List of punishments for murder in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Murder, as defined in common law countries, is the unlawful killing of another human being with intent (or malice aforethought), and generally this state of mind distinguishes murder from other forms of unlawful homicide (such as manslaughter). As the loss of a human being inflicts an enormous amount of grief for individuals close to the victim, as well as the fact that the commission of a murder permanently deprives the victim of their existence, most societies have considered it a very serious crime deserving of the harshest punishment available. Typically a convicted murder suspect is given a life sentence or even the death penalty for such an act. A person who commits murder is called a murderer, and the penalties, as outlined below, vary from state to state.

Federal[edit]

Civilian[edit]

Source:[1]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second degree murder Life without parole or any other term

(There is no federal parole for murder, U.S. sentencing guidelines offense level 38: 19–25 years with clean record, 30–life with serious past offenses)

Second degree murder by an inmate, even escaped, serving a life sentence Life Imprisonment without parole
First degree murder Death penalty or life imprisonment without parole

Military[edit]

Source:[2]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Murder under UCMJ Article 118 Clause (2) or (3) (Second Degree Murder) Any legal punishment (other than death) as directed by the court-martial
Murder under UCMJ Article 118 Clause (1) or (4) (First Degree Murder) Death penalty or life imprisonment

District of Columbia[edit]

Source:[3][4]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second degree murder 20–40 years (parole eligibility: one-third of sentence)
Second degree murder with aggravating circumstance Between 20 years and life (parole eligibility: one-third of sentence, or 15 years if life sentence is imposed)
First degree 30–60 years (parole eligibility: 30 years)
First degree murder with aggravating circumstance Between 30 years and life without parole (parole eligibility: 30 years if life without parole is not imposed)
Murder of a law enforcement officer Life without parole

By states[edit]

Alabama[edit]

Source:[5]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Manslaughter 2–20 years
Murder 10–99 years or life with parole
Capital Murder Death or Life without parole

Alaska[edit]

Source:[6]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 10–99 years
First degree murder or Second Degree Murder of an unborn child 20–99 years
First Degree Murder with aggravating factor 99 years (there is no life sentence without parole)

Arizona[edit]

Source:[7]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Negligent Homicide imprisonment of up to 3.75 years for a first offense
Manslaughter imprisonment up to 12.5 years in prison for a first offense
Second Degree Murder Not less than 10 years nor more than 25 years
First Degree Felony Murder 25 years to life, Natural life imprisonment, or Death Penalty
First Degree Murder Death Penalty or Natural life imprisonment

Arkansas[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 6–30 years
First Degree Murder 10–40 years or Life
Capital Murder Death or Life without parole

California[edit]

Source:[8] [9]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 15 years to life
Second Degree Murder using a firearm from a motor vehicle 20 to life[10]
Second Degree Murder by an offender previously convicted of murder (First or Second Degree) 15 years to life or life without parole
Second Degree Murder of a law enforcement officer 25 years to life
First Degree Murder 25 years to life
First Degree Murder constituting a hate crime or of an operator or driver Life without parole
First Degree Murder with special circumstance Death penalty or life without parole

Colorado[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 16–48 years (Followed by 5 Years Mandatory Parole)
First Degree Murder Death penalty or life without parole

Connecticut[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Murder and Felony Murder 25 to 60 years in prison (No Parole)
Murder with special circumstances Life without parole

Delaware[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 15 years to Life in prison
First Degree Murder Death or Life Without Parole

Florida[edit]

Source:[11]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Manslaughter Maximum of 15 years in prison; maximum of 30 years in prison if a firearm is used
Aggravated Manslaughter of a child Maximum of 30 years in prison; maximum could be enhanced to life in prison if a firearm is used
Third Degree Murder Maximum of 15 years in prison; maximum of 30 years in prison if a firearm is used plus a mandatory minimum of 25 years
Second Degree Murder Maximum of life in prison; Minimum of 25 years if a firearm is used, otherwise a minimum of 10 years under sentencing guidelines for a person with a clean record.
First Degree Murder Death penalty or life without parole

Georgia[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Involuntary Manslaughter 1-5 years
Voluntary Manslaughter 1-20 years
Second Degree Murder 1-30 years
Malice Murder & Felony Murder Death (Malice Murder Only), Life without parole, or Life with parole after 30 years

