List of proxy wars

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This is a list of proxy wars. Major powers have been highlighted in bold.

A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. For example, the United States has been supporting the Syrian rebels (Opposition), whilst Russia has been supporting the Syrian government led by Bashar al-Assad. Here the Syrian rebels are a proxy for the United States, and the Syrian government a proxy for Russia.

Pre-World War I proxy wars[edit]

War Date Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Egyptian–Ottoman War 1839-1841 Egypt-aligned powers:
Flag of Egypt (1844-1867).svg Egypt
France Kingdom of the French

Spain Spain

Allied powers:
United Kingdom British Empire
Austrian Empire Austrian Empire
Russian Empire Russian Empire
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia

Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

Stalemate
Uruguayan Civil War 1839-1851 Colorados
Unitarian Party
 Empire of Brazil
Italian Legion
France France
 Great Britain
Blancos
 Argentine Confederation
Combatant 1 Won
Mahdist War 1881-1899  British Empire

 Belgium

Ethiopian Empire Ethiopian Empire
 Italy


Supported by:
Emirate of Jabal Shammar

Mahdist Sudan

Supported by:
 Ottoman Empire
 Russian Empire
France France

Combatant 1 Won
First Samoan Civil War 1886-1894 Samoa Tamasese
German Empire German Empire
Samoa Mata'afans

Supported by:
United States United States

Stalemate
Second Samoan Civil War 1898-1899 Samoa Mata'afans
German Empire German Empire
Samoa Samoa
United Kingdom United Kingdom
United States United States
Stalemate
Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03 1902–1903 United Kingdom United Kingdom[1]
 German Empire[1]
Italy Italy[1]

Supported by:
Spain Spain
Mexico Mexico
Belgium Belgium
Netherlands Netherlands

Venezuela Venezuela[1]

Supported by:
Argentina Argentina
United States United States of America[1]

Stalemate
Somaliland Campaign 1910-1920 Dervish State

Supported by:
 Ottoman Empire
 German Empire
 Ethiopian Empire (1913-1916)

 British Empire[2]
 Ethiopian Empire[2]

Supported by:
 Italian Empire[2]
Sultanate of Hobyo[2]

Combatant 2 Won

Inter-war period proxy wars[edit]

War Years Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Finnish Civil War 1918[3][4]  Finland[3][4]

White Guard[3][4]


Supported by:
 Germany[3][4]
Red Guards[3][4]
Supported by:
 Russian SFSR[3][4]
Combatant 1 Won[3][4]
Revolutions and interventions in Hungary 1918–1920  Czechoslovakia
Romania Kingdom of Romania
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
 First Czechoslovak Republic
 France
Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46) Kingdom of Hungary
 Kingdom of Italy
Hungarian Democratic Republic
Hungarian Republic of Councils
Slovak Soviet Republic

Supported by:
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR [5][6]

Combatant 1 Won
Turkish War of Independence 1919-1922  Greece
 Armenia
 France[7][8]
Ottoman Empire Istanbul Government[9]
Supported by:
 United Kingdom[7]
 Italy[10]
 Georgia
Turkey Ankara Government
Supported by:
 Russian SFSR[11]
 Italy (alleged)[10]
 Azerbaijan SSR
Bengali volunteers[12][13]
Afghan volunteers[14]
Combatant 2 Won[15][16][17]
Chinese Civil War 1929-1937, 1945-1949[18][19] KMT
NRA[18][19]
Supported by:
 Germany[18][19]
CPC[18][19]
PLA[18][19]
Supported by:
 Soviet Union[18][19]
Combatant 2 Won[18][19]
Chaco War 1932-1935  Bolivia
Supported by:
Standard Oil (alleged)[20]
 Paraguay
Supported by:
 Argentina[21][22][23][24]
Royal Dutch Shell (alleged)[20]
Combatant 2 Won
Spanish Civil War 1936-1939[25][26] Spain Nationalists
Supported by:
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
 Italy
 Portugal
Second Spanish Republic Republicans
Supported by:
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
French Third Republic
French Third Republic
International Brigades
 Mexico
Combatant 1 Won

Cold War proxy wars[edit]

Wars Years Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Results
Chinese Civil War 1944-1949[27] CPC
PLA[18][19]
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
KMT
NRA
Supported by:
 United States
Combatant 1 Won
Greek Civil War 1944-1949[28][29] Greek communists (Democratic Army of Greece, National Liberation Front, Greek People's Liberation Army, Communist Party of Greece)[28][29]
Supported by:
People's Socialist Republic of Albania Albania[28]
 Bulgaria[28]
 Yugoslavia[28]
 Greece[28][29]
Supported by:
 United Kingdom[28][29]
 United States[28][29]
Combatant 2 Won
Iran crisis of 1946 1945–1946 Azerbaijan People's Republic
Republic of Mahabad

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

Iran Imperial State of Iran

Supported by:
 United States

Combatant 2 Won
First Indochina War 1946–1954[30][31] Cambodia Khmer Issarak[32]
Laos Pathet Lao[33]
North Vietnam Viet Minh[30][31]
Supported by:
 China[30]
 Soviet Union[30]
 Polish People's Republic[34]
 East Germany[35][36]
 France[30][31]
South Vietnam State of Vietnam (1949–1954)[30][31]
Cambodia Cambodia (1953–1954)
 Laos (1953–1954)
Supported by:
 United States[30]
Combatant 1 Won[30][31]
Paraguayan Civil War 1947 Liberal Party
Febrerista Revolutionary Concentration
Hammer and sickle.svg Paraguayan Communist Party

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

Paraguay Paraguayan Government
Paraguay Military of Paraguay
Colorado Party

Supported by:
 United States
 Argentina

Combatant 2 Won
Malayan Emergency 1948–1960 Communist forces:
Malayan Communist Party

