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List of recently extinct mammals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Biodiversity of large mammal species per continent before and after humans' arrival
2 extinct in the wild mammalian species (0.03%)203 critically endangered mammalian species (3.5%)505 endangered mammalian species (8.7%)536 vulnerable mammalian species (9.3%)345 near threatened mammalian species (6.0%)3306 least concern mammalian species (57%)872 data deficient mammalian species (15%)
Mammalian species (IUCN, 2020-1)
  • 5850 extant species have been evaluated
  • 4978 of those are fully assessed[a]
  • 3651 are not threatened at present[b]
  • 1244 to 2116 are threatened[c]
  • 81 to 83 are extinct or extinct in the wild:
    • 81 extinct (EX) species[d]
    • 2 extinct in the wild (EW)
    • 0 possibly extinct [CR(PE)]
    • 0 possibly extinct in the wild [CR(PEW)]

  1. ^ excludes data deficient evaluations.
  2. ^ NT and LC.
  3. ^ Threatened comprises CR, EN and VU. Upper estimate additionally includes DD.
  4. ^ Chart omits extinct (EX) species

Recently extinct mammals are defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as any mammals that have become extinct since the year 1500 CE.[1] Since then, roughly 80 mammal species have become extinct.[2]

Extinction of taxa is difficult to confirm, as a long gap without a sighting is not definitive, but before 1995 a threshold of 50 years without a sighting was used to declare extinction.[1]

One study found that extinction from habitat loss is the hardest to detect, as this might only fragment populations to the point of concealment from humans. Some mammals declared as extinct may very well reappear.[1] For example, a study found that 36% of purported mammalian extinction had been resolved, while the rest either had validity issues (insufficient evidence) or had been rediscovered.[3]

As of June 2023, the IUCN listed 233 mammalian species as "critically endangered", while 27% of all mammalian species were threatened with extinction.[4]



All species listed as "Extinct" are classified as being extinct (no known remaining individuals left) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). All species listed as Extinct in the wild are classified as being extinct in the wild, meaning that all remaining individuals of the species reside in captivity. All species listed as "Possibly extinct" are classified as being critically endangered, as it is unknown whether or not these species are extinct.[5] Extinct subspecies such as the Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica)[6] are not listed here as the species, in this case Panthera tigris, is still extant. The IUCN Redlist classification for each species serves as a citation, and the superscripted "IUCN" by the date is a link to that species' page. A range map is provided wherever available, and a description of their former or current range is given if a range map is not available.

Causes of extinction


Habitat degradation is currently the main anthropogenic cause of species extinctions. The main cause of habitat degradation worldwide is agriculture, with urban sprawl, logging, mining and some fishing practices close behind. The physical destruction of a habitat, both directly (deforestation for land development or lumber) and indirectly (burning fossil fuels), is an example of this.[7][8]

Also, increasing toxicity, through media such as pesticides, can kill off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through contamination or sterilizing them. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), for example, can bioaccumulate to hazardous levels, getting increasingly more dangerous further up the food chain.[9]

Disease can also be a factor: white nose syndrome in bats, for example, is causing a substantial decline in their populations and may even lead to the extinction of a species.[10]

Overhunting also has an impact. Terrestrial mammals, such as the tiger and deer, are mainly hunted for their pelts and in some cases meat, and marine mammals can be hunted for their oil and leather. Specific targeting of one species can be problematic to the ecosystem because the sudden demise of one species can inadvertently lead to the demise of another (coextinction) especially if the targeted species is a keystone species. Sea otters, for example, were hunted in the maritime fur trade, and their drop in population led to the rise in sea urchins—their main food source—which decreased the population of kelp—the sea urchin's and Steller's sea cow's main food source—leading to the extinction of the Steller's sea cow.[11] The hunting of an already limited species can easily lead to its extinction, as with the bluebuck whose range was confined to 1,700 square miles (4,400 km2) and which was hunted into extinction soon after discovery by European settlers.[12]



