List of quasars

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This is a list of quasars.

Proper naming of quasars are by Catalogue Entry, Qxxxx±yy using B1950 coordinates, or QSO Jxxxx±yyyy using J2000 coordinates. They may also use the prefix QSR. There are currently no quasars that are visible to the naked eye.

List of quasars[edit]

This is a list of exceptional quasars for characteristics otherwise not separately listed

Quasar Notes
Twin Quasar Associated with a possible planet microlensing event in the gravitational lens galaxy that is doubling the Twin Quasar's image.
QSR J1819+3845 Proved interstellar scintillation due to the interstellar medium.
CTA-102 In 1965, Soviet astronomer Nikolai S. Kardashev declared that this quasar was sending coded messages from an alien civilization.[1]
CID-42 Its Supermassive black hole is being ejected and will one day become a displaced quasar.

List of named quasars[edit]

This is a list of quasars, with a common name, instead of a designation from a survey, catalogue or list.

Quasar Origin of name Notes
Twin Quasar From the fact that two images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar is produced.
Einstein Cross From the fact that gravitational lensing of the quasar forms a near perfect Einstein cross, a concept in gravitational lensing.
Triple Quasar From the fact that there are three bright images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar is produced. There are actually four images: the fourth is faint.
Cloverleaf From its appearance having similarity to the leaf of a clover. It has been gravitationally lensed into four images, of roughly similar appearance.


List of multiply imaged quasars[edit]

This is a list of quasars that as a result of gravitational lensing appear as multiple images on Earth.

Quasar Images Lens Notes
Twin Quasar 2 YGKOW G1 First gravitationally lensed object discovered

Third largest separation between images (6 ″)[2]

2QZ J1435+0008 2 Largest separation between images (33 ″)[2]
SDSS J1029+2623 3 22.6 ″ separation between furthest images [3][4]
Triple Quasar (PG 1115+080) 4 Originally discovered as 3 lensed images, the fourth image is faint. It was the second gravitationally lensed quasar discovered.
Einstein Cross 4 Huchra's Lens First Einstein Cross discovered
RXS J1131-1231's quasar 4 RXS J1131-1231's elliptical galaxy RXS J1131-1231 is the name of the complex, quasar, host galaxy and lensing galaxy, together. The quasar's host galaxy is also lensed into a Chwolson ring about the lensing galaxy. The four images of the quasar are embedded in the ring image.
Cloverleaf 4[5] Brightest known high-redshift source of CO emission[6]
SDSS J1004+411 5 SDSS J1004+4112 First quasar discovered to be multiply image-lensed by a galaxy cluster

Second largest separation between images (15 ″)[2]

QSO B1359+154 6 CLASS B1359+154 and three more galaxies First sextuply-imaged galaxy
SDSS J2222+2745 6[7] Galaxy cluster at z=0.49[8] First sextuply-lensed galaxy [7] Third quasar discovered to be lensed by a galaxy cluster.[8] Quasar located at z=2.82[8]

List of visual quasar associations[edit]

This is a list of double quasars, triple quasars, and the like, where quasars are close together in line-of-sight, but not physically related.

Quasars Count Notes
QSO 1548+115
4C 11.50 (z=0.436)
QSO B1548+115B (z=1.901)
2 [9][10]
QSO 1146+111 8 [11]
  • z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion


List of physical quasar groups[edit]

This is a list of binary quasars, trinary quasars, and the like, where quasars are physically close to each other.

Quasars Count Notes
quasars of SDSS J0841+3921 protocluster 4 First quasar quartet discovered. [12][13]
LBQS 1429-008 (QQQ 1432-0106) 3 First quasar triplet discovered.
It was first discovered as a binary quasar, before the third quasar was found.[14]
QQ2345+007 (Q2345+007)
Q2345+007A
Q2345+007B
2 Originally thought to be a doubly imaged quasar, but actually a quasar couplet.[15]
QQQ J1519+0627 3 [16]


Large Quasar Groups[edit]

Main article: Large Quasar Group

Large quasar groups (LQGs) are bound to a filament of mass, and not directly bound to each other.

LQG Count Notes
Webster LQG
(LQG 1)
5 First LQG discovered. At the time of its discovery, it was the largest structure known.[17][18]
Huge-LQG
(U1.27)
73 The largest structure known in the observable universe, as of 2013.

[19][20]

List of quasars with apparent superluminal jet motion[edit]

This is a list of quasars with jets that appear to be superluminal due to relativistic effects and line-of-sight orientation. Such quasars are sometimes referred to as superluminal quasars.

