List of psychoactive plants

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Salvia divinorum, a dissociative hallucinogenic sage

A list of plants that are used as psychoactive drugs. Some of them have been used entheogenically for millennia. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain.


Cannabis plant

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychoactive plant that is often used medically and recreationally. The psychoactive substance in Cannabis, THC, contains no nitrogen, unlike many (but not all) other psychoactive substances (other substances without nitrogens include kavalactones and salvinorins, from Kava and salvia divinorum, respectively), and is not an indole, tryptamine, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a dissociative drug. Cannabis plants tend to vary, with different strains producing dynamic balances of cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc.) yielding markedly different effects. Popular strains are often hybrids of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica.

Some universities and research firms currently study the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many jurisdictions have laws regulating or prohibiting the sale and use of medical and recreational cannabis.


DMT Molecule in 2D
DMT Molecule in 3D

Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), vaporized, or drank with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It cannot simply be eaten as it is not orally active without an MAOI and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be vaporized.


Species, Alkaloid content, where given, refers to dried material


  • Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.[1]




Fabaceae (Leguminosae)[edit]

1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[46] 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[43] 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Bark,[43] 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine, Bark,[43] Bufotenin, plant,[43] beans,[42] Bufotenin N-oxide, Fruit,[43] beans,[42] N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-oxide, Fruit[43][47]

Subfamily Caesalpinioideae[edit]






Poaceae (Gramineae)[edit]

Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep.[68]

None of the above alkaloids are said to have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica.[70]





Species, Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried)


Harmaline, a Beta-carboline

Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own. β-carboline is a benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist and can therefore have convulsive, anxiogenic and memory enhancing effects.[94]



























Plants containing other psychoactive substances[edit]

Substance Plant Comment
Asarone Acorus calamus Asarone
Yohimbine Alchornea floribunda Yohimbine
Arecoline Areca catechu Areca nut or betel
Unknown Stachelmohn.JPG

Argemone mexicana

Used by Chinese residents of Mexico during the early 20th century as a legal substitute for opium and currently smoked as a marijuana substitute.


Starr 050107-2974 Argyreia nervosa.jpg

Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose)

Seeds contain high amounts of ergine (also known as LSA, lysergamide, or lysergic acid amide), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.
Thujone Artemisia absinthium Additive to absinthe. Also called "wormwood"
Unknown Asiminia TrilobaL. Identical alkaloid to morphine[104]
Tropane alkaloids Atropa belladonna Deadly nightshade
Tropane alkaloids Brugmansia Angel's trumpets
Unknown Calea zacatechichi cutting.jpg

Calea zacatechichi

Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent. Its psychedelic properties do not become apparent until the user is asleep. Reports describe rituals that involve drinking it as a tea to induce divinatory or lucid dreams due to its properties as an oneirogen.[105]
Caffeine Camellia sinensis Tea leaves, tea, native to Asia


Catha edulis.jpg

Catha edulis

Vincristine Catharanthus roseus Catharanthus roseus is (perhaps unpleasantly) "hallucinogenic."[107]
Unknown Cestrum nocturnum Night-blooming jasmine
Caffeine Coffea arabica Coffee beans, coffee, native to Africa
Caffeine Cola Cola or kola nut, traditional additive to cola, native to Africa
Unknown Coleus-1.jpg


Bulbocapnine skeletal.svg


Corydalis ambigua.jpg

Corydalis solida, cava

Bulbocapnine, Nantenine, Tetrahydropalmatine
Tropane alkaloids Datura Thorn apple, devil's trumpets, loco weed, Jimson weed
Cytisine Dermatophyllum Mescal bean
Unknown Desfontainia spinosa Causes visions[108]
Nicotine Duboisia hopwoodii Pituri
Unknown Entada rheedii African dream herb
Ephedrine Ephedra sinica Ephedra
Cocaine Erythroxylum coca Coca. Widely used illegal stimulant, produces hallucination in overdose, native to South America
Unknown Fittonia albivenis Nerve or mosaic plant, said to produce vision of eyeballs


Galbulimima belgraveana Galbulimima belgraveana is rich in alkaloids and twenty-eight alkaloids have been isolated including himbacine.