Supported by:
 Soviet Union[37]
China People Republic of China[38][39][40]
 Indonesia[39][40]
North Vietnam Viet Minh (-1954)
 North Vietnam (1954-)[41][42][43]

Anti-communist forces:
Commonwealth of Nations

Supported by:
 United States


 Thailand (Thai-Malay border)

Combatant 2 Won
Internal conflict in Myanmar 1948–present  Burma

Supported by:
 Israel
 Libya
 India
 Rwanda
 Malawi

Opposition forces

ABSDF
Arakan Army
DKBA-5
KNU

KIO

MNDAA
NDAA
SSAN
SSAS
TNLA
UWSP

...and others


Supported by:
 United States
 Thailand
 China
 Pakistan
 Vietnam
 Philippines
Taiwan Republic of China (1950–1961)[44]

Ongoing
Balochistan conflict 1948–present Baloch separatist groups

Supported by:
 India
 Soviet Union (until 1988)
Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (until 1990)
 Iraq (1970s)[45]
 Israel[46]


Sectarian groups
Jundallah[47][48]
Jaish ul-Adl
Jundallah (Pakistan)
al-Qaeda
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi[45]
Sipah-e-Sahaba[45]

 Pakistan

 Iran[49]

Ongoing
Arab–Israeli conflict 1948–present  Palestine

Supported by:
 Egypt (1948–78)
 Iraq
 Syria
 Italy (1956)
 Germany (1956)
 Cuba[50]
 Algeria
 Bangladesh[51]
 Soviet Union[52]
 Lebanon

 Israel

Supported by:
 USA
 United Kingdom
 France

Ongoing
Korean War 1950-1953[53][54][55][56][57][58]  North Korea[53][54][55][56][57][58]
 China[53][54][55][57][58]

Supported by:
 Bulgaria
 Czechoslovakia[59]
 Hungary
 Poland
 Romania[57]
 Soviet Union[53][57]
Mongolia
 South Korea[53][54][55][58]
 United Nations[54][55][58]
 United States[53][54][55][56][58]
Supported by:
 Australia[54][55][56]
 Belgium[54][55]
 Bolivia[55]
 Canada[54][55][56]
 Colombia[54]
Commonwealth of Nations[60]
Cuba Cuba[55]
 Denmark[61]
 Ethiopia[54][55]
 France[54][55][56]
 Greece[54]
 India (Medical support)[56]
 Israel[62]
 Italy[63]
 Luxembourg[54]
 Netherlands[54]
 New Zealand[54][56]
 Norway[64]
 Philippines[54]
 South Africa[54][55]
 Spain[65]
 Sweden[66]
  Switzerland[67]
 Thailand[54][55]
 Turkey[54][55][56]
 United Kingdom[54][56]
Stalemate[53][54][58]
Mau Mau Uprising 1952–1960 Mau Mau rebels[A]

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

 United Kingdom

Supported by:
 USA

Combatant 2 Won
Second Indochina War 1953-1975[68][69][70][71][72]  North Vietnam[68][69][70][71][72][73]
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Viet Cong[68][69][70][71][72][73]
Laos Pathet Lao
National United Front of Kampuchea:
Supported by:
People's Socialist Republic of Albania Albania[73][74]
 Bulgaria[73][74]
 Burma
 China[68][71][72][73]
 Cuba[73][74][75][76]
 Czechoslovakia[73][74]
 East Germany[73][74]
 Hungary[73][74]
 India[citation needed]
Mongolia Mongolia[73][74]
 North Korea[77]
 Poland[73][74]
 Romania[73][74]
 South Yemen[73][74]
 Soviet Union[68][71][72][73]
 Yugoslavia[73][74]
 Sweden[78][79]
 South Vietnam[68][69][70][71][72][73]
 United States[68][69][70][71][72][73]
 Laos[73]
Kingdom of Cambodia (1967–1970)
Khmer Republic (1970–1975)

Supported by:
 Argentina[73]
 Australia[68][71][73]
 Belgium[73]
 Brazil[73]
 Canada[73][80]
 Costa Rica[73]
 Denmark[73]
 Ecuador[73]
 France[73]
 Greece[73]
 Guatemala[73]
 Honduras[73]
 Iran[73]
 Italy[73]
 Japan[73]
 Liberia[73]
 Luxembourg[73]
 Malaysia[73]
 Morocco[73]
 Norway[73]
 Netherlands[73]
 New Zealand[68][71]
 Pakistan[73]
 Philippines[71][73]
 South Africa[73]
 South Korea[68][71][73]
 Spain[73]
  Switzerland[73]
 Taiwan[73]
 Thailand[68][71][73]
 Tunisia[73]
 Turkey[73]
 United Kingdom[73]
 Uruguay[73]
 Venezuela[73]
 West Germany[73]
Combatant 1 Won[68]
First Taiwan Strait Crisis 1954–1955 China People's Republic of China
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Taiwan Republic of China
United States United States
Stalemate
Algerian War 1954–1962 Algeria FLN (ALN)
Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg MNA
Flag of Parti communiste algérien.gif PCA
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 France
Supported by:
United States United States
Combatant 1 Won a political victory
Combatant 2 Won a military victory
First Sudanese Civil War 1955–1972  United Kingdom (1955-1956)
 Egypt (1955-1956)
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
(1955-1956)
Sudan Republic of the Sudan
(1956-1969)
Sudan Democratic Republic of the Sudan
(1969-1972)

Supported by:
 Soviet Union[81]

Southern Sudan Liberation Movement

Equatorial Corps (1955-1963)


Supported by:
 Ethiopia[82]
 Uganda[83]
 Israel[82][83][84]

