List of recipients of the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts

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This is a list of recipients of the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts (German: Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste), a German and formerly Prussian honor given since 1842 for achievement in the humanities, sciences, or arts.

Date of award Name Description Residence
1842 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Astronomer Königsberg
1842 August Boeckh Antiquity researcher Berlin
1842 Franz Bopp Linguist of Sanskrit Berlin
1842 Leopold von Buch Geologist and paleontologist Berlin
1842 Peter von Cornelius Painter Berlin
1842 Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach Surgeon Berlin
1842 Karl Friedrich Eichhorn Lawyer Berlin
1842 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg Naturalist Berlin
1842 Johann Franz Encke Astronomer Berlin
1842 Karl Friedrich Gauss Mathematician & astronomer Göttingen
1842 Jakob Grimm Germanist Berlin
1842 Alexander von Humboldt Naturalist Berlin
1842 Karl Gustav Jakob Jacobi Mathematician Königsberg
1842 Karl Friedrich Lessing Painter Düsseldorf
1842 Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy Composer Berlin
1842 Klemens Wenzel Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg Statesmen Vienna
1842 Giacomo Meyerbeer Composer Berlin
1842 Eilhard Mitscherlich Chemist Berlin
1842 Johannes Peter Müller Physiologist Berlin
1842 Carl Ritter Geographer Berlin
1842 Friedrich Rückert Poet and orientalist Berlin
1842 Friedrich Karl von Savigny Lawyer Berlin
1842 Johann Gottfried Schadow Sculptor Berlin
1842 Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling Philosopher Berlin
1842 August Wilhelm von Schlegel Poet Bonn
1842 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld Painter Munich
1842 Johann Lukas Schönlein Pathologist Berlin
1842 Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler Sculptor Munich
1842 Ludwig Tieck Poet Berlin
1842 Dominique François Jean Arago Physicist Paris
1842 Francesco Maria Avellino (de) Archeologist Naples
1842 Jöns Jacob Berzelius Chemist Stockholm
1842 Bartolomeo Borghesi Archeologist San Marino
1842 Robert Brown Botanist London
1842 François-René de Chateaubriand Writer Paris
1842 Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre Painter and inventor of the photos Paris
1842 Michael Faraday Chemist and physicist London
1842 Pierre Francois Leonard Fontaine Architect Paris
1842 Vittorio Fossombroni Economist Florence
1842 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac Chemist and physicist Paris
1842 John Herschel Astronomer London
1842 Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Painter Paris
1842 Bartholomäus Kopitar Slavist Vienna
1842 Adam Johann von Krusenstern Research traveler St. Petersburg
1842 Jean-Antoine Letronne Numismatist Paris
1842 Franz Liszt Musician Paris
1842 Macedonio Melloni Physicist Naples
1842 Thomas Moore Poet Wiltshire
1842 Hans Christian Oersted Physicist Copenhagen
1842 Gioacchino Rossini Composer Bologna
1842 Vasily Zhukovsky Poet St. Petersburg
1842 Gasparo Spontini Composer Maiolati
1842 Albert Thorvaldsen Sculptor Copenhagen
1842 Paolo Toschi Engraver Parma
1842 Horace Vernet Painter Paris
1844 Stephan Endlicher Botanist Vienna
1844 Alessandro Manzoni Poet Milan
1844 Adam Oehlenschläger Poet Copenhagen
1845 Heinrich Friedrich Link Botanist Berlin
1845 Théodore Gudin Painter Paris
1845 Pavel Jozef Šafárik Slavist Prague
1846 Gottfried Hermann Classical philologist Leipzig
1847 Sir David Brewster Physicist Edinburgh
1848 Karl Sigismund Kunth Botanist Berlin
1848 Louis Spohr Composer Kassel
1849 Georg Friedrich Creuzer Classical philologist Heidelberg
1849 Wilhelm von Kaulbach Painter Munich
1849 Karl Ernst von Baer Zoologist St. Petersburg
1849 Augustin Louis Cauchy Mathematician Paris
1849 François Pierre Guillaume Guizot Historian Paris
1849 Carl Benedict Hase Classical philologist Paris
1850 Wilhelm von Schadow Painter Düsseldorf
1850 Jean-Baptiste Biot Physicist Paris
1850 Eugene Burnouf Orientalist Paris
1850 Paul Delaroche Painter Paris
1850 Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall Orientalist Vienna
1851 Justus Freiherr von Liebig Chemist Giessen
1851 Friedrich Tiedemann Physiologist Frankfurt am Main
1851 Daniel François Esprit Auber Composer Paris