Island creatures are usually endemic to only that island, and that limited range and small population can leave them vulnerable to sudden changes.[13] While Australia is a continent and not an island, due to its geographical isolation, its unique fauna has suffered an extreme decline in mammal species, 10% of its 273 terrestrial mammals, since European settlement (a loss of one to two species per decade); in contrast, only one species in North America has become extinct since European settlement.[citation needed] Furthermore, 21% of Australia's mammals are threatened, and unlike in most other continents, the main cause is predation by feral species, such as cats.[14]

Extinct species


A species is declared extinct after exhaustive surveys of all potential habitats eliminate all reasonable doubt that the last individual of a species, whether in the wild or in captivity, has died.[15] Recently extinct species are defined by the IUCN as becoming extinct after 1500 CE.[1]

Common name Binomial name Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops
Gould, 1844
Diprotodontia 1875 1 Australia
Eastern hare wallaby Lagorchestes leporides
Gould, 1841
Diprotodontia 1889 1
Lake Mackay hare-wallaby Lagorchestes asomatus
Finlayson, 1943
Diprotodontia 1932 1 Australia
Desert rat-kangaroo Caloprymnus campestris
Gould, 1843
Diprotodontia 1935 1
or Tasmanian wolf/tiger
Thylacinus cynocephalus
Harris, 1808
Dasyuromorphia 1936 1
Australia, Tasmania
Toolache wallaby Macropus greyi
Waterhouse, 1846
Diprotodontia 1939 1 Australia
Desert bandicoot Perameles eremiana
Spencer, 1837
Peramelemorphia 1943 1 Australia
New South Wales barred bandicoot[16] Perameles fasciata
Gray, 1841
Peramelemorphia mid-19th century Australia
Southwestern barred bandicoot[16] Perameles myosuros
Wagner, 1841
Peramelemorphia mid-19th century Australia
Southern barred bandicoot[16] Perameles notina
Thomas, 1922
Peramelemorphia mid-19th century Australia
Nullarbor barred bandicoot[16] Perameles papillon
Travouillon & Phillips, 2018
Peramelemorphia early 20th century Australia
Lesser bilby,
or Yallara
Macrotis leucura
Thomas, 1887
Peramelemorphia 1960s 1
Southern pig-footed bandicoot Chaeropus ecaudatus
Ogilby, 1838
Peramelemorphia 1950s 1
Northern pig-footed bandicoot Chaeropus yirratji
Travouillon et al., 2019
Peramelemorphia 1950s
Crescent nail-tail wallaby Onychogalea lunata
Gould, 1841
Diprotodontia 1956 1 Australia (western and central)
Red-bellied gracile opossum,
or red-bellied gracile mouse opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus
Díaz, Flores and Barquez, 2002
Didelphimorphia 1962 1 Argentina
Nullarbor dwarf bettong Bettongia pusilla
McNamara, 1997
Diprotodontia early 1500s 1 Australia (Nullarbor Plain)
Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas
von Zimmermann, 1780
Sirenia 1768 1 Commander Islands (Russia, United States)
Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola
Thomas, 1924
Rodentia 2016 1 Australia (Bramble Cay)
Oriente cave rat Boromys offella
Miller, 1916
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Cuba
Torre's cave rat Boromys torrei
Allen, 1917
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Cuba
Imposter hutia Hexolobodon phenax
Miller, 1929
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Hispaniola (currently Haiti and the Dominican Republic)
Montane hutia Isolobodon montanus
Miller, 1922
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Hispaniola
Dwarf viscacha Lagostomus crassus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia early 1900s 1 Peru
Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi
Niethammer, 1964
Rodentia 1500s 1 Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos)
Cuban coney Geocapromys columbianus
Chapman, 1892
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Cuba
Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratus
Miller, 1916
Rodentia 1536–1546 1 Hispaniola
Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensis
Allen, 1916
Rodentia early 1900s 1 Hispaniola; introduced to Puerto Rico, Saint Thomas Island, Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands and Mona Island
Big-eared hopping mouse Notomys macrotis
Thomas, 1921
Rodentia 1843 1 Australia (central Western Australia)
Darling Downs hopping mouse Notomys mordax
Thomas, 1921
Rodentia 1846 1 Australia (Darling Downs, Queensland)
White-footed rabbit-rat Conilurus albipes
Lichtenstein, 1829
Rodentia early 1860s 1 Australia (eastern coast)
Capricorn rabbit rat Conilurus capricornensis
Cramb and Hocknull, 2010
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Australia (Queensland)
Short-tailed hopping mouse Notomys amplus
Brazenor, 1936
Rodentia 1896 1 Australia (Great Sandy Desert)
Long-tailed hopping mouse Notomys longicaudatus
Gould, 1844
Rodentia 1901 1 Australia
Great hopping mouse Notomys robustus
Mahoney, Smith and Medlin, 2008
Rodentia mid-1800s 1 Australia (Flinders Ranges and Davenport Ranges)
Desmarest's pilorie,
or Martinique giant rice rat
Megalomys desmarestii
Fischer, 1829
Rodentia 1902 1 Martinique
Saint Lucia pilorie,
or Saint Lucia giant rice rat
Megalomys luciae
Major, 1901
Rodentia 1881 1 Saint Lucia
Bulldog rat Rattus nativitatis