Hawaii[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life imprisonment with possibility of parole. There is enhanced sentencing for repeat offenders (HRS 706-606.5).
First Degree Murder Life imprisonment without the possibility of parole, with possible commuting of sentence by governor to life imprisonment with parole at the end of twenty years of imprisonment. (HRS §706-656) There is enhanced sentencing for repeat offenders. (HRS 706-606.5)

Idaho[edit]

Offense Mandatory Sentencing
Second Degree Murder 10 years to Life With Parole (Eligible for parole after serving 1/3 of sentence or 10 years with a life sentence)
First Degree Murder Death Penalty or Life

Parole Eligibility for a Life Sentence must be at least 10 years up to Natural Life

Illinois[edit]

Offense Mandatory Sentencing
Second Degree Murder 4–20 years (Up to 4 years are probational)

Certain factors increase the maximum to 30 years (Up to 4 years are probational).

First Degree Murder 20–60 years, 45 years to life (if firearm used), life without parole

Indiana[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing[12]
Murder Between 45 and 65 years
Murder with aggravating circumstances Death or life without parole

Iowa[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 50 years mandatory minimum 70% served.
First/Second Degree Murder by a Person Previously Convicted of First/Second Degree Murder Life Imprisonment Without Parole
First Degree Murder Life Imprisonment Without Parole

Kansas[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder (Intentional) 12.5–54 years
Second Degree Murder (Unintentional) 9–41 years
Felony First Degree Murder 25 years to Life
Premeditated First Degree Murder 25 or 50 years to Life
Capital Murder Death or Life without parole

Kentucky[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Murder Death Penalty, Life Without Parole, Life with parole eligibility in 25 years, Life with parole eligibility in 20 years, or 20 to 50 years
Voluntary Manslaughter 10 to 20 years imprisonment
Involuntary Manslaughter Five to ten years imprisonment
Reckless Homicide One to five years imprisonment

Louisiana[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Manslaughter Maximum term of 40 years
Second Degree Murder Natural Life Imprisonment
First Degree Murder Death or Natural life Imprisonment

Maine[edit]

Source:[13]

Offenseczcf xx Mandatory sentencing
Manslaughter 1–20 years
Felony Murderr 1-30 years
Murder Life without parole or no less than 25 years

f

Maryland[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Maximum of 30 years
First Degree Murder Life with or without parole

Massachusetts[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life with parole eligibility in 15 years
First Degree Murder if under 18 Life with parole eligibility in 20-30 years
First Degree Murder Life without parole

Michigan[edit]

Source:[14]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life (Minimum 15 Years) or a number of years
First Degree Murder Life without parole

Minnesota[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Third Degree Murder Maximum of 25 years
Second Degree Murder Maximum of 40 years
First Degree Murder Life without parole or life with parole eligibility after 30 years

Mississippi[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life (eligible parole at age 65) or no less than 20 years and no more than 40 years
First Degree Murder Life (eligible parole at age 65)
Capital murder Death or Life without Parole

Missouri

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 10-30 years in prison or Life (Minimum 30 years)
First Degree Murder Death or Life without parole

Montana[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Mitigated Deliberate Homicide 2–40 years
Deliberate Homicide Death, Life without parole, Life (Minimum 30 years) or 10–100 years

Nebraska[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Minimum of 20 years, Maximum of life without parole
First Degree Murder Life (no parole) or death

Nevada[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life with parole after 10 years, 25 years in prison with the possibility of parole after 10
First Degree Murder Death (aggravating circumstances), Life without parole, Life with parole after 20 years, or 50 years with the possibility of parole after 20

New Hampshire[edit]

Source:[15]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Negligent Homicide Imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 1/2 years and not more than 17 years.
Causing or Aiding Suicide For causing a suicide or suicide attempt, imprisonment for a term of up to seven years in prison. For aiding or assisting in a suicide or suicide attempt without causing the suicide or attempt, up to one year in jail.[16][17]
Manslaughter Imprisonment for a term of not more than 30 years.
Second Degree Murder Life with Parole or 30–40 years.
First Degree Murder Life without Parole
Capital Murder Death or Life Without Parole