1851 Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve Astronomer Pulkovo
1852 Louis Gallait Painter City of Brussels
1852 Sir Richard Owen Zoologist and paleontologist London
1852 Pietro Tenerani Sculptor Rome
1853 Christian Samuel Weiss Mineralogist Berlin
1853 Honoré Théodoric d'Albert de Luynes Archaeologist Paris
1853 Thomas Babington Macaulay Historian London
1853 Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet Orientalist Baghdad
1854 Sir George Biddell Airy Astronomer Greenwich
1854 Jakob Ignaz Hittorff Architect Paris
1854 Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet Mathematician Göttingen
1854 Christian August Lobeck Classical philologist Königsberg
1854 Leopold Ranke Historian Berlin
1855 Auguste Gaspard Louis Desnoyers Engraver Paris
1855 Jean-Baptiste Dumas Chemist Paris
1855 Johann Friedrich Overbeck Painter Rome
1857 Christian Lassen Orientalist Bonn
1857 Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger Geologist Vienna
1857 Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury Painter Paris
1857 François Forster Engraver Paris
1857 Sir Edward Sabine Physicist and astronomer London
1858 Ernst Friedrich August Rietschel Sculptor Dresden
1858 Friedrich August Stüler Architect Berlin
1859 Ernst Heinrich Weber Physicist Leipzig
1860 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove Meteorologist Berlin
1860 Johann August Eduard Mandel Engraver Berlin
1860 Franz Ernst Neumann Physicist Königsberg
1860 Friedrich Christoph Schlosser Historian Heidelberg
1860 Louis Agassiz Naturalist New Cambridge near Boston
1860 John Charles Frémont Research traveler Washington, D.C.
1861 August Immanuel Bekker Classical philologist Berlin
1861 Friedrich von Hermann Economist and statistician Munich
1861 Leo von Klenze Architect Munich
1861 Heinrich Rose Chemist Berlin
1861 Edme-François Jomard Geographer Paris
1863 Friedrich Drake Sculptor Berlin
1863 Carl Joseph Anton Mittermaier Jurist Heidelberg
1863 Friedrich von Raumer Historian Berlin
1863 Jean Hippolyte Flandrin Painter Paris
1863 Edward Hincks Orientalist Killyleagh, Irland
1863 Sir Charles Lyell Geologist London
1863 Jean-Victor Poncelet Mathematician Paris
1864 Robert Bunsen Chemist Heidelberg
1864 Eduard Grell Composer Berlin
1864 Georg Friedrich Schömann Classical philologist Greifswald
1864 Wilhelm Eduard Weber Physicist Göttingen
1864 Friedrich Wöhler Chemist Göttingen
1864 Georg Friedrich Ziebland (de) Architect Munich
1865 Léon Cogniet Painter Paris
1865 Amadeo Peyron (de) Orientalist Turin
1866 Friedrich Christian Diez Romanist Bonn
1866 Peter Andreas Hansen Astronomer Gotha
1866 Johann Heinrich Strack Architect Berlin
1866 Christopher Hansteen Astronomer Christiania
1867 Eduard Bendemann Painter Düsseldorf
1867 Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg Sculptor St. Petersburg
1867 Louis Pierre Henriquel-Dupont Engraver Paris
1867 Henri Milne-Edwards Zoologist and physiologist Paris
1868 Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer Orientalist Leipzig
1868 August Meineke Classical philologist Berlin
1868 Theodor Mommsen Historian Berlin
1868 Charles Robert Darwin Naturalist London
1868 Félix Duban Architect Paris
1868 Henri Victor Regnault Chemist and physicist Paris
1868 Sir Charles Wheatstone Physicist London
1869 John of Saxony Researcher (Italian literature)
1869 Johan Nicolai Madvig Classical philologist Copenhagen
1869 Franz von Miklosich Slavist Vienna
1870 Adolf Menzel Painter Berlin
1870 Johan Peter Molin (de) Sculptor Stockholm
1871 Moritz Haupt Classical philologist and germanist Berlin
1871 Gustav Rose Mineralogist Berlin
1872 Richard Lepsius Egyptologist Berlin
1872 Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg Philosopher Berlin
1872 Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Painter London
1872 Elias Lönnrot Researcher (Finnish language) Helsingfors
1872 Thomas Romney Robinson Astronomer Armagh, Irland
1873 Hermann Helmholtz Physicist and physiologist Berlin
1873 Ludwig Knaus Painter Düsseldorf
1873 Nicaise de Keyser Painter Antwerp
1874 Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander Astronomer Bonn
1874 Ernst Julius Hähnel Sculptor Dresden
1874 Gustav Kirchhoff Physicist Heidelberg
1874 Helmuth von Moltke the Elder War researcher Berlin
1874 Heinrich von Sybel Historian Bonn
1874 Thomas Carlyle Historian London
1874 Humphrey Lloyd Physicist Dublin
