List of queens regnant

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This article is about Queens regnant. For other female rulers, see List of female rulers and title holders.

This is a list of Queens who have ruled as Queen in many countries (Separate queens for separate countries). Included also are Pharaohs and Empresses. If the Queen ruled as a regent this is indicated by "(regent)" following the name. Where a queen had no powers but only the title "(titular)" is added.

Queens consort (who are styled Queen by virtue of marrying a monarch) are not included.

The following original lead is retained temporarily during reconstruction:

The following is an incomplete list of queens who are well known from popular writings, although many ancient and poorly documented ruling queens (such as those from Africa and Oceania) are omitted. Section 1 lists Queens regnant: Queens who ruled in their own right. Section 2 lists Queens regent: Queens who have ruled on behalf of a monarch who was a minor, absent or incapacitated. Section 3 includes Legendary Queens. Section 4 lists Titular Queens: Queens who ruled in their own right, but had no constitutional standing or regal powers while in power. Section 5 lists various female leaders who were referred to as "Chieftainess."

Contents

Queens regnant[edit]

Africa[edit]

North Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]

Jarawa

Touggourt

Egypt[edit]

Indigenous dynasties

Cleopatra VII

Ptolemaic dynasties

Ptolemy II instituted a new practice of brother-sister marriage when he married his full sister, Arsinoe II. They became, in effect, co-rulers, and both took the epithet Philadelphus ("Brother-Loving" and "Sister-Loving"). Because of this custom many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV. Cleopatra VI did co-rule, but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone

Ayyubid dynasty

Libya[edit]

Cyrene

  • Cleopatra Selene II (ruled 34–30 BC) - also known as Cleopatra VIII. In 75 BC, Cyrene became part of a Roman province, but it was restored to the Ptolemies by Mark Antony in 37 BC. In 34 BC Cleopatra VII and Antony's daughter, Cleopatra Selene II, was made Queen of Cyrene, but the city returned to Rome following Augustus' conquest of Egypt in 30 BC

Sudan[edit]

Kandake was a title for queens, queen mothers, and queens consort in Nubia, but ruling Kandakes may have included:

West Africa[edit]

Benin[edit]

Hogbonu

  • Hude (ruled 1746–1752)

Gambia[edit]

Ghana[edit]

Akan state of Denkyira

Akan state of Dwaben

Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

Baoule

  • Pokou (ruled c. 1730-1750) - Queen and founder of the Baoule tribe

Niger[edit]

Azna

Nigeria[edit]

Igodomigodo

Ondo Kingdom

Zazzau

  • Amina - There is controversy among scholars as to the date of her reign, one school placing her in the mid-15th century, and a second placing her reign in the mid to late 16th century

Senegal[edit]

Sine

Waalo

Sierra Leone[edit]

Koya

Central Africa[edit]

Angola[edit]

Jaga

Matamba

Nzinga, warrior queen of Ndongo and Matamba

Mbunda Kingdom

Ndongo

Cameroon[edit]

Bamum

  • Ngoungoure (ruled 1865), her rule lasted 30 minutes

East Africa[edit]

Comoros[edit]

Ndzuwani (Anjouan)

  • Alimah III (ruled 1676–1711) - first known ruler and female ruler of Anjouan; at least two more women had ruled Anjouan before her: Alimah I and Alimah II
  • Alimah IV (ruled 1788–1792) - she was the de facto ruler of Anjouan with sultan Abdallah I during his reigns in 1782-1788 and 1792-1796

Bamboa

Itsandra

Bajini

Mwali

Zewditu I, Empress of Ethiopia

Ethiopia[edit]

Gibe state of Gera

Kenya[edit]

Madagascar[edit]

Boina Kingdom

Mauritius[edit]

Seychelles[edit]

Tanzania[edit]

Uganda[edit]

Bunyoro

South Africa[edit]

Botswana[edit]

Malawi[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Balobedu The Modjadji or Rain Queen is the hereditary queen of Balobedu, the people of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The succession to the position of Rain Queen is matrilineal, meaning that the Queen's eldest daughter is the heir, and that males are not entitled to inherit the throne at all. The Rain Queen is believed to have special powers, including the ability to control the clouds and rainfall.

