List of railway lines in Vietnam

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The Vietnamese railway network.

This list enumerates railway lines in Vietnam. The Vietnamese railway system is owned and primarily operated by the state-owned Vietnam Railways (Vietnamese: Đường sắt Việt Nam), although private railway companies also offer special service to key destinations.[1] Its principal route is the 1,726 km (1,072 mi) single track North–South Railway line running between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City; as of 2007, 85% of the network's passenger volume and 60% of its cargo volume is transported along this line.[2] Besides this one, the system includes lines connecting Hanoi to the People's Republic of China, to surrounding cities such as Thái Nguyên, Hai Phong and Hạ Long.[3][4]

Most existing Vietnamese railway lines use metre gauge, although standard gauge (used in China) and mixed gauge are used northeast of Hanoi.[3] As of 2005, approximately 2,600 km (1,600 mi) of track was in use throughout Vietnam—2,169 km (1,348 mi) meter gauge, 178 km (111 mi) standard gauge and 253 km (157 mi) mixed gauge.[5] As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network, 191 of which are located along the North-South Railway line.[5][6]

New railway lines have been proposed for construction, such as the 1,570 km (980 mi) high-speed North–South Express Railway connecting Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, which would reduce travel times from 30 hours to 6 hours.[7] Other proposals aim to restore or completely rebuild previously existing lines that fell into disuse after the French Indochina War and the Vietnam War, such as the Da Lat–Thap Cham line, which now serves only to ferry tourists between Đà Lạt and the nearby village of Trại Mát.[8] International links to Cambodia and Laos are also under consideration.[9][10]

Current lines[edit]

Description Established Length Stations Travel time Gauge
North–South Railway 1936[11] 1,726 km (1,072 mi)[3] 191[6] 30 hrs[12] Metre gauge[3]
Railroad tracks on the North–South Railway near Mỹ Sơn, in central Vietnam.

The HanoiHo Chi Minh City line is the primary railway line serving Vietnam. Trains travelling this line are sometimes referred to as the 'Reunification Express'. This line should not be confused with the proposed North–South Express Railway (see below).

Major stations
Hanoi–Lào Cai Railway 1906[13] 296 km (184 mi)[3] 40[14] 10 hrs[1] Metre gauge[3]
Travelling on the HanoiLào Cai line.

The railway link from Hanoi to Lào Cai was originally built by the French administration of Indochina in the early 20th century, as part of an international railway link between Haiphong and the Chinese city of Kunming.

Major stations
International links
Hanoi–Đồng Đăng Railway 1902[15] 163 km (101 mi)[3] 23[16] 4.25 hrs[17] Mixed gauge[3]
Friendship Pass, on the China–Vietnam border near Dong Dang.

Đồng Đăng is a station at the Vietnamese border with China, forming a part of the international Hanoi-Nanning rail link. There is direct international passenger service on the line (the  Beijing-Nanning-Hanoi Through Train).

Major stations[17]
International links
Kép–Hạ Long Railway 1950s[18] 106 km (66 mi)[3] 12[19] 4.5 hrs[19] Standard gauge[3]
Major stations[19]
Hanoi–Haiphong Railway 1902[20] 102 km (63 mi)[3] 18[21] 2.5 hrs[1] Metre gauge[3]

The railway link from Hanoi to Haiphong was originally built by the French administration of Indochina in the early 20th century, as part of an international railway link between Haiphong and the Chinese city of Kunming.

Major stations
Hanoi–Thái Nguyên Railway 1962[22] 75 km (47 mi)[3] 14[23] 3 hrs[1] Mixed gauge[3]

Also known as the Hanoi-Quan Trieu line or the Dong Anh-Quan Trieu line.

Major stations[24]
Thái Nguyên–Kép 1966[25] 57 km (35 mi)[3] 6?[nb 1] ?? Standard gauge[3]

The Thái Nguyên–Kép railway line was a strategic, standard-gauge line constructed between October 1965 and December 1966 by a railroad engineering division of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, who operated in North Vietnam repairing railway lines at the request of Ho Chi Minh.[25]

Major stations
Pho Lu–Xuan Giao ?? 11 km (6.8 mi)[13] 2[13] ?? Metre gauge[18]
The Pho Lu–Xuan Giao branch crossing the Bo River on a bridge shared with the National Route 4E

Also called the Pho Lu–Pom Han line. A branch line connected to the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway at Phố Lu, south of Lào Cai, used to carry apatite from the mines located along the line to the fertilizer factory located at Tien Kien.[13][18]

Tien Kien–Bai Bang ?? 10.5 km (6.5 mi)[13] ?? ?? Metre gauge?