1874 Max Müller Orientalist Oxford
1874 Gottfried Semper Architect Vienna
1875 Karl Weierstrass Mathematician Berlin
1875 George Bancroft Historian Washington, D.C.
1875 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Poet Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
1875 Theodor Schwann Physiologist Liège
1875 William Stokes Physicist Dublin
1876 Otto von Böhtlingk Orientalist Jena
1877 Emil du Bois-Reymond Physiologist Berlin
1877 Georg Curtius Classical philologist Leipzig
1877 Eduard Zeller Philosopher Berlin
1877 Japetus Steenstrup Zoologist Copenhagen
1878 Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke Physiologist Vienna
1878 Charles Hermite Mathematician Paris
1879 Ernst Curtius Historian Berlin
1879 Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold Zoologist Munich
1879 Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet Mathematician Cambridge, England
1880 Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld Arctic explorer Stockholm
1880 Friedrich von Schmidt Architect Vienna
1881 Andreas Achenbach Painter Düsseldorf
1881 Friedrich Hitzig Architect Berlin
1881 Lawrence Alma-Tadema Painter London
1881 Niels Gade Composer Copenhagen
1881 William Dwight Whitney Orientalist New Haven, Connecticut, US
1882 Gustav Richter Painter Berlin
1882 Johannes Schilling Sculptor Dresden
1882 Marcellin Berthelot Chemist Paris
1882 Jean-Baptiste Boussingault Chemist and astronomer Paris
1882 Giuseppe Fiorelli Archaeologist Rome
1882 Otto Wilhelm von Struve Astronomer Pulkovo
1882 Bernhard Studer Geologist Bern
1883 Reinhold Begas Sculptor Berlin
1883 August Wilhelm von Hofmann Chemist Berlin
1884 Fritz Schaper Sculptor Berlin
1884 Michele Amari Historian and orientalist Pisa
1884 William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin Physicist Glasgow
1885 Georg Waitz Historian Berlin
1885 Joseph Lister Surgeon London
1886 August Friedrich Pott Linguist Halle
1886 Giovanni Battista Carlo de Rossi Archeologist Rome
1886 Werner von Siemens Physicist Charlottenburg
1887 Johannes Brahms Composer Vienna
1887 Gustav Freytag Novelist and playwright Wiesbaden
1887 Giulio Monteverde Sculptor Rome
1887 Heinrich von Treitschke Historian Berlin
1887 Giuseppe Fortunio Francesco Verdi Composer Sant'Agata
1887 William Wright Orientalist Cambridge, England
1888 Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius Physicist Bonn
1888 Heinrich Rudolf Hermann Friedrich von Gneist Jurist Berlin
1888 Theodor Noldeke Orientalist Strasbourg
1888 Frederic Leighton Painter London
1888 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac Chemist Geneva
1888 Giuseppe Giovanni Antonio Meneghini Geologist Pisa
1888 Emile Wauters Painter City of Brussels
1889 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Physiologist Leipzig
1890 Karl Franz Eduard von Gebhardt Painter Düsseldorf
1891 Hermann Ende Architect Berlin
1891 Adolf von Hildebrand Sculptor Munich
1891 Julius von Verdy du Vernois Military writer Berlin
1891 Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de Candolle Botanist Geneva
1891 Vatroslav Jagić Slavist Vienna
1891 Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern Linguist and Indologist Leiden
1891 Austen Henry Layard Archaeologist London
1891 Anton Rubinstein Musician St. Petersburg
1891 Pasquale Villari Historian Rome
1892 Arthur Auwers Astronomer Berlin
1892 Benjamin Apthorp Gould Astronomer Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
1892 John Everett Millais Painter London
1893 August Kekulé Chemist Bonn
1893 August Kundt Physicist Berlin
1893 Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger Physiologist Bonn
1893 Sven Ludvig Lovén Zoologist Stockholm
1893 Ludwig Passini Painter Venice
1894 Jacob Georg Agardh Botanist Lund
1894 Alfred von Arneth Historian Vienna
1895 Adolf von Baeyer Chemist Munich
1895 Hermann Carl Vogel Astrophysicist Potsdam
1895 Michael Jan de Goeje Arabist Leiden
1895 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Chemist Amsterdam
1895 Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer (de) Numismatist Winterthur
1895 Giovanni Schiaparelli Astronomer Milan
1896 Otto von Bismarck Statesman Berlin
1896 Heinrich Brunner Jurist Berlin
1896 Herman Grimm Art historian Berlin
1896 Albert von Kölliker Anatomist Würzburg
1896 Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch Physicist Charlottenburg