New Jersey[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
First Degree Murder 30 years to life imprisonment or life imprisonment without possibility of parole in some circumstances
Murder (with aggravating circumstances) Life imprisonment without Parole

New Mexico[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Involuntary Manslaughter Maximum of 3 years in prison
Voluntary Manslaughter Maximum of 6 years in prison
Second Degree Murder Maximum of 15 years in prison
First Degree Murder with no special circumstances Imprisonment no less than of 30 years or life (minimum of 30 years)
First Degree Murder with special circumstances Life without parole or Life (minimum of 30 years)

New York[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Minimum: 15 years to life, Maximum: 25 years to life
First Degree Murder Minimum: 20 years to life, Maximum: Life without Parole
Aggravated Murder Life Imprisonment without Parole

North Carolina[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Involuntary Manslaughter 13 months to 16 months (depending on prior record level)
Voluntary Manslaughter 51 months to 64 Months (depending on prior record level)
Second Degree Murder (Inherently Dangerous Act or by unlawful distribution of certain illicit substances) 94 months to 393 months (depending on prior record level)
Second Degree Murder 144 months to Life without Parole (depending on prior record level)
First Degree Murder Death or Life without Parole

North Dakota[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Maximum of 40 years
First Degree Murder Life without Parole or 30 years to Life

Ohio[edit]

Ohio differentiates between "Aggravated Murder" and "Murder." Aggravated Murder consists of purposely causing the death of another (or unlawful termination of a pregnancy) with prior calculation and design, or purposely causing the death of another under the age of 13, a law enforcement officer, or in the course of committing certain serious felony offenses. Murder consists of purposely causing the death of another, or causing the death of another as a proximate result of committing certain serious felony offenses.

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Involuntary Manslaughter 3 to 11 years (if underlying offense is a felony) 9 months to 3 years (if underlying offense is a misdemeanor)
Voluntary Manslaughter 3 to 11 years
Second Degree Murder 15 years to life
Second Degree Murder (victim under 13 years old or committed with sexual motivation) 30 years to life and up to Life without Parole
Aggravated Murder Life without Parole, Life with Possibility of Parole after 20, 25, or 30 years
Aggravated Murder (with capital specification for certain aggravating factors such as special victims, murder-for-hire, multiple victims, witness as victim, committed in the course of another serious felony offense) Death, Life without Parole, Life with Possibility of Parole after 25 or 30 years

Oklahoma[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life with parole or not less than 10 years
First Degree Murder Death Penalty, Life without Parole, or Life with parole eligibility after 38 years

Oregon[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Murder Life with parole or not less than 25 years
Aggravated Murder Death Penalty, Life without Parole, or Life with parole eligibility after 30 years

Pennsylvania[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentence
Third Degree Murder 20–40 years, 5–40 years in the case of person dying from using drugs delivered to them
Second Degree Murder Life without parole
First Degree Murder Death Penalty or Life without parole

Rhode Island[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentence
Second Degree Murder Life or no less than 10 years
First Degree Murder Life without parole or Life (parole eligibility after 15 years)

South Carolina[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Involuntary Manslaughter Maximum of 5 years
Voluntary Manslaughter Maximum of 30 years
Murder Death, Life without parole, or no less than 30 years

South Dakota[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life Without Parole
First Degree Murder Death or Life without parole

Tennessee[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Imprisonment for not less than 15 years nor more than 60.
First Degree Murder Death, Life without parole, or life with parole possible. [18]

Texas[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing[19]
Murder 5 to 99 years or life (possibility of parole after at least 30 years)
Capital murder Death or life without parole (Parole eligible after 40 years if under 18)

Utah[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing

(Parole Eligibility Determined by Parole Board)

Second Degree Murder 15 years to life
First Degree/Aggravated murder Death penalty, life without parole, or 25 years to life

Vermont[edit]

Source:[20]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder if mitigating factors outweigh any aggravating factors 10–20 years to life
Second Degree Murder 12 years to life without parole (depending on the person's record)
Second Degree Murder if aggravating factors outweigh any mitigating factors Between 20 years to life and life without parole
First Degree Murder if mitigating factors outweigh any aggravating factors 15–34 years to life
First Degree Murder 35 years to life
First Degree Murder if aggravating factors outweigh any mitigating factors Between 35 years to life and life without parole
Aggravated Murder Life without parole