A branch line connected to the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway, near Phú Thọ.[13][18]

Da Lat–Trại Mát 1932[26] 7 km (4.3 mi)[26] 2[26] ?? Metre gauge[26]

Part of the rack railway that once connected the towns of Đà Lạt and Tháp Chàm. Since the line's abandonment after the Vietnam War, only a 7 km section remains in use, running from Da Lat Railway Station to the nearby village of Trại Mát, operated as a tourist attraction.[26] See Đà Lạt–Tháp Chàm Railway below.

Major stations
Tien Kien–Lam Thao ?? 4.1 km (2.5 mi)[13] ?? ?? Metre gauge[18]

A branch line connected to the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway, near Phú Thọ. Originally served a military complex.[13][18]

Proposed lines[edit]

Several railway lines have been proposed for construction in Vietnam in recent years. The largest such project is the high-speed North–South Express Railway connecting Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City, valued at approximately US$56 billion. Due to its cost, plans for the line are currently on hold pending further study of the project.[27] Other projects involve the restoration of previously existing lines, such as the Da LatTháp Chàm line and the Ho Chi Minh City–Lộc Ninh, both of which were originally built in the 1930s, but fell into disuse after decades of war. The Ho Chi Minh City–Loc Ninh line, along with a new Mu GiaVung Ang line, would permit new international railway links to Cambodia and Laos, respectively.[9][10]

Description Length Gauge
North–South Express Railway 1,570 km (980 mi)[7] Standard gauge[28]
Ho Chi Minh City–Cần Thơ Express Railway 139 km (86 mi) Standard gauge
Japanese Shinkansen technology has been suggested for use on the proposedNorth–South Express Railway (Photo: Taiwan High Speed Rail).

National railway company Vietnam Railways has proposed a high-speed rail link between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, capable of running at 300 to 350 km/h (186 to 217 mph). Funding of the $56 billion line would mainly come from the Vietnamese government; reports suggest Japanese development aid could be made available in stages, conditioned on the adoption of Shinkansen technology.[28][29] Once completed, the high-speed rail line would allow trains to complete the Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City journey in approximately 6 hours.[7] Vietnam's National Assembly rejected the existing plan for the line in June 2010, and asked for further study of the project.[27]

Major stations
Da Lat–Thap Cham 127 km (79 mi)[26] Metre gauge[26]
A locomotive travels on the Đà LạtTháp Chàm line.

The town of Đà Lạt was once connected by a rack railway to the main north-south line at Tháp Chàm. Construction of the line initially began in 1908.[30] The 38 km (24 mi) Tháp Chàm–Sông Pha section opened in 1919, and the second section, running 43 km (27 mi) from Sông Pha to Đà Lạt, opened in 1932.[26]

Since the line's abandonment after the Vietnam War, only a 7 km section remains in use, running from Da Lat Railway Station to the nearby village of Trại Mát, operated as a tourist attraction.[26] A proposed renewal project, backed by provincial and local governments, aims to restore the original Đà Lạt–Tháp Chàm railway to handle both passenger and cargo transportation.[8][31]

Major stations
Ho Chi Minh City–Vũng Tàu 110 km (68 mi)[32] Metre gauge[32]

A new railway line connecting Ho Chi Minh City to Vũng Tàu, a port on the South China Sea, has been proposed. The line would serve both freight and passenger transport.[32]

Major stations
Dĩ An–Lộc Ninh Railway 128.5 km (79.8 mi)[18] Metre gauge
A locomotive waits at Lộc Ninh Railway Station during the French colonial era.

In 1933, a private railroad connecting Lộc Ninh in Bình Phước Province to Ben Dong Xo was opened. The line was connected to the main North–South line in 1937, connecting Loc Ninh to Saigon via Dĩ An. The route from Dĩ An to Lộc Ninh had 17 railway stations.[33] The line was abandoned after 1959, and was dismantled at the conclusion of the Vietnam War.[18] Many portions of the line still exist, although they are largely used by local farmers as access roads to reach their fields; two portions of track near Phu Cuong and Dĩ An have been removed to accommodate urban development.[18]

A proposal to refurbish the line was presented in September 2007. The line would begin with a junction of the North–South Railway at Dĩ An Railway Station, and would end in Lộc Ninh, close to the Cambodian border. The railway's cost is estimated at US$438 million. In the same year, the Cambodian Ministry of Transportation announced plans to build a railway line to connect Loc Ninh to Phnom Penh, reportedly with Chinese assistance. The line would be part of the proposed Trans-Asian Railway. So far, the project will consist of 11 stations with the cost of 4,624 million Yuan to be financed by China.[9][34]

Major stations
International links

Cambodia Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Mụ Giạ–Vung Ang Railway ?? ??