1896 Alexander Kovalevsky Zoologist St. Petersburg
1897 Johann Wilhelm Hittorf Physicist Münster
1897 Rudolf Leuckart Zoologist Leipzig
1897 Carl Neumann Mathematician Leipzig
1897 Hermann Usener Classical philologist Bonn
1897 Albrecht Weber Orientalist Berlin
1897 Francisco Pradilla Ortiz Painter Madrid
1897 William Stubbs Historian Oxford
1898 Johann Kaspar Julius Ficker von Feldhaus Religious historian Innsbruck
1898 Sir William Henry Flower Naturalist London
1898 Gustav Oscar August Montelius Archeologist Stockholm
1898 Sir John Murray Oceanographer Edinburgh
1898 Simon Schwendener Botanist Berlin
1899 Joseph Joachim Musician Berlin
1899 Gustav von Schmoller Economist and historian Berlin
1899 Hubert Herkomer Painter Lululaund near London
1900 Max Joseph von Pettenkofer Hygienicist and chemist Munich
1901 Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns Composer Paris
1901 Rudolph Virchow Pathologist Berlin
1901 Julius Wellhausen Historian and orientalist Göttingen
1902 Alexander Emanuel Agassiz Zoologist Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
1902 John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury Biologist and archaeologist Downe, Kent
1902 Luigi Antonio Gaudenzio Cremona Mathematician Rome
1902 Carl Gegenbaur Anatomist Heidelberg
1902 Adolf von Harnack Theologian and church historian Berlin
1902 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Botanist Kiev
1902 Carl Justi Church historian Bonn
1902 Gaston Paris Scholar of Romance literature Paris
1902 Peter Petrowitsch von Semjonow-Tienschanski Geographer St. Petersburg
1903 Adolf Mussafia Romanist Vienna
1903 John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh Physicist Terling Place, Witham, Essex
1903 Theodor Ritter von Sickel Historian Merano
1904 Hermann Emil Fischer Chemist Berlin
1904 François-Auguste Baron Gevaert Music historian and composer City of Brussels
1904 Adolf Kirchhoff Classical philologist Berlin
1904 Peter Ludwig Mejdell Sylow Mathematician Christiania
1905 Graziadio Isaia Ascoli Linguist Milan
1905 Franz Jacob von Defregger Artist Munich
1905 Simon Newcomb Astronomer Washington, D.C.
1906 Franz Bücheler Classical philologist Bonn
1906 Léopold Victor Delisle Historian Paris
1906 Robert Koch Bacteriologist Berlin
1908 Max Bruch Composer Berlin
1908 James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce Historian and jurist London
1908 Wilhelm Dilthey Philosopher Berlin
1908 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Physicist Leiden
1908 Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp Pfeffer Plant physiologist and botanist Leipzig
1908 Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff Linguist (Turkic studies) St. Petersburg
1908 John Singer Sargent Artist London
1908 Gabriel Ritter von Seidl Architect Munich
1908 Johannes Vahlen Classical philologist Berlin
1908 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Classical philologist Berlin
1910 Sir David Gill Astronomer London
1910 Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin Aeronaut Friedrichshafen