Lovedu

Batlokwa

Makololo

Zambia[edit]

Zimbabwe[edit]

America[edit]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

United States[edit]

Central America[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

Bahamas[edit]

Barbados[edit]

Belize[edit]

Dominica[edit]

Dominican Republic[edit]

Grenada[edit]

Guatemala[edit]

Naranjo

Tikal

Jamaica[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Ecatepec

Palenque

Tepetlaoztoc

  • Azcasuch (ruled late 15th-early 16th century)

Yaxchilan

Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]

Saint Lucia[edit]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Guyana[edit]

Suriname[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Asia[edit]

East and Central Asia[edit]

China[edit]

There have been many powerful empress consorts or empress dowagers, some of whom effectively ruled. Powerful empress consorts or empress dowagers were de facto rulers, but not de jure empress regnants. A concubine who gave birth to a crown prince also could become empress consort (皇后), although her status still was a little lower than an empress dowager who had been the former empress consort which will be known as 太后.[citation needed]

Although Wu Zetian is the only undisputed empress regnant in Chinese history, there is one documented case of a woman holding the title of "Emperor":

Japan[edit]

Korea[edit]

Silla

South Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

India[edit]

Alupa dynasty

Arakkal dynasty

British Raj

  • Victoria (ruled 1876–1901) - Empress of India

Gond

Holkar dynasty

Jhansi

Kakatiya dynasty

Kashmir

  • Sugandha (ruled in the 10th century)
  • Didda (ruled 980–1003), she ruled first as a Regent for her son Abhimanyu and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right
  • Kota Rani (ruled 1338–1339)

Keladi Nayaka dynasty

Kittur

Mamluk dynasty

Maratha Empire

Princely States

Bhopal State

  • Qudsia Begum (ruled 1819–1837) - in 1819, 18-year-old Qudsia Begum (also known as Gohar Begum) took over the reins after the assassination of her husband, Nawab Muiz Muhammad Khan Bahadur. She was the first female ruler of Bhopal. She declared that her 2-year-old daughter Sikander would follow her as the ruler; none of the male family members dared to challenge her decision. She ruled till 1837, when she died having adequately prepared her daughter for ruling the state.
  • Begum Sultan Shah Jehan (ruled 1844–1860 and 1868–1901) - Shahjahan was the only surviving child of Sikandar Begum, sometime Nawab of Bhopal by correct title, and her husband Jahangir Mohammed Khan. She was recognised as ruler of Bhopal in 1844 at the age of six; her mother wielded power as regent during her minority. However, in 1860, her mother Sikandar Begum was recognised by the British as ruler of Bhopal in her own right, and Shahjahan was set aside.
  • Begum Nawab Sikandar (ruled 1860–1868)
  • Begum Kaikhusrau Jahan (ruled 1901–1926)

Ullal

Maldives[edit]

  • Damahaar (ruled before 990) - Damahaar, a Ranin (Queen) of the Aadeetta (Sun) Dynasty, is mentioned by al-Idrisi as having reigned over the Maldives at some time before the semi-legendary King Koimala; there are several other mentions by foreign travelers, mainly Arabs, of queens ruling over the Maldives at various times; these are not always named and their reigns cannot be precisely dated
  • Khadijah (ruled 1347–1363, 1364–1374 and 1376–1380) - She is one of the earliest female rulers in a Muslim nation.
  • Raadhafathi (ruled 1380)
  • Dhaain (ruled 1385–1388)
  • Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu (ruled 1607–1609)
  • Amina (ruled 1757 – 1759)
  • Elizabeth II (ruled 1952 – 1965)

Pakistan[edit]

Sindh

Sri Lanka[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

  • Jayavedi (ruled 681–713) - during her rule, She was faulted in leadership which led The Chenla kingdom to break into two individual states, but then it record the period to be female-dominated dynasty with the wide range of female successors, totally driving the entire kingdom
  • Ang Mey (1835–1841 and 1844–1845) - also known as Queen Ba-cong-chua or Ksat Trey, she was proclaimed on the death of her father by the Vietnamese faction at court with the title of My-lam-quan-chua in January 1835. She was famous as puppet queen to Annam