Virginia[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 5–40 years[21]
Felony Murder 5–40 years
First Degree Murder Between 20 years and life imprisonment (parole eligibility for life sentence if crime committed before January 1st, 1995: 15 years or 20 years if sentenced to more than 1 life sentence, 25 years if the victim was under the age of 18 except commit with sexual motivation) (Prisoners are eligible for geriatric parole when they turn 60.)
Capital Murder Death Penalty or Natural Life (Ineligible for geriatric parole) (Judge can use discretion to suspend portion of life sentence.)

Washington[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentence
Second Degree Murder 10 to 18 years imprisonment
First Degree Murder 20 years to life. Standard sentence without criminal record is 20-26 years. At least 20 years must be served before parole eligibility. Special Circumstances may increase the number of years to an equivalent sentence of life imprisonment
Aggravated First Degree Murder Death penalty or life without parole

West Virginia[edit]

Source:[22]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder 10–40 years
First Degree Murder Life without parole or 15 years to life

Wisconsin[edit]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Intentional Homicide Minimum of 15, Maximum of 60 years
First Degree Intentional Homicide Minimum of 20 years to Life, Life imprisonment without parole

Wyoming[edit]

Source:[23]

Offense Mandatory sentencing
Second Degree Murder Life with parole or not less than 20 years
First Degree Murder death or life imprisonment without parole

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE :: 2010 US Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia". Law.justia.com. 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  2. ^ "10 USC § 918 - Art. 118. Murder | LII / Legal Information Institute". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  3. ^ "LexisNexis® Legal Resources". Michie.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  4. ^ "LexisNexis® Legal Resources". Michie.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  5. ^ alabamacriminalandfamilylawyerblog.com
  6. ^ "Alaska Statutes: AS 12.55.125. Sentences of Imprisonment For Felonies". Touchngo.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  7. ^ "Arizona Vehicular Crimes - Phoenix AZ Criminal Lawyers - Gillespie Law Firm". Craiggillespie.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  8. ^ "CA Codes (pen:187-199)". Leginfo.ca.gov. 1997-01-01. Archived from the original on 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  9. ^ "CA LegInfo Code Search". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. c. 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-18. 
  10. ^ "Penal Code Section 12022.53(d)". 
  11. ^ "782.04(2)". Florida legislature. 
  12. ^ "Indiana Death Penalty Laws". Clarkprosecutor.org. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  13. ^ "§1251 — Imprisonment for murder :: Chapter 51 — SENTENCES OF IMPRISONMENT (§1251 - §1258) :: TITLE 17-A — MAINE CRIMINAL CODE :: 2005 Maine Code :: Maine Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia". Law.justia.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  14. ^ "Michigan Legislature - 328-1931-XLV". Legislature.mi.gov. 2010-10-31. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  15. ^ "New Hampshire Statutes - Table of Contents". Gencourt.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  16. ^ "New Hampshire Statutes, Sec. 630:4 Causing or Aiding Suicide". New Hampshire General Court. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  17. ^ Cohen, Jonathan (2007). "The Student Guide To N.H. Criminal Law" (PDF). Franklin Pierce University. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  18. ^ https://tnsocialjustice.wordpress.com/2014/07/08/51-years-the-new-life-without-parole/
  19. ^ "PENAL CODE CHAPTER 12. PUNISHMENTS". Statutes.legis.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  20. ^ "§ 2303. — Penalties for first and second degree murder :: Chapter 53 — HOMICIDE (contains §§ 2301 – 2311) :: Title 13 — Crimes and Criminal Procedure :: 2005 Vermont Code :: Vermont Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia". Law.justia.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  21. ^ "First and second degree murder defined; punishment". Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "§61-2-2. — Penalty for murder of first degree. :: CHAPTER 61. — CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENT :: 2005 West Virginia Code :: West Virginia Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia". Law.justia.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 
  23. ^ "Chapter 2 - Offenses Against The Person :: Title 6 - Crimes And Offenses :: 2010 Wyoming Statutes :: Wyoming Statutes :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia". Law.justia.com. 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2012-08-02. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]