1911 Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz Military theorist Berlin
1911 Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering Physiologist Leipzig
1911 Andreas Heusler Jurist Basel
1911 Otto Lessing Sculptor Berlin
1911 Sir William Ramsay Chemist London
1911 Gustaf Magnus Retzius Histologist Stockholm
1911 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Physicist Munich
1911 Gustav Schönleber Artist Karlsruhe
1911 Vilhelm Ludwig Peter Thomsen Orientalist Copenhagen
1912 Julius Ferdinand von Hann Meteorologist Vienna
1912 Reinhold Koser (de) Historian Berlin
1912 August Louis Tuaillon Sculptor Berlin
1912 Sir William Turner Anatomist Edinburgh
1912 Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt Psychologist and philosopher Leipzig
1913 Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat Artist Paris
1913 Hermann Diels Classical philologist Berlin
1913 Ernst Emil Ludwig Hoffmann Architect Berlin
1914 Camillo Golgi Physician and histologist Pavia
1914 Hans Grässel Architect Munich
1915 Heinrich von Angeli Artist Vienna
1915 Otto Friedrich von Gierke Jurist Berlin
1915 Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn Astronomer Groningen
1915 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck Physicist Berlin
1915 Santiago Ramón y Cajal Physician and histologist Madrid
1915 Hugo Ritter von Seeliger Astronomer Munich
1916 Hugo Freiherr von Freytag-Loringhoven Military theorist Weimar
1916 Rudolph Sohm Jurist Leipzig
1917 Max Klinger Printmaker and sculptor Leipzig
1917 Walther Hermann Nernst Physicist Berlin
1917 Hans Thoma Artist and designer Munich
1918 Adolf Erman Egyptologist Berlin
1918 Georg Friedrich Knapp Economist and political theorist Strasbourg
1918 Johannes Adolf von Kries Physiologist Freiburg
1918 Carl Ritter von Linde Engineer Munich
1918 Eduard Meyer Historian and orientalist Berlin
November 1918 Ceased with the end of the Prussian monarchy.
1919-1922 No award made.
1923 Revived with the President of Germany as head of the order.
1923 Albert Einstein Physicist Berlin
1923 Gerhart Hauptmann Poet Agnetendorf
1923 Felix Klein Mathematician Göttingen
1923 Hugo Lederer Sculptor Berlin
1923 Max Liebermann Artist Berlin
1924 Georg Gottfried Julius Dehio Art historian Tübingen
1924 Richard von Hertwig Zoologist Munich
1924 Hermann von Kuhl Military writer Berlin
1924 Heinrich Lüders Indologist Berlin
1924 Hans Erich Pfitzner Composer and conductor Munich
1924 Eduard Schwartz Classical philologist Munich
1924 Max Slevogt Artist and printmaker Berlin
1924 Richard Georg Strauss Composer and conductor Garmisch
1924 Richard Willstätter Chemist Munich
1925 Hugo von Habermann Artist Munich
1925 Ludolf von Krehl Physician Heidelberg
1926 David Hilbert Mathematician Göttingen
1926 Leopold Karl Walter Graf von Kalckreuth Artist and printmaker Munich
1926 Albrecht Penck Geographer Berlin
1926 Karl Vossler Romanist Munich
1929 Wilhelm von Bode Art historian and museum director Berlin
1929 Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm Furtwängler Conductor and composer Berlin