Stalemate
Suez Crisis 1956–1957[85] Egypt Egypt[85]
Supported by:
 Soviet Union[85]
 West Germany
 Italy
 France[85]
 Israel[85]
 United Kingdom[85]

Territory unchanged. French and UK power in area weakened[85]
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1958 China People's Republic of China
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Taiwan Republic of China
United States United States
Stalemate
1958 Lebanon crisis 1958 Lebanon Lebanese Opposition:

Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Egypt Egypt

Lebanon Lebanese Government
 United States
Combatant 2 Wins
1959 Tibetan uprising 1959–1962[86]  People's Republic of China  Tibet

Supported by:
 Soviet Union[87]

 United States[88]
 Republic of India
Nepal Kingdom of Nepal[89]
 United Nations[90]
 Taiwan

Combatant 1 Won
Central American crisis 1960–1996[91] EGP[91]
FAR[91]
ORPA
PGT[91]
URNG[91]

FSLN

FMLN (CRM)
Nicaragua Nicaragua[92] (1979–90)


Supported by
 Soviet Union[93]
 Cuba[94]

 Mexico[95]


 Libya[96]

[97]

 Romania (before 1989)
 Greece
 Sweden[98][99]
 Costa Rica


 Bulgaria[100]


 China[101]

 Guatemala[91]
ESA[91]
White Hand[91]
and other paramilitary groups[91]

Nicaragua Somoza government

Contras (1981–90)
El Salvador Salvadoran military government


Supported by
 United States[91][102]
 Saudi Arabia
 Honduras
 Chile
 Argentina
 Panama
 Israel[103]
 Taiwan[104]
Combatant 1 Won
Congo Crisis 1960–1965 1960–62:

Democratic Republic of the Congo Stanleyville government


1964–65:
Simba and Kwilu rebels


Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 China
 Cuba
Egypt Egypt
Algeria FLN
Algeria Algeria
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo
Tanzania Tanzania
Flag of Burundi (1962-1966).svg Burundi

1960–63:

 Katanga
 South Kasai


1964–65:
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo

Supported by:
 United States
 Belgium[107]
France France
 Rhodesia and Nyasaland
 South Africa

Combatant 2 Won
Portuguese Colonial War 1960-1974[108]  Portugal[108]

Supported by:
 South Africa
 Rhodesia
 Malawi[109]
 Spain

FLEC[108]
FNLA[108]
FRELIMO[108]
MPLA[108]
PAIGC[108]
UNITA[108]
Supported by:
 China[108]
 Cuba[108]
 France[108]
 Soviet Union[108]
 United States[108]
 Zaire
 Algeria
 Tanzania
 Zambia
 Tunisia
 Senegal
 Guinea
Republic of the Congo Congo-Brazzaville
Libya Libya
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
Bulgaria Bulgaria
Liberia Liberia
Egypt Egypt
 India
 Brazil
Combatant 2 Won[74]
Xinjiang conflict 1960s–present ETPRP
(1969–1989)
URFET
(1969–1989)

Supported by:
Soviet Union Soviet Union (1969–1989)[110][111]
Mongolia Mongolian People's Republic (1960–1989)

People's Republic of China Ongoing
First Iraqi–Kurdish War 1961–1970 Republic of Iraq
Ba'athist Iraq Supported by:
Syria[112]
KDP

Supported by:
Iran Pahlavi Iran
 Israel[113]

Stalemate
Eritrean War of Independence 1961–1974 ELF
Supported by:
Libya Libya[114][115][116]
(until 1977)
 Cuba[114][117]
(until 1974)
 Syria[118][119]
 Iraq[120][121]
 Tunisia[122][123][124]
 Saudi Arabia[125][126]
 Somalia[127]
 Sudan[128]
Ethiopia Ethiopian Empire (until 1974)
Supported by:
 United States (until 1974)
[129][130][131][132][133]
 Israel (until 1974) [134][135]
Stalemate
1974–1991 Ethiopia Derg (1974–1987)
Ethiopia PDRE (1987–1991)
Supported by:
 Cuba[136][137][138][139] (1974–1989)[dubious ]
 Soviet Union[136][140][141][142] (1974–1990)
 South Yemen [134]
EPLF
TPLF

Supported by:
 China[143][144]
 Sudan[128]
Libya Libya[114][115][116]
(1977–1991)
 United States
(May 1991)[145]
 Somalia[127]
 Syria[118][119]

Combatant 2 Won
North Yemen Civil War 1962–1970  Yemen Arab Republic
Egypt[146]

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

Kingdom of Yemen
 Saudi Arabia[146]

Supported by:
 Jordan[147]
 United Kingdom[147]
 United States

Combatant 1 Won
Dhofar Rebellion 1962–1976 DLF (1962–1968)
PFLOAG (1968–1974)
NDFLOAG (1969–1971)
PFLO (1974–1976)

Supported by:
 China[148]
 USSR[148]
South Yemen[148]
 East Germany

 Oman[148]

Supported by:
 Iran[148]
 Abu Dhabi[148]
 Saudi Arabia[148]
 United Kingdom[148]
 Jordan[148]
 Egypt[148]
 Pakistan[148]
 UAE[148]
 United States

Combatant 2 Won
Sarawak Communist Insurgency 1962–1990 Communist forces:
North Kalimantan Communist Party[149]
  • Sarawak People's Guerilla Force (SPGF)[150]
  • North Kalimantan People's Army (NKPA)[150]

 Indonesia (1962–65) (troops aid)
Other support:
Brunei People's Party

  • North Kalimantan National Army (NKNA)

Supported by:
 China[150]
 Soviet Union

Anti-communist forces:
 United Kingdom[151]

 Malaysia

Supported by:
 Australia
 Brunei
 New Zealand
 United States


 Indonesia (after 1965) (Indo-Malay border)