Indonesia[edit]

Aceh

Bali

Bugis

Kalingga

Majapahit

The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati

Medang

Mengwi

Sonbai Kecil

  • Bi Sonbai (ruled 1672–1717), in western Timor

Laos[edit]

Lan Xang

  • Nang Keo Phimpha (ruled 1438) - after her nephew Lan Kham Deng died, she seized control of Lan Xang and the next four kings were under her control. She only reigned for a few months in 1438 at age of 95; she was deposed and killed

Malaysia[edit]

Johor

  • Engku Puteri Raja Hamidah binti Raja Haji of Johor (dowager 1812-19)

Kelantan

Myanmar[edit]

Hanthawaddy

Philippines[edit]

Namayan and Tondo

Sulu

Thailand[edit]

Hariphunchai

Pattani

  • Ratu Hijau, 'the Green Queen' (ruled 1584–1616)
  • Ratu Biru, 'the Blue Queen' (ruled 1616–1624)
  • Ratu Ungu, 'the Purple Queen' (ruled 1624–1635)
  • Ratu Kuning, 'the Yellow Queen' (ruled 1635–1649/88), controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign
  • Ratu Emas Kelantan (ruled 1670–1698 or 1690–1704) - thought by A. Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen
  • Ratu Emas Chayam (ruled 1698–1702 or 1704–1707 and 1716–1718)

Lanna

Siam and Thailand

Vietnam[edit]

  • Queen Cù thị (regent, 113-112 BC)
  • Queen Trưng Trắc (ruled 40–43) - the Trưng sisters (Vietnamese: Hai Bà Trưng; literally: two ladies Trưng) were leaders who rebelled against Chinese rule for three years, and are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam. Their names are Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị.
  • Empress Mother Ỷ Lan: First regentship 1069 (when the emperor was going fighting, he chose her instead of his proper wife Empress Thượng Dương). Second regentship 1072-1117 (Early ruled alone after emperor's death, later ruled jointly with her son Emperor Lý Nhân Tông).
  • Empress Mother Lê thị (regent, 1138-1158)
  • Empress Mother Đỗ Thụy Châu (regent, 1176-1190)
  • Empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (ruled 1224–1225)
  • Empress Nguyễn Thị Anh (regent, 1451–1459)
  • Lady Đặng Thị Huệ (regent, 1792)

Champa

West Asia[edit]

Iran[edit]

  • Musa of Parthia (Parthian queen regnant of Iran, ruled 2 BC–4 AD)
  • Pourandukht (In Persian: Pourandokht, Sassanid queen regnant and Daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled 629-630 and 631-632)
  • Azarmidokht (Sassanid queen regnant, sister of Pourandukht and daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled 630–631)

Elymais

  • Anzaze (ruled about 82/81 to 75 BC, following dates on the coins), she appears on coins together with king Kamnaskires III; they perhaps ruled together as on the coins she is called βασιλίσσης (the Genitive case of queen, βασίλισσα - basílissa)

Il Khanate

Salghurids

Iraq[edit]

Adiabene

Seleucid Empire

Israel[edit]

Judah

Hasmonean dynasty

Herodian dynasty

Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem

Jordan[edit]

Nabatea

Kazakhstan[edit]

Massagetae

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Qedarite

  • Zabibe (ruled c. 750–735 BC)
  • Samsi (ruled c. 735–710 BC)
  • Yatie (ruled c. 710–695 BC)
  • Te'elkhunu (ruled c. 695–690 BC)
  • Tabua (ruled c. 678–675 BC)

Syria[edit]

Tanukhids

  • Mavia (ruled 375–425) - "The Queen of the Arabs"

Turkey[edit]

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

  • Isabella (ruled 1219–1252) - she co-ruled with her husband Hethum I from 1226

Bithynia

Caria

Dardania

Heraclea Pontica

Pontus

Prusias ad Mare

Saltukid dynasty

Trebizond

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Uzbekistan[edit]