Plans for a line connecting the Vietnamese railway network to Laos were originally researched at the turn of the 20th century. In the 1930s, a limited amount of work was done on a railway line connecting Tan Ap, south of Vinh on the North–South line, to Thakhek in Laos, where tin deposits were being exploited at the time. The first 17.5 km (10.9 mi) had been constructed west of Tan Ap by 1933, but construction was eventually abandoned due to poor economic forecasts. The completed line would have been 187 km (116 mi) long, travelling under the Mụ Giạ Pass via a tunnel.[35] In 2007, the Laotian Ministry of Transportation entered into discussion with Vietnam to discuss the possibility of completing the Thakhek–Tan Ap line, and adding an extension to Vung Ang, a port in Hà Tĩnh Province which the Vietnamese Government plans to expand. Both Laos and Thailand have expressed interest in the project as a shorter export gateway to the Pacific Ocean.[10][36]

Major stations
International links

Laos Thakhek, Laos

Defunct lines[edit]

Description Established Length Gauge
Phu Lang Thuong–Lạng Sơn 1895[37] 31 km (19 mi)[18] 600mm[18]

A strategic line connecting Lạng Sơn to Phu Lang Thuong (now known as Bắc Giang), and the first railway line to be built in Tonkin. Construction took place from 1890 to 1895, costing around 20 million francs. Originally built at 600 mm (1 ft 11 58 in) gauge, the line was converted to metre gauge and expanded south to Hanoi and north to the Chinese border at Dong Dang.[37][38] See Hanoi–Dong Dang Railway above.

Giat–Nghia Dan 30 km (19 mi)[18] Metre gauge[18]

An incomplete line that was abandoned before World War II, intended to serve quarries around the town of Nghia Dan. Some traces of the line still exist.[18]

Gia Dinh–Hoc Mon ?? 20 km (12 mi)[18] ??

Originally built as a branch line to the Saigon–Cholon tramway,[39] the line fell into disrepair during World War II, and was completely dismantled during the First Indochina War. The line was originally intended to form a link between Saigon and Phnom Penh in Cambodia.[18]

Tan Ap–Thakhek 17.5 km (10.9 mi)[35] Metre gauge?

An incomplete line branching off the North–South Railway towards Laos.[18] See the proposed Mu Gia–Vung Ang line above.

Don Dien Coudoux–Xom Cuc 1960s[18] 17 km (11 mi)[18] Metre gauge[18]

A strategic line built in the 1960s to accelerate the provision of logistical military support on the Ho Chi Minh trail, which began at Xom Cuc and continued south into the Mụ Giạ Pass.[18]

Đồng Đăng–Na Sam ?? 15 km (9.3 mi)[18] Metre gauge or 600mm[18]

A strategic line branching off the Hanoi–Đồng Đăng Railway, following Colonial Road No. 4 towards Cao Bằng. Dismantled soon after the First Indochina War.[18]

Mai Pha–Dong ?? 7 km (4.3 mi)[18] Standard gauge[18]

A branch line on the Hanoi–Đồng Đăng Railway, serving as a bypass of the town of Lạng Sơn to allow Chinese military trains to enter Vietnam during the Vietnam War.[18]

Trang Bom–Ap Thanh Lam ?? ??