Stalemate
Sand War 1963  Algeria

Supported by:
 Egypt[152]
 Cuba
 Soviet Union

 Morocco

Supported by:
 USA
 France

Stalemate
Aden Emergency 1963–1967 NLF
FLOSY

Supported by
Egypt Egypt
Yemen Yemen Arab Republic
 USSR

 United Kingdom

Supported by
 United States

Combatant 1 Won
Insurgency in Northeast India 1963–present ACF
Achik NLA
AMLF
ANLCA
Adivasi NLA
ANVC
APA
APLA
ATBR
ATBSF
ATF
ATPLO
In tpdf.gif ATTF
AYLF
BCF
BDFM
BKI
BMS
BMS
BNCT
BNLF
CKRF
DHD (until 2013)
DHDA
DJNA
GNLA
GTF
HALC
HNLC
HPCD
HULA
HuM
INF
IRF
KCP
KDF
KIA
KIF
KKK
KLA
KLNLF
KLO
KNF
KNLA
KPLT
KRA
KYKL
LAEF
MNPF

MULTA
NDFB
NLFB
NLFT
NSCN-IM
PLA
PLF-M
PRA
PREPAK
RJC
RNHPF
RNSF
SDFT
SPLA
STF
TATCF
TLOF
TMP
TNA
TNDTF
TRRB
TTACF
TTSF
UALA
UANF
UDKLF
UILA
UIRA
UKDA
UKLF
ULFA
UNLF
UPLF
ZPC
ZRA
ZRF
ZRV
ZUF


Supported by:
 Arab League

 India
 Bhutan
 Bangladesh
 Burma

Supported by:
 United States
 Soviet Union
 Iran

Ongoing
Rhodesian Bush War 1964–1979 Flag of ZANU-PF.svg ZANLA (ZANU)
Mozambique FRELIMO[153] (until 25 June 1975)
Mozambique Mozambique (from 25 June 1975)

Supported by:
 China[154]
 Libya
 Tanzania[155]
 Brazil


Zimbabwe African People's Union flag.png ZIPRA (ZAPU)[156]
African National Congress Flag.svg MK (ANC)[156]


Supported by:
 Soviet Union[154]
 Zambia
 Cuba[154]
 East Germany[154]


FROLIZI

Rhodesia Rhodesia
(until 1 June 1979)

Zimbabwe Rhodesia Zimbabwe Rhodesia
(from 1 June 1979)


Supported by:
South Africa South Africa
Portugal Portugal
(until 1974)

Stalemate
Dominican Civil War 1965 Dominican Republic Constitutionalists
Dominican Republic Dominican Revolutionary Party[157]

Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 Cuba

 Dominican Republic
 United States
Flag of the Organization of American States.svg Inter-American Peace Force
Combatant 2 Won
Chadian Civil War 1965–1979 Flag of Frolinat.svg FROLINAT
Chad GUNT
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

 Chad
 France

Supported by:
 United States

Combatant 1 Won
Communist insurgency in Thailand 1965–1983 Flag of the Communist Party of Thailand.svg Communist Party of Thailand
Thai United Patriotic Front

Supported by:
 North Vietnam (until 1976)
 Vietnam (from 1976)
 China (from 1971)
Flag of Laos.svg Pathet Lao [159][160]
 North Korea[160]
Flag of Democratic Kampuchea.svg Khmer Rouge (until 1978)[159]
 Soviet Union

 Thailand

 Taiwan (until July 1967)


Supported by:
 Malaysia
 United States[159]

Combatant 2 Won
Bolivian Campaign 1966–1967 Ejército de Liberación Nacional
 Cuba

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

 Bolivia
 United States
Combatant 2 Won
Korean DMZ Conflict (1966–1969) 1966–1969  North Korea

Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 China

South Korea
 United States
Stalemate
South African Border War 1966–1990 African nationalist forces:

PLAN (SWAPO)
SWANU


Supported by:
Cuba[162]
MPLA[163]
 Soviet Union[164]
 China[165]
 Yugoslavia[166][167]
 Bulgaria[168][169]
 Tanzania[170][171]
 Zambia[172]
 Libya[173]
 Kenya[174]
 Algeria[175]
 Guyana[176]
 Brazil

Anti-communist forces:

 South Africa

Supported by:
UNITA[177]
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Portugal (until 1975)

Stalemate
Nigerian Civil War 1967–1970  Nigeria

Supported by:
 United Kingdom
 Soviet Union
 United States
 Sudan
 Chad
 Niger
 Syria
 Saudi Arabia
 Algeria[178]
Bulgaria Bulgaria[179]

 Biafra

Supported by:
 South Africa
Portugal Portugal[180]
 France
 Spain[181][182]
 Tanzania[183][184][185]
Gabon Gabon
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast
 Zambia
 Rhodesia
 Haiti

Combatant 1 Won
Naxalite–Maoist insurgency 1967–present Naxalites:

Supported by:
 China[186]
 Pakistan[186]
 Mongolia
 Indonesia
 Afghanistan
 Algeria
 Bahrain
 Chad
 Comoros
 Djibouti
 Egypt
Federation of Arab Republics (1972-1977)
 Iraq
 Jordan
 Kuwait
 Lebanon
 Libya
 Mauritania
 Morocco
 North Yemen (1967-1990)
 Oman
 Qatar
 Palestine
 Saudi Arabia
 Somalia
 South Yemen (1967-1990)
 Sudan
 Syria
 Tunisia
 United Arab Emirates
 United Arab Republic (1967-1972)
 Western Sahara
 Yemen (from 1990)
Communist Party of Nepal—Maoist
New People's Army[187]
CIC (until 1977)