Khanate of Kokand

Yemen[edit]

Sulayhid dynasty

  • Asma bint Shihab (ruled 1047-1087) - she was the co-ruler of Yemen in co-regency with her cousin and spouse, Ali al-Sulayhi, and later her son, Ahmad al-Mukkaram, and daughter-in-law, Arwa al-Sulayhi. Though there were many female monarch in the Muslim world, Asma bint Shihab and Arwa al-Sulayhi were the only female monarchs in the Arab world to have had the khutba proclaimed in their name in the mosques as sovereigns
  • Arwa al-Sulayhi (ruled 1067–1138) - she ruled Yemen firstly with her first two husbands and her mother-in-law and then as sole ruler. She was the greatest of the rulers of the Sulayhid Dynasty and was also the first woman to be accorded the prestigious title of hujja in Isma'ili branch of Shi'a Islam, signifying her as the closest living image of God's will in her lifetime

Europe[edit]

Maria Theresa, Queen regnant of Hungary, Bohemia[1] and the Holy Roman Empress

Albania[edit]

Shishman Dynasty[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Austria[edit]

  • Maria Theresa (ruled 1740-1780) - she was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. In some of the Habsburg dominions (such as Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia and Lodomeria and Galicia), she held the title of queen. By marriage, she was also Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress (all as consort).

Marcomanni[edit]

Bosnia[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Cyprus[edit]

Czech lands[edit]

Denmark[edit]

  • Margaret Fredkulla (regent) 1105-1130 - daughter of King Inge the Elder of Sweden. In 1105, she married King Niels of Denmark, described as a passive monarch who lacked the capacity to rule and who left the affairs of the state to her. With Niels' blessing, Margaret became the de facto Queen regnant of Denmark. The Danish coins printed during this period bears the inscription: Margareta-Nicalas ("Margaret-Niels").
  • Margaret I (ruled 1387–1412) - she was founder of the Kalmar Union, which united the Scandinavian countries for over a century. Margaret is known in Denmark as "Margrethe I" to distinguish her from the current queen. Denmark did not have a tradition of allowing women to rule, so when her son died, she was titled "All-powerful Lady and Mistress (Regent) of the Kingdom of Denmark". She only styled herself Queen of Denmark in 1375, usually referring to herself as "Margaret, by the grace of God, daughter of Valdemar King of Denmark" and "Denmark's rightful heir" when referring to her position in Denmark. Others simply referred to her as the "Lady Queen", without specifying what she was queen of, but not so Pope Boniface IX, who in his letters styled her "our beloved daughter in Christ, Margaret, most excellent queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway"
  • Margaret II (ruled 1972–present)

Estonia[edit]

Finland[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Tamar, King of Kings and Queen of Queens of the Georgians

Greece[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Aeacid dynasty[edit]

Byzantine Empire and immediate successors[edit]

Macedonian Dynasty[edit]
  • Zoe (ruled 1028–1041 and 1042–1050) - she ruled with her consorts Romanos III and Michael IV between 1028 and 1041; she ruled with her sister Theodora and her third husband Constantine IX from 1042 to 1050
  • Theodora (ruled 1042–1056) - she ruled from 1042 jointly with her sister Zoe and Zoe's third husband Constantine IX; she ruled from 1055 until her own death as sole monarch.
Epirus[edit]

Hungary[edit]

  • Mary (ruled 1382–1385 and 1386-1395) - she was crowned as King of Hungary to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Sigismund of Luxembourg from 1387
  • Maria Theresa (ruled 1740–1780)

Iceland[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Umaill[edit]

Kingdom of Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Naples[edit]

Sardinia[edit]

Sicily[edit]

Malta[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Agder[edit]

  • Åsa (ruled 815–834/38)

Poland[edit]

  • Hedwig (ruled 1384–1399) - she was crowned as King of Poland to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Władysław II Jagiełło from 1386
  • Anna (ruled 1575–1586) - she was crowned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Stephen Báthory

Portugal[edit]

