen coris, goldbar wrasse, grouper, barracuda, rainbow runner, black-spotted ribbontail ray, blue-spotted ribbontail ray, eagle ray, manta ray, yellowfin tuna, giant trevally, mackerel, bonito, cobia, reef shark, green turtle, hawksbill turtle, Comoros lesser flying fox, duiker, bush pig, mongoose, elephant shrew Mafia Island, Tanzania.jpg
Mnazi Bay-Ruvumba Estuary Marine Park
established: 1 July 2000
area: 650 km²
mangroves, sand dunes, sea, coastal forest, river coral, whale, dolphin, crocodile, hippopotamus, terrapin more than 400 fish species View across Mnazi Bay small.jpg

Nature Forest Reserves[edit]

Nature Forest Reserves (NFRs) are a designation under the National Forest Act of Tanzania which offers the highest level of protection. NFRs are state-owned and are managed by the Tanzania Forest Services (TFS) Agency. No extraction of timber or animals is permitted in forest nature reserves, and activities are generally restricted to research, education, and nature-based tourism.[9]

Game Controlled Areas[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "TANAPA History". (in English and Swahili). Dodoma, Tanzania: Tanzania National Parks Authority. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2022. By September 2019, TANAPA has grown to 22 national parks, covering approximately 99,306.5 square Kilometers
  2. ^ as Ngurdoto Crater National Park
  3. ^ combined with Momela Lakes
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i as game reserve
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m as national park
  6. ^ as forest reserve
  7. ^ as game sanctuary
  8. ^ as marine park
  9. ^ "About Nature Forest Reserves". Tanzania Forest Services Agency. Accessed 23 March 2022. [1]