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia 1903 1 Christmas Island
Maclear's rat Rattus macleari
Thomas, 1887
Rodentia 1903 1 Christmas Island
Darwin's Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwini
Osgood, 1929
Rodentia 1930 1 Galápagos Islands
Gould's mouse Pseudomys gouldii
Waterhouse, 1839
Rodentia 1930 1 Australia (southern half)
Plains rat,
or Palyoora
Pseudomys auritus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia early 1800s 1 Australia (Kangaroo Island and the Younghusband Peninsula)
Pemberton's deer mouse Peromyscus pembertoni
Burt, 1932
Rodentia 1931 1 San Pedro Nolasco Island, Mexico
Samaná hutia Plagiodontia ipnaeum
Johnson, 1948
Rodentia early 1500s [a] 1 Hispaniola
Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis
MacPhee, Horovitz, Arredondo, & Jimenez Vasquez, 1995
Primates early 16th century Hispaniola (currently Dominican Republic)
Lesser stick-nest rat,
or white-tipped stick-nest rat
Leporillus apicalis
John Gould, 1854
Rodentia 1933 1 Australia (west-central)
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessus
Thomas, 1899
Rodentia 1934 1 Galápagos Islands
Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus
True, 1888
Rodentia 1955 1 Swan Islands, Honduras
Blue-gray mouse Pseudomys glaucus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1956 1 Australia (Queensland, New South Wales)
Buhler's coryphomys
or Buhler's rat
Coryphomys buehleri
Schaub, 1937
Rodentia early 1500s 1 West Timor, Indonesia
Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulans
Anthony, 1916
Rodentia early 1500s 1 Vieques Island, Puerto Rico
Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango
Moojen, 1965
Rodentia 1960 1 Central Brazil
Anthony's woodrat Neotoma anthonyi
Allen, 1898
Rodentia 1926 1 Isla Todos Santos, Mexico
Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bunkeri
Burt, 1932
Rodentia 1931 1 Coronado Islands, Mexico
Vespucci's rodent Noronhomys vespuccii
Carleton and Olson, 1999
Rodentia 1500 1 Fernando de Noronha, Brazil
St. Vincent colilargo,
or St. Vincent pygmy rice rat
Oligoryzomys victus
Thomas, 1898
Rodentia 1892 1 Saint Vincent
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarum
Thomas, 1898
Rodentia 1877 1 Jamaica
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoni
Merriam, 1889
Rodentia 1897 1 Islas Marías, Mexico
Nevis rice rat,
or St. Eustatius rice rat, St. Kitts rice rat
Pennatomys nivalis
Turvey, Weksler, Morris, and Nokkert, 2010
Rodentia early 1500s [b] 1 Sint Eustatius and Saint Kitts and Nevis
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi
Andrews, 1900
Chiroptera 2009 1 Christmas Island
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus
Wagner, 1832
Lagomorpha 1774 1 Corsica and Sardinia
Marcano's solenodon Solenodon marcanoi
Patterson, 1962
Eulipotyphla 1500s 1 Dominican Republic
Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithae
Anthony, 1916
Eulipotyphla early 1500s 1 Puerto Rico, Vieques Island, Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla early 1500s 1 Hispaniola
Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major
Arredondo, 1970
Eulipotyphla early 1500s 1 Cuba
Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrus
Allen, 1917
Eulipotyphla early 1500s 1 Cuba (including Isla de la Juventud)
St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla early 1500s 1 Hispaniola
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla early 1500s 1 Haiti
Lesser Mascarene flying fox,
or dark flying fox
Pteropus subniger
kerr, 1792
Chiroptera 1864 1 Réunion, Mauritius
Guam flying fox,
or Guam fruit bat
Pteropus tokudae
Tate, 1934
Chiroptera 1968 1 Guam
Dusky flying fox,
or Percy Island flying fox
Pteropus brunneus
Dobson, 1878
Chiroptera 1870 1 Percy Islands (Australia)
Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus
Andersen, 1908
Chiroptera 1874 1 Palau
Large sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingens
Grandidier, 1899
Primates 1620 1
In green
Aurochs Bos primigenius
Bojanus, 1827
Artiodactyla 1627 1
Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus
Pallas, 1766
Artiodactyla 1800 1
Red gazelle Eudorcas rufina
Thomas, 1894
Artiodactyla late 1800s 1 Algeria
Schomburgk's deer Rucervus schomburgki
Blyth, 1863
Artiodactyla 1932 1 Thailand
Queen of Sheba's gazelle,
or Yemen gazelle
Gazella bilkis
Grover and Lay, 1985
Artiodactyla 1951 1 Yemen
Madagascan dwarf hippopotamus Hippopotamus lemerlei
Milne-Edwards, 1868
Artiodactyla early 1500s [c] 1 Madagascar
Falkland Islands wolf or warrah Dusicyon australis
Kerr, 1792
Carnivora 1876 1 Falkland Islands
Dusicyon avus Dusicyon avus
Burmeister, 1866
Carnivora early 1500s 1 Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay
Sea mink Neogale macrodon
Prentiss, 1903
Carnivora 1894 1 United States (Maine, Massachusetts) and Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland)
Japanese sea lion Zalophus japonicus
Peters, 1866
Carnivora 1970s 1 Japan, Korea, Russia
Caribbean monk seal Neomonachus tropicalis
Gray, 1850
Carnivora 1952 1 Caribbean Sea
Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelea
Grandidier, 1902
Carnivora before 1658 1
Lord Howe long-eared bat Nyctophilus howensis
McKean, 1975
Chiroptera prior to 1972 1 Lord Howe Island, Australia