  • Teresa (regent) 1112–1128 - first ruler of independent Portugal. In recognizing her victory in defending Coimbra, she was called "Queen" by Pope Paschal II and in light of this recognition, she appears in her documents as "Daughter of Alphonso and elected by God", explicitly being called queen in an 1117 document, leading some to refer to her as the first monarch of Portugal
  • Leonor Telles de Meneses (regent) 1383-1385
  • Eleanor of Aragon (regent) 1438-1439
  • Catherine of Austria (regent) 1557-1562
  • Luisa de Guzmán (regent) 1656-1662
  • Maria I (ruled 1777–1816)
  • Maria II (ruled 1826–1828 and 1834–1853)

Russia[edit]

Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus[edit]

  • Dynamis (ruled in 47 BC, 44-17 BC and 16-14 BC) - she co-ruled with her first husband Asander in 47 BC and from 44 BC until 17 BC; then she co-ruled with her second husband Polemon I from 16 BC until her death
  • Gepaepyris (ruled 38–45) - she ruled in association with her son Mithridates III

Khanate of Qasim[edit]

Spain[edit]

  • Urraca of León and Castile (ruled 1109–1126) - also styled as Empress of all the Spains (totius Hispaniae imperatrix). Her use of the imperial styling was limited, much more so than that of her predecessor and successor (it is possible that the imperial style had connotations too strongly masculine). Urraca did employ instead the title Queen of Spain on several occasions from the very beginning of her reign until the end
  • Petronila of Aragon (ruled 1137–1164)
  • Berenguela of Castile the Great (ruled 1217)
  • Sancha of León (ruled de jure 1230) - she ruled jointly with her sister Dulce. After the death of Sancha's brother, Alfonso IX named his second son, also Ferdinand, his heir, bestowing on him the title infante. In 1217, Ferdinand's mother, Berengaria, inherited the Kingdom of Castile, but ceded it to her son. With his heir out of the kingdom and ruling in another place, Alfonso attempted to make his eldest daughters his joint heirs. In the Treaty of Boronal concluded with Portugal in 1219, Alfonso expressly states that if he should die, Portugal should respect the agreement with his daughters.[2] Alfonso also attempted to secure his eldest daughter's rights by marrying Sancha to John of Brienne, the former King of Jerusalem, but his wife Berengaria blocked this action in order to advance her son.[3] After this fiasco, Alfonso declared Sancha and Dulce his heirs, but upon his death on 24 September 1230, the people of León, who had pledged for Ferdinand in 1206, refused to recognise his daughters, and they in turn ceded their rights to his kingdom to their half-brother
  • Dulce of León (ruled de jure 1230) - she ruled jointly with her sister Sancha
  • Isabella I of Castile the Catholic (ruled 1474–1504) - After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganised the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her marriage with Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the political unification of Spain. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects in the Spanish Inquisition, and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World.
  • Joanna of Castile and Aragon the Mad (ruled 1504–1555) - successor of the previous. After her husband's death she was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. Her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, when she inherited his kingdom as well.
  • Mariana of Austria (regent) 1665-1675
  • Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies (regent during her daughter's infancy) 1833-1840
  • Isabella II of Spain An infant de jure queen from 1833, ruled 1843–1868
  • Maria Christina of Austria (regent) 1885-1902

Navarre[edit]

Sweden[edit]

  • Ingeborg (ruled de facto 1318-1319) - in 1318-1319 she was Sweden's first de facto female ruler and from 1319 to 1326, she was Sweden's first de jure female regent; her position subsequently equalled that of an undeclared queen mother for over 40 years
  • Margaret (ruled 1389–1412)
  • Christina (ruled 1632–5 June 1654) - she was crowned as King of Swedes, Goths and Vandals to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right
  • Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp (regent) 1660-1672 and 1697-1699
  • Ulrika Eleonora the Younger (ruled 30 November 1718 – 29 February 1720)

United Kingdom[edit]

Kingdoms of the Britons[edit]

  • Cartimandua (ruled c. 43–69), queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people in what is now Northern England - she came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome; she is known exclusively from the work of a single Roman historian, Tacitus, though she appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain
  • Boudica (ruled c. 60–61), queen of the Brythonic Celtic Iceni, people of Norfolk, in Eastern Britain - in 61 AD, led a major uprising of the tribes against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire

Anglo-Saxon kingdoms[edit]

Kingdom of England[edit]

  • Matilda of England (ruled 7 April – 1 November 1141) - she was England's first de facto female ruler, holding the title of Lady of the English (she planned to assume the title of queen upon her coronation). She was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, and acknowledged as such by the barons; however, upon the death of her father in 1135, Matilda was usurped to the throne by her rival and cousin Stephen of Blois. The Anarchy followed, with Matilda's being a de facto ruler for a few months in 1141, but she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically)
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine (regent) 1189 - 1192 during Richard I's absence
  • Isabella of France (regent 1326-1330)
  • Catherine of Aragon (regent) 1513 - 1514
  • Catherine Parr (regent) July to September 1544
  • Jane Grey (ruled 1553) - her cousin Edward VI of England nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will and excluded his half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. However, this was disputed following Edward's death and Jane was queen for only nine days (10–19 July) before Edward's half-sister, Mary, was proclaimed Queen. Jane is nicknamed The Nine Days' Queen
  • Mary I of England (ruled 1553–1558)
  • Elizabeth I of England (ruled 1558–1603)

Kingdom of Scotland[edit]

  • Margaret of Scotland (ruled 25 November 1286 – 26 September 1290) - also known as Margaret, Maid of Norway. She was daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland and was named "domina and right heir" of the Kingdom of Scotland by her grandfather, Alexander III. Her death, at the age of seven, while en route to Scotland sparked off the disputed succession which led to the Wars of Scottish Independence. As Margaret was never crowned or otherwise inaugurated, and never set foot on what was then Scottish soil during her lifetime, there is some doubt about whether she should be regarded as a Queen of Scots; this could ultimately be a matter of interpretation. Most lists of the monarchs of Scotland do include her, but a few do not.
  • Mary of Gueldres (regent) 1460-1463
  • Margaret Tudor (regent) 1513-1514
  • Mary I of Scotland (ruled 1542–1567) - better known as Mary, Queen of Scots; she was executed in England in 1587
  • Mary of Guise (regent) 1554-1560

Kingdoms of England and Scotland / Kingdom of Great Britain[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Oceania[edit]

American Samoa[edit]

Tui Manuʻa Matelita.

Australia[edit]

Fiji[edit]

French Polynesia[edit]

Bora Bora[edit]

Huahine[edit]

Raiatea[edit]

  • Tehauroarii (ruled 1881–1884)
  • Tuarii (ruled till 1897) - she reigned under a rebellion government against the French with the support of Teraupoo after Tamatoa VI abdicated.

Rapa Iti[edit]

Rimatara[edit]

Tahiti[edit]

  • Purea (ruled 18th century), queen of the Teva clan on the southern part of the island before unification
  • Pōmare IV (ruled 1871–1911)

Hawaii[edit]

  • Kingdom
    • Liliuokalani (ruled 1891–1893 and claimed status as queen until her death in 1917) - was one of many queens of Hawaii; however, she was the only queen regnant of the modern Kingdom of Hawaii established by Kamehameha I in the late eighteenth century

New Zealand[edit]

Rarotonga[edit]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Solomon Islands[edit]

Tonga[edit]

Tuvalu[edit]

Uvea (Wallis)[edit]

Africa[edit]

Fatimids[edit]

Kongo Kingdom[edit]

Ashanti Empire[edit]

  • Yaa Asantewaa (regent), queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti Empire

Dahomey[edit]

  • Hangbe (regent) ruler of Dahomey 1716-1718 between the death of Akaba and the rule of Agaja

Asia[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Chagatai Khanate[edit]

Golden Horde[edit]

Kara-Khitan Khanate[edit]

India[edit]

Gond[edit]

Maratha Empire[edit]

Neo-Assyrian Empire[edit]

Palmyrene Empire[edit]

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Europe[edit]

France[edit]

Illyrian Kingdom[edit]

  • Teuta (regent) 231–227 BC
  • Etuta (regent) 169-168 BC

Khazar[edit]

Kievan Rus'[edit]

  • Olga (regent) 945-962

Lombards[edit]

Ostrogoths[edit]

Roman Empire and immediate successors[edit]

  • Ulpia Severina (regent) 275 - there is considerable numismatic evidence for Ulpia Severina ruling in her own right between the death of Aurelian and the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[4] Sources mention an interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus, and some of Ulpia's coins appear to have been minted after Aurelian's death.[5] As such she may have been the only woman to rule over the whole Roman Empire in her own power.