An incomplete line east of Saigon, near Xuân Lộc, intended to serve an area of rubber plantations. The line is indicated on certain detailed maps of the era.[18]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Assuming Lưu Xá and Kép stations had already been built prior to 1966. "The First Division had to construct four tunnels, ... four train stations, and several bridges along the Kép-Thái Nguyên [or Ke-Tai, central] line." Col. Hou Zhenlu, quoted in Xiaobing Li, Robert McMahon (2010). Voices from the Vietnam War: Stories from American, Asian, and Russian Veterans. University Press of Kentucky. p. 221. ISBN 0-8131-2592-8.
References
  1. ^ a b c d "Train travel in Vietnam". Seat61. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  2. ^ "Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City Railway Bridge Rehabilitation Project" (PDF). Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2007. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Railway Network". Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-04-18. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  4. ^ "Vietnam: Transport Infrastructure" (pdf). World Bank. May 2004. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  5. ^ a b "Infrastructure Maintenance and Construction". Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  6. ^ a b "Các ga trên tuyến đường sắt Thống Nhất" (Railway stations on the North–South Railway), Page 1 Archived 2011-01-13 at the Wayback MachinePage 2 Archived 2011-01-13 at the Wayback Machine (in Vietnamese)
  7. ^ a b c "Vietnamese legislators reject $56B bullet train in rare move against Communist leaders". Metro News Vancouver. Associated Press. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2010-06-21.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ a b "1928 Thap Cham-Da Lat Railway returns". Vietnamnet. Vietnam News Agency. 2007-10-07. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  9. ^ a b c "Constructing Vung Ang–Tan Ap–Mu Gia–Tha Khek railway line". Vietnam Railways. 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  10. ^ "Proposed Loan and Administration of Loan from Agence Française de Développement: Yen Vien–Lao Cai Railway Upgrading Project" (PDF). November 2006. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
  11. ^ "Vietnam Railways Website (English)". Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-05-10. Check the timetable from Hanoi to Sai Gon (or vice versa) to see journey times.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Viet Nam: Preparing the Kunming – Haiphong Transport Corridor Project—Feasibility Study and Preliminary Design" (pdf). June 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-17.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Các ga trên tuyến đường sắt Hà Nội - Lào Cai" [Railway stations on the Hanoi–Lao Cai Railway] (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-05-02. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
  14. ^ "Indian Mail: International". Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  15. ^ "Các ga trên tuyến đường sắt Hà Nội - Đồng Đăng (Railway stations on the Hanoi–Dong Dang Railway)" (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
  16. ^ a b "Giờ tàu du lịch Gia Lâm (Việt Nam) - Nam Ninh (Trung Quốc) (Train Schedule from Gia Lam (Vietnam) to Nanning (China))" (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Sébastien Schramm. "Description du Réseau" (in French). Retrieved 2010-07-01.
  18. ^ a b c "Bảng giờ tàu hỗn hợp R157/R158 (Combined Schedule for Trains R157/R158)" (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-05-05. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  19. ^ "Ga Hải Phòng" (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  20. ^ "Các ga trên tuyến đường sắt Hà Nội - Hải Phòng (Railway stations on the Hanoi–HaiPhong Railway)" (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
  21. ^ "Lịch sử các nhà ga của Đường sắt Việt Nam: Ga Đông Anh" (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2009-09-13. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  22. ^ "Các ga trên tuyến đường sắt Hà Nội - Quán Triều (Railway stations on the Hanoi–Quan Trieu Railway)" (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Railways. Archived from the original on 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
  23. ^ "Getting there and away in Thai Nguyen". Archived from the original on 2010-01-14. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
  24. ^ a b Xiaobing Li, Robert McMahon (2010). Voices from the Vietnam War: Stories from American, Asian, and Russian Veterans. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 216–222. ISBN 0-8131-2592-8.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i "A Brief History of Dalat Railroad". Viet Nam Air Force Model Aircraft of Minnesota. 2007-10-07. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  26. ^ a b "National Assembly rejects express railway project". VietNamNet Bridge. 2010-06-21. Archived from the original on 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  27. ^ a b "Vietnam to build high-speed rail with Japan aid". Reuters News. 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2006-07-20.
  28. ^ "The hare and the tortoise". Railway Gazette International. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2010-08-10.
  29. ^ Coming around the mountain[permanent dead link]
  30. ^ "Ratifying the Readjusted General Planning of Da Lat City, Lam Dong Province, and its Adjacent Areas to 2020". AsianLII. 2002-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
  31. ^ a b c Nguyen Trong Bach (1997). "Strategies on Developing Vietnam Railways up to the Year 2000 and Beyond" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
  32. ^ http://www.gasaigon.com.vn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=68
  33. ^ "Saigon— Loc Ninh rail road to be constructed". Intellasia. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
  34. ^ a b Martin Stuart-Fox (1997). A history of Laos. Cambridge University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-521-59746-3. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
  35. ^ "The Study on the Development Plan of Thakek-Vung Ang Gateway between Lao PDR and Vietnam" (PDF). Japan Development Institute (JDI). March 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  36. ^ a b Indo-chine. Zimmermann, Maurice. In: Annales de Géographie. 1895, t. 4, n°16. p. 389.
  37. ^ Les chemins de fer de l'Indochine française. Arnaud Georges. In: Annales de Géographie. 1924, t. 33, n°185. pp. 501–503.
  38. ^ Tram Views of Asia: Indochina
Bibliography

External links[edit]