Extinct subspecies

Common name Binomial name Species Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Mississippi Valley wolf Canis rufus gregoryi
Goldman, 1937
Red wolf (Canis rufus) Carnivora 1980 North America
Caucasian wisent Bison bonasus caucasicus
Turkin and Satunin, 1904
European bison (Bison bonasus) Artiodactyla 1927 Europe
Carpathian wisent Bison bonasus hungarorum
Kretzoi, 1946
European bison (Bison bonasus) Artiodactyla 1852 Europe
Quagga Equus quagga quagga
Boddaert, 1785
Plains zebra (Equus quagga) Perissodactyla 1883 Africa
Japanese wolf Canis lupus hodophilax
Temminick 1839
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1905 Asia
Hokkaido wolf Canis lupus hattai
Kishida, 1931
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1889 Asia
Atlas bear Ursus arctos crowtheri
Schinz, 1844
Brown bear (Ursus arctos) Carnivora 1890 Africa
Bali tiger Panthera tigris sondaica
Tiger (Panthera tigris) Carnivora 1950s Asia
Caspian tiger Panthera tigris tigris
Illiger, 1815
Tiger (Panthera tigris) Carnivora 1970s Asia
Javan tiger Panthera tigris sondaica
Temminick, 1844
Tiger (Panthera tigris) Carnivora 1980s Asia
Bubal hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus
Pallas 1766
Hartebeest (Alcephalus buselaphus) Artiodactyla 1925 Africa
Portuguese ibex Capra pyrenaica lusitanica
Schlegel, 1872
Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) Artiodactyla 1892 Europe
Pyrenean ibex Capra pyrenaica pyreneica
Schinz, 1838
Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) Artiodactyla 2000 Europe
Western black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis longipes
Zukowsky, 1999
Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) Artiodactyla 2011 Africa
Cape lion Panthera leo melanochaita
Smith, 1842
Lion (Panthera leo) Carnivora mid 19th century Africa
Barbary lion Panthera leo leo
Linnaeus, 1758
Lion (Panthera leo) Carnivora 1960s Africa
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf Canis lupus nubilus
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1935 North America
Kenai Peninsula wolf Canis lupus occidentalis
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1925 North America
Banks Island wolf Canis lupus arctos
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1952 North America
Newfoundland wolf Canis lupus nubilus
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1911 North America
Florida black wolf Canis rufus floridanus
Miller, 1912
Red wolf (Canis rufus) Carnivora 1934 North America
Cascade Mountains wolf Canis lupus nubilus
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1944 North America
Mogollon mountain wolf Canis lupus nubilus
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1970s North America
Texas wolf Canis lupus nubilus
Nowak, 1995
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 19th century North America
Sicilian wolf Canis lupus cristaldii
Angelici and Rossi, 2018
Grey wolf (Canis lupus) Carnivora 1924 Europe
Mexican grizzly bear Ursus arctos nelsoni
Merriam, 1914
Brown bear (Ursus arctos) Carnivora 1965 North America
California grizzly bear Ursus arctos californicus
Merriam, 1896
Brown bear (Ursus arctos) Carnivora 1924 North America
Tarpan Equus ferus ferus
Boddaert, 1785
Wild horse (Equus ferus) Perissodactyla 1909 Europe