Bithynia[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]

  • Pulcheria (regent) 414–453
  • Irene (ruled 797–802) - she normally referred to herself as basilissa (empress), although there are three instances of the title basileus (emperor) being used by her
  • Theodora the Armenian (regent) 842-855
Latin Empire[edit]

Sarmatia[edit]

  • Amage (regent) 4th century BC

Legendary Queens[edit]

Ahaggar[edit]

Amazons[edit]

  • Otrera, the daughter of Eurus (the east wind)
  • Hippolyta, the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle
  • Penthesilea, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Antianara, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Eurypyle
  • Lampedo
  • Marpesia

Assyria[edit]

  • Semiramis, the legendary queen of king Ninus, succeeding him to the throne of Assyria

Bohemia[edit]

Bornu Empire[edit]

Champa[edit]

  • Lady Po Nagar, According to Cham legend, was the founder of the Cham nation

Carthage[edit]

  • Dido (ruled 814 – c. 760 BC) - also known as Alyssa. Founder of Carthage, according to tradition

China[edit]

Egypt[edit]

  • Merneith of the First Dynasty - was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt during the first dynasty. She may have been a ruler of Egypt in her own right. The possibility is based on several official records. Her rule occurred the 30th century B.C., for an undetermined period
  • Khentkaus of the Fourth Dynasty - Khentkaus appears to have served as a regent for Thampthis (considered by some historians her son) and may have even taken on kingly titles. Some of her titles are ambiguous and are apparently open to interpretation
  • Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty - her historicity is questionable. She might have been an interregnum queen

Funan Kingdom[edit]

Gideons Dynasty[edit]

  • Gudit, (ruled c. 960 – c. 1000)

Britain[edit]

Harran[edit]

Ireland[edit]

  • Macha, (ruled 661–654 BC)

Connacht[edit]

  • Medb, Queen of Connacht

Italia[edit]

Japan[edit]

Kelantan[edit]

Lydia[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

  • Alan Gua, a mythical figure from the Secret History of the Mongols

Nubia[edit]

Rapa Nui[edit]

Poland[edit]

Puntland[edit]

  • Ati, a queen of the fabled Land of Punt in Africa

Sheba[edit]

Kish[edit]

  • Kubaba (ruled 25th century BC)

Titular Queens[edit]

Balete[edit]

  • Mosadi Seboko (ruled 2002-), the kgosikgolo[a] of the Balete people in Botswana

Māori[edit]

Mapuche[edit]

Naso[edit]

Chieftainess[edit]

Ancient Hawaii[edit]

Crow tribe[edit]

Giluts'aaw[edit]

Hispaniola[edit]

  • Anacaona, Cacica of Quisqueya
  • Iguanamá, also known as Isabel de Iguanamá

Israelite Tribes[edit]

Pamunkey[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

  • Doña Ines, mother of Caciques Agueybaná and Agüeybaná II
  • Doña María, daughter of Cacique Bagnamanay
  • Yuisa, Cacica in the region near Loíza, Puerto Rico

Rarotonga[edit]

Rewa, Burebasaga Confederacy[edit]

Sakonnet[edit]

Seneca tribe[edit]

Xhosa[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  2. ^ Yáñez Neira, 54.
  3. ^ Salvador Martínez, 32–33.
  4. ^ Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4. 
  5. ^ Körner, Christian (December 23, 2008). "Aurelian (A.D. 270-275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • L. Pierotti Cei, Madonna Costanza, Regina di Sicilia e d'Aragona, Mondadori, Milan 1995.
  • S. Runciman, I Vespri siciliani, Rizzoli, Milan 1975.

External links[edit]