 India

Supported by:
 Bangladesh
 Bhutan
   Nepal
 Iran
Peshmerga


Right-wing paramilitary groups:
Salwa Judum
Ranvir Sena
Bajrang Dal

Ongoing
Years of Lead 1968–1982 Far-left terrorist groups:
Flag of the Brigate Rosse.svg Red Brigades
Front Line
October 22 Group
PAC
Continuous Struggle
PO-AO

Supported by:
 Soviet Union (alleged)

Italy Italian Government

Supported by:
 United States


Far-right terrorist groups:
ANazionale.svg National Vanguard
Black Order
NAR
Third Position
Supported by:
 United States (alleged)

Combatant 2 Won
Communist insurgency in Malaysia 1968–1989 Communist forces:
Malayan Communist Party[188]

Supported by:
 China[38][189]
 Soviet Union[189]

Anti-communist forces:
 Malaysia[190]
 Thailand[191][192]

Supported by:
 United Kingdom[193]
 Australia
 New Zealand[194]
 United States

Combatant 2 Won
Operation Condor 1968–1989 Opponents to the military juntas and right-wing governments in South America.

Supported by:
 Poland
 Spain

 Chile
 Argentina
 Brazil
 Bolivia
 Paraguay
 Uruguay

Supported by:
 United States
 Peru
 Ecuador
 Colombia
 Venezuela

Combatant 2 Won
Al-Wadiah War 1969  South Yemen

Supported by:
 Soviet Union

 Saudi Arabia

Supported by:
United States United States

Combatant 2 Won
Civil conflict in the Philippines 1969–present Communist forces:
Communist Party

RHB[195]


Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)[196]
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) (until 2014)
MRLO[197]
Ampatuan militias[198]


Supported by:
 Malaysia (to MNLF and MILF)[199][200]
 People's Republic of China (1969–1976,[201] alleged continued support[citation needed])
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1980s–2011)[202][203](to MNLF)[204][205][206][207][208]
 North Korea[209][210]
 Vietnam (1980s)[205]
 Cuba (Alleged support[citation needed])

Anti-communist forces:
 Philippines

Supported by:
 United States[212]

Ongoing
Yemenite War of 1972 1972  South Yemen
National Democratic Front

Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 Cuba
 East Germany
 Czechoslovakia
 Libya

 North Yemen

Supported by:
 Saudi Arabia
 Jordan
United States United States
 Republic of China
 United Kingdom
 West Germany

Stalemate
Angolan Civil War 1974–2002 Angola MPLA
SWAPO
MK
State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC)

Supported by:
 Soviet Union[213]
 Cuba
 Tanzania[214]
Mozambique Mozambique[215]
 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic[216]
 Polish People's Republic
 Yugoslavia
 People's Republic of Bulgaria[217]
 Guyana[176]
 Portugal[218]
Romania (until 1989)
 India[216]
 North Korea
 Brazil

UNITA
FNLA
FLEC

Supported by:
 United States[219]
 People's Republic of China[219]
 South Africa
 Zambia[220]
 Morocco[221]
 Zaire
 Egypt
 France
 Belgium
 Burkina Faso (from 1987)
 Israel
 United Kingdom
 Rhodesia (until 1979)
 South Korea

Combatant 1 Won
Ethiopian Civil War 1974-1991 Flag of Ethiopia (1987–1991).svg People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Supported by:
 Soviet Union[222]
[136][140][141][142][223][224]
 North Korea
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
 South Yemen[222]
 Tanzania
 East Germany (until 1990)[222][225][226]
 Bulgaria
 Cuba (1987–1991)[227]

Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front

Supported by:
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 West Germany (until 1990)
 Germany (from 1990)
 Saudi Arabia
 Israel
 North Yemen

Combatant 2 Won
Lebanese Civil War 1975–1990 Lebanon LNM (until 1982)
Lebanon Jammoul (from 1982)
Palestine Liberation Organization PLO

Supported by:
 Iraq
 Libya
 Algeria


Amal Movement


Hezbollah
(from 1985)
 Iran (From 1980, mainly IRGC paramilitary units)


Supported by:
 North Korea


Islamic Unification Movement (from 1982)


 Syria

Forces Libanaises Flag.svg LF
Lebanesearmyfirstflag.png AFL (until 1977)
SLA (from 1976)
 Israel (from 1978)

Tigers Militia (until 1980)


Marada Brigades (left LF in 1978; aligned with Syria)


 Lebanon
 United Nations UNIFIL (from 1978)
Multinational Force in Lebanon (1982–1984)
 United States
 France


Arab Deterrent Force (1976–1987)
 Syria (1976, and from 1983)


Neutral Parties: Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Iraqi Kurdistan Kurds

Stalemate
Western Sahara War 1975–1991 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Polisario Front

Supported by:
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
 Algeria[228]
 Soviet Union

 Morocco

Supported by:
 United States
 Saudi Arabia
 Mauritania
 France

Stalemate
Indonesian occupation of East Timor 1975–1999  East Timor (CNRM, later CNRT)

Supported by:
 Portugal
 Soviet Union
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
Free Aceh Movement
 China

 Indonesia

Supported by:
 United States
 Australia
 United Kingdom
 Canada
 Israel[229]

Combatant 2 Won
Cabinda War 1975–present  Angola

Supported by:
 Cuba
 East Germany (until 1989)
 Soviet Union (until 1989)[230][231]
 Brazil

FLEC

Supported by:
 France[232]
 Zaire[233]
 Belgium[234]
World League for Freedom and Democracy logo.jpg World League for Freedom and Democracy[234]
 China (alleged)

Ongoing
Insurgency in Laos 1975–present Laos Laos

Supported by:
Vietnam Vietnam
 North Vietnam (to 1976)
 Soviet Union (to 1978)

Hmong insurgents

Ethnic Liberation Organization of Laos
(1984–)
United Front for the Liberation of Laos (1980–)


Laos Royal Lao Democratic Government (1982)


Chao Fa (to 1984)
Lao National Liberation Front
Lao United Independence Front
Free Democratic Lao National Salvation Force
Cambodia National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (1979-1983: limited involv.)