Extinct in the wild


A species that is extinct in the wild is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss. A species is declared extinct in the wild after thorough surveys have inspected its historic range and failed to find evidence of a surviving individual.[15]

Common name Binomial name Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus
Milne-Edwards, 1866
Artiodactyla 1939 1 China
Scimitar oryx Oryx dammah
Cretzschmar, 1827
Artiodactyla 2000 1 Sahara Desert

Possibly extinct


Extinction of taxa is difficult to detect, as a long gap without a sighting is not definitive. Some mammals declared as extinct may very well reappear.[1] For example, a study found that 36% of purported mammalian extinction had been resolved, while the rest either had validity issues (insufficient evidence) or had been rediscovered.[3] As of December 2015, the IUCN listed 30 mammalian species as "critically endangered (possibly extinct)".[4]

Common name Binomial name Order Last confirmed sighting Range Picture
or Forest ox
Bos sauveli
Urbain, 1937
Artiodactyla 1988 1
Garrido's hutia Capromys garridoi
Varona, 1970
Rodentia 1989 1[dead link] Cayo Maja, Cuba
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura
Dobson, 1889
Eulipotyphla 1985 1
Wimmer's shrew Crocidura wimmeri
de Balsac and Aellen, 1958
Eulipotyphla 1976 1
or Yangtze river dolphin
Lipotes vexillifer
Miller, 1918
Artiodactyla 2002 [d] 1
Zuniga's dark rice rat Melanomys zunigae
Rodentia 1949 1 Peru
Dwarf hutia Mesocapromys nanus
Allen, 1917
Rodentia 1937 1 Ciénaga de Zapata,
San Felipe hutia,
or Little earth hutia
Mesocapromys sanfelipensis
Varona & Garrido, 1970
Rodentia 1978 1 Cuba
One-striped opossum Monodelphis unistriata
Wagner, 1842
Didelphimorphia 1899 1
Gloomy tube-nosed bat Murina tenebrosa
Yoshiyuki, 1970
Chiroptera 1962 1 Tsushima Island and possibly Yaku Island,
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta
Dwyer, 1962
Chiroptera 1967 1 Taukihepa / Big South Cape Island, New Zealand
Ethiopian amphibious rat,
or Ethiopian water mouse
Nilopegamys plumbeus
Osgood, 1928
Rodentia 1920s 1 Mouth of the Lesser Abay River,
Angel Island mouse Peromyscus guardia
Townsend, 1912
Rodentia 1991 1 Isla Ángel de la Guarda,
Puebla deer mouse Peromyscus mekisturus
Merriam, 1898
Rodentia 1950s 1 Ciudad Serdan and Tehuacán,
Telefomin cuscus Phalanger matanim
Flannery, 1987
Diprotodontia 1997 1
Montane monkey-faced bat Pteralopex pulchra
Flannery, 1991
Chiroptera 1990s 1
Aru flying fox Pteropus aruensis
Peter, 1867
Chiroptera 1877 1
Emma's giant rat Uromys emmae
Groves and Flannery, 1994
Rodentia 1990s 1 Papua Province,
Emperor rat Uromys imperator
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia 1888 1 Guadalcanal,
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal rat Uromys porculus
Thomas, 1904
Rodentia 1888 1 Guadalcanal,
Solomon Islands
Malabar large-spotted civet,
or Malabar civet
Viverra civettina
Blyth, 1862
Carnivora late 1900s [e] 1