1929 Käthe Kollwitz Artist and printmaker Berlin
1929 Carl Stumpf Physiologist and philosopher Berlin
1931 Enno Littmann Orientalist Tübingen
1931 Wilhelm Schulze (de) Indogermanist Berlin
1931 Theodor Wiegand Archaeologist Berlin
1932 Paul Fridolin Kehr Historian Berlin
1933 Ernst Heinrich Barlach Sculptor, printmaker and poet Güstrow
1933 Heinrich Wölfflin Art historian Zürich
1933 Absorbed into the state honours system of Nazi Germany.
1933-1945
1946-1952 No award made.
1952 Revived with West German president Theodor Heuss as head of the order.
1952 Paul Bonatz Architect Stuttgart
1952 Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe Physicist Heidelberg
1952 Ernst Robert Curtius Romanist Bonn
1952 Ludwig Curtius Archaeologist Rome
1952 Gerhard Domagk Physician Wuppertal-Elberfeld
1952 Karl Ritter von Frisch Zoologist Munich
1952 Erich Haenisch Sinologist Herrenchiemsee
1952 Otto Hahn Chemist Göttingen
1952 Max Hartmann Biologist Tübingen
1952 Paul Hindemith Composer, violist and conductor Zürich
1952 Karl Hofer Artist and printmaker Berlin
1952 Erich Kaufmann (de) Jurist Bonn
1952 Max Theodor Felix von Laue Physicist Berlin
1952 Theodor Litt (de) Philosopher Bonn
1952 Gerhard Marcks Sculptor Cologne
1952 Friedrich Meinecke Historian Berlin
1952 Emil Nolde Artist and printmaker Seebüll
1952 Karl Reinhardt Classical philologist Frankfurt am Main
1952 Otto Renner Botanist Munich
1952 Paul Schmitthenner Architect Kilchberg
1952 Reinhold Schneider Writer and poet Freiburg
1952 Rudolf Alexander Schröder Poet Sonnleithen
1952 Renée Sintenis Artist and printmaker Berlin
1952 Eduard Spranger Philosopher Tübingen
1952 Otto Warburg Biochemist Berlin
1952 Heinrich Wieland Chemist Starnberg
1952 Adolf Windaus Chemist Göttingen
1954 Niels Henrik David Bohr Physicist Copenhagen
1954 Carl Jacob Burckhardt Historian Vinzel, Switzerland
1954 Arthur H. Compton Physicist St. Louis, US
1954 George Peabody Gooch Historian Chalfont St. Peter, England
1954 Hermann Hesse Writer Montagnola, Switzerland
1954 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Philosopher of religion New Delhi
1954 Albert Schweitzer Philosopher, theologian and music historian Lambarene
1954 Alfred Weber Sociologist Heidelberg
1955 Sir Henry Hallett Dale Physiologist London
1955 Étienne Gilson Philosopher Paris
1955 Werner Jaeger Classical philologist Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
1955 Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren Sinologist Stockholm
1955 Oskar Kokoschka Artist, printmaker and writer Villeneuve, Switzerland
1955 Thomas Mann Writer Kilchberg, Switzerland
1955 Gilbert Murray Greek scholar Oxford
1955 Hans Purrmann Artist and printmaker Montagnola, Switzerland
1956 Luigi Einaudi Economist Dogliani, Italy
1956 Max Huber Jurist Zürich
1956 Lise Meitner Physicist Stockholm
1956 Carl Orff Composer Dießen am Ammersee
1956 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Artist Berlin
1956 Erwin Schrödinger Physicist Vienna
1956 Thornton Wilder Writer New Haven, Connecticut, US
1957 Werner Heisenberg Physicist Munich
1957 George de Hevesy Chemist and physicist Stockholm
1957 Charles B. Huggins Physician Chicago
1957 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Architect Chicago
1957 Gerhard Ritter Historian Freiburg
1958 Werner Bergengruen Writer Baden-Baden