Supported by:
China China (PRC) (to 1988)
[235]
Cambodia Democratic Kampuchea (to 1979)
Khmer Rouge (1980 to 1981)
Party of Democratic Kampuchea (1981 to 1990)
Thailand Thailand (Rightists: early to mid-1980s) (Hmong: to 1990)
United States United States (Hmong: 1990)
Neo Hom (support. 1981-)[236][237]
Laos Royal Lao Government in Exile
Various Hmong exiles

Ongoing
Civil conflict in Turkey 1976–present TAK
TKP/ML-TİKKO
MKP-HKO-PHG
Maoist Party
Maoist Party Centre
THKO
Devrimci Yol
Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front

Supported by:
 Soviet Union[238][239]
 China
ASALA[240] (1970s–1988)
 Syria[238][241][242]
 Greece[243][244]
 Cyprus[238]
 Iran[238][245][246]
Iraq[247]
Libya[248]

 Turkey

Supported by:
 NATO
 European Union
 USA
 United Kingdom

Ongoing
Shaba I 1977 State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC)

Supported by:
Angola Angola
 Cuba
 Soviet Union

 Zaire
Supported by:
 United States[249]
 China[250]
 Sudan[250]
 Morocco
 Egypt
 France
 Belgium
Combatant 2 Won
Ogaden War 1977–1978 Ethiopia

Supported by:
 Cuba
 Soviet Union
 South Yemen
 North Korea
 East Germany

Somalia Somalia
WSLF

Supported by:
 China
 Egypt
Romania Socialist Republic of Romania

Combatant 1 Won
Cambodian-Vietnamese War 1977-1991  Vietnam (VPA)
KUFNS
People's Republic of Kampuchea (KPRAF) (after 10 January 1979)
State of Cambodia (CPAF) (1989)

Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 Laos

Democratic Kampuchea (RAK)

Supported by:
 China


Post invasion:
CGDK:


Supported by:
 China
 United States(non-combat support)
 United Kingdom(non-combat support)


Spillover conflict:
 Thailand (border clashes)

Combatant 1 Won
Mozambican Civil War 1977-1992 Mozambique FRELIMO

Supported by:
 Malawi[109]
 Brazil
 Zimbabwe (from 1980)
 Tanzania
 Soviet Union
 Bulgaria
 Cuba

Flag of RENAMO (1st version).png RENAMO

Supported by:
 Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
 South Africa[251]
 Malawi[109]
 United States
 Rhodesia

Combatant 1 Won
Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict 1977–1997 Bangladesh Bangladesh Shanti Bahini


Supported by:
 India[252][253]

Stalemate
Shaba II 1978 State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC)

Supported by
Angola Angola
 Cuba (alleged)
 Soviet Union (alleged)

 Zaire

Supported by:
 France
 Belgium
 United States

Combatant 2 Won
Uganda–Tanzania War 1978–1979  Tanzania
Uganda UNLA
Mozambique Mozambique[254]
 Uganda
 Libya
State of Palestine PLO[254][255]
Combatant 1 Won
NDF Rebellion 1978–1982 Yemeni Socialist Party Flag.svg NDF

Supported by:
 South Yemen
 Libya
 Soviet Union

 North Yemen

Flag of Jihad.svg Islamic Front


Supported by:
 United States
 Saudi Arabia
 Taiwan

Combatant 2 Won
Chadian–Libyan conflict 1978–1987 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya

Chad Chadian rebels


Supported by:
 Soviet Union

Chad Chad

 France
 Zaire[257]


Supported by:
 United States[258]
 Egypt[256]
 Sudan[256]

Combatant 2 Won
Yemenite War of 1979 1979  South Yemen

National Democratic Front


Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 Cuba
 East Germany
 Czechoslovakia
 Libya

 North Yemen

Supported by:
 Saudi Arabia
 Jordan
United States United States
 Taiwan
 Iraq
 Egypt

Stalemate
Afghan-Soviet War 1979–1989 Soviet Union Soviet Union

Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan


Supported by:
 India[259][260]
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya

Sunni Mujahideen:

Supported by:
 Pakistan[261]
 United States[262][263][264][265]
 United Kingdom[264][266][267]
 China[268]
 Saudi Arabia[263][264][269][270]
 West Germany[271][272]
 United Kingdom[272]
 Turkey[273]
 Egypt[274]
 France[272]
 Israel[275]
 Japan[275]


Shia Mujahedeen:


Supported by:
 Iran[261]


Small Maoist groups:

Combatant 2 Won
Sino-Vietnamese War 1979  Vietnam

Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 Laos

 People's Republic of China Stalemate
Internal conflict in Peru 1980–present Shining Path


MRTA (until 1997)


Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 Cuba [276]
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya[276]

Peru Peruvian Armed Forces

Peru Rondas Campesinas


Supported by:
 United States
 Japan

Ongoing
Ethiopian–Somali Border War 1982 Ethiopia

Somali rebels
Supported by:
 Cuba[277]
 South Yemen[277]
 North Korea[277]

Somalia Somalia

Supported by:
 United States[277][278]

Combatant 2 Won
Sri Lankan Civil War 1983–2009 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Supported by:
 Libya
 India (until 1987) [279][280][281][282]