See also



  1. ^ A 1985 study suggested they may have survived into the 1900s based on local legends of the "comadreja"
  2. ^ There were reports of unusual rats on Nevis being eaten by islanders in the 1930s.[17]
  3. ^ Although, 14C dating points their extinction at 1000 C. E., a 1991 study found they coexisted with humans and survived into the 1500s.[18]
  4. ^ The species may be functionally extinct.[19]
  5. ^ The last confirmed sighting is unknown and their range in the wild is unconfirmed. Camera traps in Karnataka, their presumed habitat, found no individuals after 1,084 nights in 2006.[20]


  1. ^ a b c d e Fisher, Diana O.; Blomberg, Simon P. (2011). "Correlates of rediscovery and the detectability of extinction in mammals". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1708): 1090–1097. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1579. PMC 3049027. PMID 20880890.
  2. ^ Ceballos, G.; Ehrlich, A. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2015). The Annihilation of Nature: Human Extinction of Birds and Mammals. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 1421417189. "69"
  3. ^ a b Macphee, Ross D. E.; Flemming, Clare (1999). "Requiem Æternam: the last five hundred years of mammalian species extinctions". In MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Sues, Hans-Dieter (eds.). Extinctions in Near Time. Advances in Vertebrate Paleobiology. Vol. 2. ISBN 978-1-4419-3315-7.
  4. ^ a b "IUCN Red List version 2022.2". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Retrieved 21 June 2023.
  5. ^ "Possibly Extinct and Possibly Extinct in the Wild Species" (PDF). IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  6. ^ Jackson, P.; Nowell, K. (2008). "Panthera tigris ssp. sondaica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T41681A10509194. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41681A10509194.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  7. ^ Primack, R. B. (2006). "Habitat destruction". Essentials of Conservation Biology (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA.: Sinauer Associates. pp. 177–188. ISBN 978-0-87893-720-2.
  8. ^ Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken (2015). "Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet". Science Advances. 1 (8): e1500589. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E0589W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500589. PMC 4643791. PMID 26601273.
  9. ^ Kelly, B. C.; Ikonomou, M. G.; Blair, J. D.; Morin, A. E.; Gobas, F. A. P. C. (2007). "Food Web-Specific Biomagnification of Persistent Organic Pollutants". Science. 317 (5835): 236–239. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..236K. doi:10.1126/science.1138275. PMID 17626882. S2CID 52835862.
  10. ^ Langwig, K.E.; W.F. Frick; J.T. Bried; A.C. Hicks; T.H. Kunz; A.M. Kilpatrick (2012). "Sociality, density-dependence and microclimates determine the persistence of populations suffering from a novel fungal disease, white-nose syndrome". Ecology Letters. 15 (1): 1050–1057. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01829.x. PMID 22747672.
  11. ^ Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F. (2016). "Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (4): 880–885. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..880E. doi:10.1073/pnas.1502552112. PMC 4743786. PMID 26504217.
  12. ^ Husson, A. M.; Holthuis, L. B. (1969). "On the type of Antilope leucophaea preserved in the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie Leiden". Zoologische Mededelingen. 44: 147–157.
  13. ^ van der Geer, Alexandra; Lyras, George; de Vos, John; Dermitzakis, Michael (2010). Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 225–227. ISBN 978-1-4051-9009-1.
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