Glaucium flavum03.jpg

Glaucium flavum

Unknown Heimia myrtifolia Auditory
Unknown Heimia salicifolia Auditory[109]
Lobeline, Nicotine Hippobroma longiflora Star of Bethlehem
Hyperforin Hypericum perforatum Saint John's wort
Tropane alkaloids Hyoscyamus Henbane
Caffeine, Theobromine, Dimethylxanthines Ilex guayusa Ilex guayusa is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca. According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.
Ergine Ipomoea violacea.jpg

Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea

Ergine in seeds; up to 0.12% total[110]
Unknown Justicia pectoralis Unknown
Lactucarium Lactuca virosa - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-213.jpg

Lactuca virosa



Lagochilus inebrians Lagochilin is thought to be responsible for the sedative, hypotensive and hemostatic effects of this plant.


Old Rimu in Kaitoke Park.jpg

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

Unknown Rollinia mucosa Rollinia mucosa is said to be narcotic [104]
Leonurine structure.png


Leonotis leonurus flower.jpg

Leonotis leonurus

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Nicotine[111] Leucas aspera plant.jpg
Leucas aspera
Leonurine structure.png


Leonotis nepetifolia1.jpg

Leonotis nepetifolia

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Lobeline Lobelia inflata Indian tobacco
Unknown Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Comparison 4400px.jpg

Magnolia virginiana

Tropane alkaloids Mandragora officinarum Mandrake
Ergine Some Mirabilis spp. Possibly contains ergine[citation needed]
Mitragynine Mitragyna speciosa Kratom
Myristicin Myristica fragrans Nutmeg
Aporphine Nelumbo nucifera Sacred lotus
Nepetalactone Nepeta cataria Catnip
Nicotine Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco. Can cause hallucination in very large doses

Aporphine, Apomorphine

Nymphaea caerulea.jpg

Nymphaea caerulea

Blue lotus or lily. Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed]

These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer's Odyssey.

Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a "divine" essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed]

Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties.

Heliamine Pachycereus pringlei Largest cactus in the world. Heliamine bears some similarities to mescaline
Ginsenosides Panax Ginseng
Morphine Papaver somniferum Opium. Widely used analgesic, native to the Old World
Unknown Phytolacca americanaL. Narcotic and toxic when root is consumed.[104]
Yohimbine Pausinystalia johimbe Yohimbe
Unknown Pedicularis densiflora Indian warrior
Kavalactone General Structure.PNG


Starr 040318-0058 Piper methysticum.jpg

Piper methysticum

Ergine Rivea corymbosa Seeds contain ergine, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03%[113]
Salvinorin A structure.svg

Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum - Herba de Maria.jpg

Salvia divinorum

Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[114]
Mesembrine Sceletium tortuosum Kanna
Baicalein Scutellaria Skullcaps
Unknown Silene capensis (flowering).jpg

Silene capensis

Produces vivid dreams after smoking.
Unknown Tagetes lemmonii flower.jpg

Tagetes lucida

Anethole, Chavicol, Coumarin, Estragole, Isorhamnetin, Methyleugenol, Quercitin



Tabernanthe iboga

Ibogaine in root bark[115]


Tabernanthe orientalis

Ibogaine in root leaves[115]
Voacangine Crape Jasmine.jpg

Tabernaemontana divaricata

Voacangine is similar to ibogaine. It potentiated effect of barbituarates.


Tabernanthe pubescens

Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[115]


Tabernaemontana sp.

Theobromine Theobroma cacao Cocoa or cacao bean, chocolate, native to the Americas


Confederate Jasmine, Star Jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides).jpg

Trachelospermum jasminoides

Ibogaine, coronaridine, voacangine, apparicine, conoflorine, and 19-epi-voacangarine[116][117]
Damianin Tunera diffusa 2.jpg

Turnera diffusa

Actinidine Valeriana officinalis Valerian
Vincamine Vinca minor Vincamine
Voacangine Voacanga africana Voacangine is similar to ibogaine, also contains voacamine and small amount of ibogaine
Unknown Zornia latifolia Zornia latifolia is mentioned in Food of the Gods as "an hallucinogenic substitute for cannabis". It is nicknamed Maconha brava because locals use it as a cannabis substitute.

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  • Al Zarouni, Yousif (2015). The Effects of Khat (Catha Edulis). London: Yousif Al Zarouni.

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