 Sri Lanka
 India
 Maldives

Supported by:
 United Nations
 Taiwan

Combatant 2 Won
Thai–Laotian Border War 1987–1988  Laos
 Vietnam

Supported by
Soviet Union Soviet Union

 Thailand

Supported by
United States United States

Stalemate
Afghan Civil War 1989–1992 Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

Supported by
Soviet Union Soviet Union

Mujahideen

Supported by
United States United States
 Pakistan
 China[283]
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Combatant 2 Won

Modern and ongoing proxy wars[edit]

War Dates Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Naxalite–Maoist insurgency[citation needed] 1967–present  India

Supported by:
 Bangladesh
 Bhutan
   Nepal
 Iran
 Kurdistan


Right-wing paramilitary groups:
Salwa Judum
Ranvir Sena
Bajrang Dal

Naxalites:

Supported by:
 China[186]
 Pakistan[186]
 Mongolia
 Indonesia
 Afghanistan
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Uzbekistan
 Turkmenistan
 Tajikistan
 Algeria
 Bahrain
 Chad
 Comoros
 Djibouti
 Egypt
 Eritrea
 Iraq
 Jordan
 Kuwait
 Lebanon
 Libya
 Mauritania
 Morocco
 Oman
 Qatar
 Palestine
 Saudi Arabia
 Somalia
 Somaliland
 Sudan
 Syria
 Tunisia
 United Arab Emirates
 Western Sahara
 Yemen
Communist Party of Nepal—Maoist
New People's Army[187]

Ongoing
Angolan Civil War 1974–2002 UNITA
FNLA
FLEC

Supported by:
 United States[219]
 People's Republic of China[219]
 Zambia[220]
 Morocco[221]
 Zaire (until 1997)
 Egypt
 France
 Belgium
 Burkina Faso (from 1987)
 Israel
 United Kingdom
 South Korea

Angola MPLA
SWAPO
MK
State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC)

Supported by:
 Cuba
 Tanzania[214]
 Yugoslavia (until 1992)
 Guyana[176]
 Portugal[218]
 India[216]
 North Korea
 Kazakhstan (from 1996)[216]
 Slovakia (from 1993)[216]
 Brazil
 Russia

Combatant 2 Won
Indonesian occupation of East Timor[citation needed] 1975–1999  Indonesia

Supported by:
 United States
 Australia
 United Kingdom
 Canada
 Israel[229]

 East Timor (CNRM, later CNRT)

Supported by:
 Portugal
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
Free Aceh Movement
 Russia
 China

Combatant 1 Won
Cabinda War 1975–present FLEC

Supported by:
 France[232]
 Zaire[233]
 Belgium[234]
World League for Freedom and Democracy logo.jpg World League for Freedom and Democracy[234]
 China (alleged)

 Angola

Supported by:
UNITA[284]
 Brazil

Ongoing
Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict 1977–1997 Bangladesh Bangladesh Shanti Bahini

Supported by:
 India[252][253]

Stalemate
Mozambican Civil War 1977–1992 Mozambique FRELIMO
 Zimbabwe (from 1980)
 Tanzania

Supported by:
 Malawi[109]
 Brazil

RENAMO

Supported by:
 Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
 South Africa[251]
 Malawi[109]

Stalemate
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict[citation needed] 1988–present  Armenia
 Nagorno-Karabakh
Supported by:
 Russia[285][286]
 Greece[287][288]
 Azerbaijan
Supported by:
 Pakistan[289][290]
 Kyrgyzstan [291]
 Turkey[292][293][294]
 Israel[295][296][297]
 Ukraine[298]
Ongoing
Afghan Civil War 1989–1992 Mujahideen

Supported by
 United States
 Pakistan
 China
 Saudi Arabia

Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

Supported by
Russia Russia

Combatant 1 Won
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir 1989–present  India

 Afghanistan


Supported by:
 United States
 Iran
 Russia

Flag of Jihad.svg Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami

Flag of Jihad.svg Lashkar-e-Taiba
Jaishi-e-Mohammed.svg Jaish-e-Mohammed
Flag of Jihad.svg Hizbul Mujahideen
Harakat flag.png Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
Al-badr flag.png Al-Badr
Kashmir independent.svg Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
Supported by:
 Pakistan[299]
 China
Afghanistan Taliban[300]
 Saudi Arabia[301]
Flag of Jihad.svg al-Qaeda[300]

Ongoing
Georgian-Ossetian conflict 1989–present  Georgia
Supported by:
 NATO
 South Ossetia
Supported by:
 Russia
Ongoing
Abkhaz–Georgian conflict 1989–present  Georgia
Supported by:
 NATO
 Abkhazia
Supported by:
 Russia
 Turkey [302]
Ongoing
Georgian Civil War 1991–1993 Georgia (country) Gamsakhurdia's government in exile

Supported by:
 NATO

Georgia (country) State Council

South Ossetian Separatists
Abkhazia Abkhaz separatists
Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus
 Russia

Combatant 2 Won
Yugoslav Wars[citation needed] 1991-2001 Slovenia Slovenia
 Bosnia
 NATO
Supported by:
 Turkey [303]
 Iran [304][305]
 Saudi Arabia [303]

 Croatia
Flag of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia.svg Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Supported by:
 Albania


National Liberation Army

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia SFR Yugoslavia (before 1992)
 FR Yugoslavia (from 1992)
 Republika Srpska
AP Western Bosnia
Republic of Serbian Krajina
Supported by:
 Russia[306][307]
 Greece [308]

 Macedonia
Supported by:
 Ukraine[309][310][311](main arms supply)
 Bulgaria
 FR Yugoslavia

Combatant 1 Won
Tajikistani Civil War[citation needed] 1992–1997 United Tajik Opposition

Afghanistan Islamic State of Afghanistan
Afghanistan Taliban factions2[313]
Supported by:
al-Qaeda[314]
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRP)
 Pakistan
 Iran