1958 Romano Guardini Philosopher Munich
1958 Richard Kuhn Chemist and biochemist Heidelberg
1958 Percy Ernst Schramm Historian Göttingen
1959 Ernst Beutler (de) Literary scholar Frankfurt am Main
1959 Ernst Buschor Archaeologist Munich
1959 Thomas Stearns Eliot Poet London
1959 François Louis Ganshof Historian City of Brussels
1959 Pieter Catharinus Arie Geyl Historian Utrecht
1960 Hans Kienle Astronomer Heidelberg
1961 Hans Rothfels Historian Tübingen
1961 Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker Physicist and philosopher Hamburg
1962 Adolf Butenandt Biochemist Munich
1962 Albert Defant Geophysicist Innsbruck
1962 Franz Dölger Byzantinist Munich
1962 Wolfgang Schadewaldt Classical philologist Tübingen
1963 André-Jean Festugière Historian Paris
1963 André Grabar Art historian Paris
1963 Gerhard von Rad Theologian Heidelberg
1963 Carl Ludwig Siegel Mathematician Göttingen
1963 Walther von Wartburg Romanist Basel
1964 Rudolf Hillebrecht (de) Architect and town planner Hanover
1964 Karl Jaspers Philosopher Basel
1964 Alfred Kühn Zoologist Tübingen
1966 Sir James Chadwick Physicist Denbigh
1966 Annette Kolb Writer Munich
1966 Georg Ostrogorsky Byzantinist Belgrad
1966 Emil Staiger (de) Literary historian Zürich
1966 Alexander Lord Todd Chemist Cambridge, England
1966 Wieland Wagner Opera director and stage designer Bayreuth
1966 Hans Wimmer Sculptor Munich
1967 Kurt Bittel Archaeologist Berlin
1967 Erich Heckel Artist and printmaker Hemmenhofen
1967 Marie Luise von Kaschnitz Writer Frankfurt am Main
1967 Otto Klemperer Conductor and composer Zürich
1967 Gyula Moravcsik Byzantinist Budapest
1967 Erwin Panofsky Art historian Princeton, New Jersey, US
1967 Hideki Yukawa Physicist Tokyo
1967 Carl Zuckmayer Writer Saas-Fee
1968 Theodor Eschenburg (de) Political scientist and journalist Tübingen
1968 Marino Marini Sculptor and printmaker Milan
1968 Kurt Mothes (de) Plant physiologist Halle
1969 Alvar Aalto Architect Helsinki
1969 Sir Cecil Maurice Bowra Classical philologist Oxford
1969 Rudolf Bultmann Theologian Marburg
1969 Hugo Friedrich (de) Romanist Freiburg
1969 Stephan Kuttner Canonist and legal historian New Haven, Connecticut, US
1969 Konrad Lorenz Zoologist Altenberg, Austria
1969 Franz Wieacker (de) Legal historian Göttingen
1969 Karl Waldemar Ziegler Chemist Mülheim
1970 Egon Eiermann Architect Baden-Baden
1970 Walther Gerlach Physicist Munich
1970 Fritz Kortner Actor and director Munich
1970 Karl Rahner Theologian Münster
1971 Hans-Georg Gadamer Philosopher Heidelberg-Ziegelhausen
1971 Rolf Gutbrod (de) Architect Stuttgart
1971 Albin Lesky (de) Classical philologist Vienna
1971 Feodor Lynen Biochemist Munich
1971 Theodor Schieder Historian Cologne
1971 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Biochemist Hesinki
1972 Andreas Alföldi Historian Princeton, New Jersey, US
1972 Sir Hans Adolf Krebs Biochemist Iffley, Oxford
1972 Henry Moore Sculptor Much Hadham
1972 Walter Rossow (de) Garden designer and landscape architect Berlin
1972 Fritz Winter Artist Dießen am Ammersee
1973 Raymond Aron Sociologist Paris
1973 Helmut Coing (de) Jurist Frankfurt am Main
1973 Manfred Eigen Physical chemist Göttingen
1973 Golo Mann Historian, journalist and writer Kilchberg, Switzerland
1973 Hans Erich Nossack Writer Hamburg