Quasar Superluminality Notes
3C 279 4c First quasar discovered with superluminal jets.[21][22][23][24][25]
3C 179 7.6c Fifth discovered, first with double lobes[26]
3C 273 This is also the first quasar ever identified.[27]
3C 216
3C 345 [27][28]
3C 380
4C 69.21
(Q1642+690, QSO B1642+690)
8C 1928+738
(Q1928+738, QSO J1927+73, Quasar J192748.6+735802)
PKS 0637-752
QSO B1642+690

It should be noted that quasars that have a recessional velocity greater than the speed of light (c) are very common. Any quasar with z>1 is going away from us in excess of c.[29] Early attempts to explain superlumic quasars resulted in convoluted explanations with a limit of z=2.326, or in the extreme z<2.4.[30] z=1 means a redshift indicating travel away from us at the speed of light. The majority of quasars lie between z=2 and z=5 .

Firsts[edit]

Title Quasar Year Data Notes
First "star" discovered later found to be a quasar
First radio source discovered later found to be a quasar
First quasar discovered 3C 48 1960 first radio source for which optical identification was found, that was a star-like looking object
First quasar identified 3C 273 1962 first radio-"star" found to be at a high redshift with a non-stellar spectrum.
First radio-quiet quasar QSO B1246+377 (BSO 1) 1965 The first radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSO) were called Blue Stellar Objects or BSO, because they appeared like stars and were blue in color. They also had spectra and redshifts like radio-loud quasi-stellar radio-sources (QSR), so became quasars.[23][31][32]
First host galaxy of a quasar discovered 3C 48 1982
First quasar found to seemingly not have a host galaxy HE0450-2958 (Naked Quasar) 2005 Some disputed observations suggest a host galaxy, others do not.
First multi-core quasar PG 1302-102 2014 Binary supermassive black holes within the quasar [33][34]
First quasar containing a recoiling supermassive black hole SDSS J0927+2943 2008 Two optical emission line systems separated by 2650 km/s
First gravitationally lensed quasar identified Twin Quasar 1979 Lensed into 2 images The lens is a galaxy known as YGKOW G1
First quasar found with a jet with apparent superluminal motion 3C 279 1971 [21][22][23]
First quasar found with the classic double radio-lobe structure 3C 47 1964
First quasar found to be a X-ray source 3C 273 1967 [35]
First "dustless" quasar found QSO J0303-0019 and QSO J0005-0006 2010 [36][37][38][39][40][41][42]
First Large Quasar Group discovered Webster LQG
(LQG 1)
1982 [17][18]

Extremes[edit]

Title Quasar Data Notes
Optically brightest on Earth 3C 273 Apparent Magnitude
~ 12.9
Absolute Magnitude: −26.7
Seemingly optically brightest APM 08279+5255 Seeming Absolute Magnitude
−32.2
This quasar is gravitationally lensed; its actual absolute magnitude is estimated to be −30.5
Optically brightest at source Absolute Magnitude
Most powerful quasar radio source 3C 273 Also the most powerful radio source in the sky
Most powerful
Most variable quasar radio source QSO J1819+3845 (Q1817+387) Also the most variable extrasolar radio source
Least variable quasar radio source
Most variable quasar optical source
Least variable quasar optical source
Most distant ULAS J1120+0641 z=7.085 [43]
Most distant radio-quiet quasar
Most distant radio-loud quasar QSO J1427+3312 z=6.12 Found June 2008[44][45]
Most distant blazar quasar QSO J0906+6930 z=5.47
Least distant 3C273 z=0.158 inactive: IC 2497
Largest Large Quasar Group Huge-LQG
(U1.27)
73 quasars [19][20]

First quasars found[edit]

First 10 Quasars Identified
Rank Quasar Date Notes
1 3C 273 1963 [46]
2 3C 48 1963 [46]
3 3C 47 1964 [47]
3 3C 147 1964 [47]
5 CTA 102 1965 [48]
5 3C 287 1965 [48]
5 3C 254 1965 [48]
5 3C 245 1965 [48]
5 3C 9 1965 [48]

These are the first quasars which were found and had their redshifts determined.