 Tajikistan

Supported by:
 Russia
 Uzbekistan[315]
 Kyrgyzstan

Stalemate
Second Afar insurgency 1995–present ARDUF
Supported by:
 Eritrea
RSADO
DMLEK
EPLF
ESF
SPDM
Supported by:
 Ethiopia
Ongoing
Allied Democratic Forces insurgency 1995–present  Uganda

 DR Congo
United Nations UNF Intervention Brigade

Supported by:
 United States[316]

ADF

Supported by:
LRA[317]
 Sudan[318]

Ongoing
First Congo War 1996–1997  Zaire
UNITA[319]
Rwanda ALiR
Interahamwe
Supported by:
 France[320]
Democratic Republic of the Congo AFDL
Uganda Uganda
Rwanda Rwanda[321]

Supported by:
 United States[322]
Burundi Burundi[323]
 Angola[323]
Mai-Mai[321]
Bahunde[321]
Nande[321]
South Sudan SPLA[321]

Combatant 2 Won
Nepalese Civil War 1996-2006 Nepal Kingdom of Nepal
Supported by:
 India
 United States
 European Union
Flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).svg Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
Supported by:
 Pakistan
 China
 North Korea
 Arab League
 India
 Indonesia
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
Combatant 2 Won
Second Republic of the Congo Civil War 1997–1999 Republic of the Congo Armed Forces of the Republic of the Congo (to October 1997)
Cocoye Militia
Ninja Militia
Nsiloulou Militia
 Democratic Republic of the Congo[324][325]

Supported by:
UNITA (alleged)[326]

Republic of the Congo Armed Forces of the Republic of the Congo (from October 1997)
Cobra Militia
Rwanda Rwandan Hutu Militia
 Angola
 Chad[325]

Supported by:
 France[327]
 Cuba (alleged)[326]
Mobutu Sese Seko Loyalists (alleged)[324]

Combatant 2 Won
Guinea-Bissau Civil War 1998–1999  Guinea-Bissau
 Senegal[328]
 Guinea[329]
Supported by:
 France[330]
 Portugal
Guinea-Bissau Military rebels
Supported by:
Casamance MFDC[329]
Combatant 2 Won
First Ivorian Civil War 2002-2007  France
United Nations UNOIC
 Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast Young Patriots of Abidjan militia
Liberia Liberian mercenaries
Supported by:
 Russia[331]
 Bulgaria [332]
 Belarus
Stalemate
War in Darfur 2003–present SRF[note 1]

SARC
Supported by:
 South Sudan[335]
 Chad (2005-2010)
 Eritrea (until 2008)
Libya (until 2011)[336]
 USA
 Uganda (until 2015)[337]

Sudan Government of Sudan

Supported by:
 China
 Iran (until 2016)
 Russia

Ongoing
Paraguayan People's Army insurgency 2005–present  Paraguay

Supported by:
 United States[339]
 Colombia[339]

Paraguayan People's Army (EPP)
Armed Peasant Association (ACA)

[340]


Supported by:
FARC[341]
Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (alleged)[342]

Ongoing
Iraqi insurgency 2011–2014  Iraq

 Iraqi Kurdistan


Supported by:
 United States

Shi'a factions:

Badr Brigades Soldiers of Heaven
Other militias


Supported by:
 Iran[343][344][345]

Stalemate
Yemeni Crisis (part of Iran-Saudi Arabia proxy conflicts) 2011–present Yemen Yemen (Hadi government)
Saudi Arabia Saudi-led coalition
Supported by:

 Somalia[346]
 United States[347][348]
 Eritrea[349]
 United Kingdom[350][351]
 France[352][353][354]
 Canada[355]
 Italy[356]
 Turkey[357]

Yemen Yemen (Revolutionary Committee)
Supported by:

 Iran[358]
 Iraq
 China
 North Korea[359][360]
 Russia[361][362]
 Syria[363]

Ongoing
Syrian Civil War[364][365] 2011–present Syrian opposition
Supported by:
 Saudi Arabia
 Qatar[366]
 United States[366]
 Turkey
 Libya
 European Union
 Israel
 Egypt (before 2013)
 France
 United Kingdom
 Jordan
 Italy
 Netherlands
 Canada
 Germany
 United Arab Emirates
 Syria
Supported by:
 Armenia[367][368]
 Iran[366][367]
 Russia[369][370][371]
 Iraq
 China[367][372][373][374]
 North Korea[375][376][377]
 Cuba[378]
 Venezuela[379][380][381][382][383]
 Algeria[384]
 Belarus[385]
 Angola[386]
 Egypt (from 2015)[367][387][388]
 Serbia[367]

 Rojava
Supported by:
 United States
 Russia
 Iraqi Kurdistan[389]
 France
 Finland
 Czech Republic
 Germany

Ongoing
Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon 2012–present  Lebanon

Supported by:
 Australia[390]
 Canada[391]
 Cyprus[392]
 Czech Republic[393]
 France[394]
 Germany[395]
 Italy[396]
 Jordan[397]
 Netherlands[398]
 Saudi Arabia[394]
 South Korea[399]
 Spain[400]
 Turkey[401]
 United Kingdom[402][403]
 United States[394]

Pro-Syrian government militias:

Supported by:
 Syria[413]
 Iran[414]
 Russia[415]


Other militias:

Ongoing
Ukrainian crisis 2013–present  Ukraine
Supported by:
 NATO
 European Union
 United States

 United Kingdom
 Georgia[419]
 Poland[420]
 France[421]
 Croatia[422]
 Sweden[423]

 Russia

 Donetsk People's Republic
 Luhansk People's Republic
Odessa People's Republic
Kharkiv People's Republic
Supported by:
 South Ossetia[424]