Most distant quasars[edit]

Quasars with z > 6
Quasar Distance Notes
ULAS J1120+0641
(ULAS J112001.48+064124.3)
z=7.085 Most distant quasar. First quasar with redshift over 7.[43]
CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
z=6.43 Former most distant quasar[49][50][51][52]
SDSS J114816.64+525150.3
(SDSS J1148+5251)
z=6.419 Former most distant quasar[53][54][55][52][56][57]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
z=6.28 Former most distant quasar. First quasar with redshift over 6.[58][56][59][60][61][62][63]
SDSS J104845.05+463718.3
(QSO J1048+4637)
z=6.23 [57]
SDSS J162331.81+311200.5
(QSO J1623+3112)
z=6.22 [57]
CFHQS J0033-0125
(CFHQS J003311-012524)
z=6.13 [50]
SDSS J125051.93+313021.9
(QSO J1250+3130)
z=6.13 [57]
CFHQS J1509-1749
(CFHQS J150941-174926)
z=6.12 [50]
QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312 z=6.12 Most distant radio-quasar[44][64]
SDSS J160253.98+422824.9
(QSO J1602+4228)
z=6.07 [57]
SDSS J163033.90+401209.6
(QSO J1630+4012)
z=6.05 [57]
CFHQS J1641+3755
(CFHQS J164121+375520)
z=6.04 [50]
SDSS J113717.73+354956.9
(QSO J1137+3549)
z=6.01 [57]
SDSS J081827.40+172251.8
(QSO J0818+1722)
z=6.00 For reference[57]
SDSSp J130608.26+035626.3
(QSO J1306+0356)
z=5.99 For reference[61][62][63]
  • z>6 quasars are used to explore the reionization era
  • z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion

[65]

Most Distant Quasar by Type
Type Quasar Date Distance Notes
Absolute most distant quasar ULAS J1120+0641 2011 z=7.085 [43]
Most distant radio loud quasar QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312 2008 z=6.12
Most distant radio quiet quasar z=
Most distant OVV quasar z=
  • z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion
Most Distant Quasar Titleholders
Quasar Date Distance Notes
ULAS J1120+0641
(ULAS J112001.48+064124.3)
2011 - z=7.085 This was not the most distant object when discovered. This was the first quasar found beyond redshift 7.[43]
CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
2007 − 2011 z=6.43 This was not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed IOK-1 (z=6.96), which was discovered in 2006.[49][50][51][52][66][67][68]
SDSS J114816.64+525150.3
(SDSS J1148+5251)
2003 − 2007 z=6.419 This was not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed HCM 6A galaxy lensed by Abell 370 at z=6.56, discovered in 2002. Also discovered around the time of discovery was a new most distant galaxy, SDF J132418.3+271455 at z=6.58.[53][54][55][52][66][69][70][71][72][73]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
2001 − 2003 z=6.28 This was the most distant object when discovered. This was the first object beyond redshift 6 when discovered.[58][56][59][60][62][63]
SDSS 1044-0125
(SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2)
2000 − 2001 z=5.82 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. It exceeded galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z=5.74) as the most distant object (discovered 1999).[74][75][62][63][66][76][77]
RD300
(RD J030117+002025)
2000 z=5.50 MB=-22.7
This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z=5.74) (discovered 1999).[78][79][75][80][66]
SDSSp J120441.73−002149.6
(SDSS J1204-0021)
2000 z=5.03 This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z=5.74) (discovered 1999).[80][66]
SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3
(QSO J0338+0021)
1998 − 2000 z=5.00 This was the first quasar discovered breaking redshift 5. This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. It did not exceed the galaxy BR1202-0725 LAE at z=5.64 discovered earlier in 1998.[66][74][81][82][83][84][85]
PC 1247+3406 1991 − 1998 z=4.897 This was the most distant object discovered at time of discovery.[74][86][87][88][89]
PC 1158+4635 1989 − 1991 z=4.73 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[74][89][90][91][92][93]
Q0051-279 1987 − 1989 z=4.43 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[94][90][93][95][96][97]
Q0000-26
(QSO B0000-26)
1987 z=4.11 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[94][90][98]
PC 0910+5625
(QSO B0910+5625)
1987 z=4.04 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This was the second quasar discovered with a redshift over 4.[74][90][99][100]
Q0046–293
(QSO J0048-2903)
1987 z=4.01 First quasar discovered with a redshift over 4. This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[94][90][99][101][102]
Q1208+1011
(QSO B1208+1011)
1986 − 1987 z=3.80 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This is also a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar, and at the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45 ″.[99][103][104]
PKS 2000-330
(QSO J2003-3251, Q2000-330)
1982 − 1986 z=3.78 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[29][99][105][106]
OQ172
(QSO B1442+101)
1974 − 1982 z=3.53 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[107][108][109]
OH471
(QSO B0642+449)
1973 − 1974 z=3.408 First quasar discovered with a redshift greater than 3. Nickname was "the blaze marking the edge of the universe". This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[107][109][110][111][112]
4C 05.34 1970 − 1973 z=2.877 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. Its redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.[29][30][109][113][114]
5C 02.56
(7C 105517.75+495540.95)
1968 − 1970 z=2.399 This was the most distant object when discovered.[114][115][116]
4C 25.05
(4C 25.5)
1968 z=2.358 This was the most distant object when discovered.[114][116][117]
PKS 0237-23
(QSO B0237-2321)
1967 − 1968 z=2.225 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[29][117][118][119][120]
4C 12.39
(Q1116+12, PKS 1116+12)
1966 − 1967 z=2.1291 This was the most distant object when discovered.[116][120][121][122]
4C 01.02
(Q0106+01, PKS 0106+1)
1965 − 1966 z=2.0990 This was the most distant object when it was discovered.[116][120][121][123]
3C 9 1965 z=2.018 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This was the first quasar with a redshift in excess of 2.[1][31][120][124][125][126]
3C 147 1964 − 1965 z=0.545 This was the first quasar to become the most distant object in the universe, beating radio galaxy 3C 295.[47][127][128][129]
3C 48 1963 − 1964 z=0.367 Redshift was discovered after publication of 3C273's results prompted researchers to re-examine spectroscopic data. This was the second quasar redshift measured. This not the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 to be at z=0.461[23][29][130][131][132][46][47]
3C 273 1963 z=0.158 First redshift identified for a quasar. This not the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 to be at z=0.461[23][46][131][132][133]
  • z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion

The first time that quasars became the most distant object in the universe was in 1964. Quasars would remain the most distant objects in the universe until 1997, when a pair of non-quasar galaxies would take the title. ( galaxies CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 - lensed by galaxy cluster CL 1358+62 )[116]

Most powerful quasars[edit]

10 Brightest Quasars
Rank Quasar Data Notes
1 HS 1946+7658 It has an intrinsic bolometric luminosity in excess of 10^14 Suns/10^41 watts [134] [135]
2 SBS 1425+606 Has a luminosity of over 10^41 watts [136]
3 SDSS J222018.50−010147.0 [137]
4 HS 1700+6416 Has a luminosity of over 10^41 watts [138]
5 SDSS J074521.78+473436.2 [139][140]
6 S5 0014+813 [138][141]
7 SDSS J085543.40-001517.7 [142]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c Sky & Telescope Lensed Quasars Hit the Charts February 13, 2004
  3. ^ Inada et al. (2006) SDSS J1029+2623: A Gravitationally Lensed Quasar with an Image Separation of 22.5 ″ 2006 December 5
  4. ^ Kratzer et al. (2011) Analyzing the Flux Anomalies of the Large-separation Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623 2011 January 21
  5. ^ Magain, P.; Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R. (1988). "Discovery of a quadruply lensed quasar - The 'clover leaf' H1413 + 117". Nature 334 (6180): 325–327. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..325M. doi:10.1038/334325a0. 
  6. ^ Venturini, S.; Solomon, P. M. (2003). "The Molecular Disk in the Cloverleaf Quasar". The Astrophysical Journal 590 (2): 740–745. arXiv:astro-ph/0210529. Bibcode:2003ApJ...590..740V. doi:10.1086/375050. 
  7. ^ a b ScienceDaily, "Quasar Observed in Six Separate Light Reflections", 7 August 2013
  8. ^ a b c H. Dahle, M. D. Gladders, K. Sharon, M. B. Bayliss, E. Wuyts, L. E. Abramson, B. P. Koester, N. Groeneboom, T. E. Brinckmann, M. T. Kristensen, M. O. Lindholmer, A. Nielsen, J.-K. Krogager, J. P. U. Fynbo; SDSS J2222+2745: A Gravitationally Lensed Sextuple Quasar with a Maximum Image Separation of 15".1 Discovered in the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey; The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 773, Number 2, 2013 August 20; arXiv:1211.1091 ; Bibcode2013ApJ...773..146D ; doi:10.1088/0004-637X/773/2/146
  9. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO 1548+115
  10. ^ IN: Quasars, Proceedings of the IAU Symposium, Bangalore, India, Dec. 2-6, 1985 (A87-31226 12-90). Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1986, p. 517-526; Discussion, p. 527. ; Gravitational lenses - Observations, 1986IAUS..119..517B
  11. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO 1146+111
  12. ^ Space Daily, "Astronomers Baffled by Discovery of Rare Quasar Quartet", 18 May 2015
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  14. ^ Sky & Telescope The First Triple Quasar January 10, 2007
  15. ^ Sky & Telescope Binary Quasar Is No Illusion
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  25. ^ The superluminal radio source in the gamma-ray blazar 3C 279
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