1973 Bartel Leendert van der Waerden Mathematician Zürich
1973 Maria Wimmer (de) Actor Munich
1974 Wolfgang Gentner Physicist Heidelberg
1974 Thrasybulos Georgiades (de) Musicologist Munich
1974 Fritz Albert Lipmann Biochemist New York City
1974 Sir Ronald Syme Historian Oxford
1975 Pierre Boulez Composer and conductor Paris
1975 Richard Ettinghausen Art historian Princeton, New Jersey, US
1975 Emil Karl Frey Surgeon Munich
1975 György Ligeti Composer Hamburg
1975 Kenzo Tange Architect Tokyo
1976 Peter Huchel Writer Staufen im Breisgau
1976 George F. Kennan Historian and diplomat Princeton, New Jersey, US
1976 Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Physicist Munich
1977 Hansjochem Autrum Zoologist Munich
1977 Sir Ernst Gombrich Art historian London
1977 Hans Hartung Artist Paris
1977 Friedrich August von Hayek Economist Freiburg
1977 Bruno Snell Classical philologist Hamburg
1978 Gerhard Rudolf Edmund Meyer-Schwickerath Ophthalmologist Essen-Bredeney
1978 Victor Friedrich Weisskopf Physicist Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
1979 Felix Bloch Physicist Palo Alto, US
1979 Elias Canetti Writer Zürich
1979 Fritz Schalk Romanist Cologne
1980 Wolfgang Paul Physicist Bonn
1980 Sir Karl Popper Philosopher of science Penn, Buckinghamshire
1980 Werner Reichardt Physiologist Tübingen
1980 Leopold Reidemeister Art historian Berlin
1981 Wolfgang Clemen Anglicist Endorf, Bavaria
1981 Felix Gilbert Historian Princeton, New Jersey, US
1981 Gershom Scholem Philosopher Jerusalem
1981 Emil Schumacher Artist Hagen
1981 Rudolf Serkin Pianist Brattleboro, Vermont, US
1981 Hans Georg Zachau (de) Molecular biologist Munich
1982 Hendrik B. G. Casimir Physicist Heeze, Netherlands
1982 Sir Bernard Katz Physiologist London
1982 Ernst Kitzinger Art historian Oxford
1983 Carl Dahlhaus Musicologist Berlin
1983 Jean Gaudemet (de) Jurist Paris
1983 Eugène Ionesco Writer and designer Paris
1983 Elisabeth Legge-Schwarzkopf Opera singer Zumikon, Switzerland
1984 Hans Albrecht Bethe Physicist Ithaca, New York, US
1984 Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau Opera singer and conductor Berlin
1984 Hermann Paul Joseph Haken Physicist Sindelfingen
1984 Kaii Higashiyama Landscape artist Chiba Prefecture, Japan
1984 Otto Kratky Physical chemist Graz
1984 Boris Borissowitsch Piotrowski Archaeologist Leningrad
1985 Bernhard Bischoff Palaeographer, philologist and historian Planegg
1986 Horst Fuhrmann (de) Historian Steinebach am Wörthsee
1987 Eduardo Chillida Juantegui Sculptor San Sebastian
1987 Max F. Perutz Biophysicist Cambridge, England
1988 Stig Fredrik Strömholm Jurist Uppsala, Sweden
1990 Gordon Alexander Craig Historian Menlo Park, California, US
1990 Carlos Kleiber Conductor Grünwald, Bavaria
1990 Jean-Marie Lehn Chemist Strasbourg
1990 Albrecht Schöne Germanist Göttingen
1991 Bernard Andreae Archaeologist Rome
1991 Alfred Brendel Pianist and Writer London
1991 Herbert Giersch Economist Kiel
1991 Friedrich Hirzebruch Mathematician Sankt Augustin
1992 Karl Dietrich Bracher Historian and political scientist Bonn
1992 Albert Eschenmoser Chemist Küsnacht, Switzerland
1992 Wolfgang Gerok Physician Freiburg
1992 Eberhard Jüngel Theologian Tübingen
1992 Giorgio Strehler Stage director Barcola, Triest, Italy
1992 Martin Walser Writer Überlingen-Nußdorf
1993 Gerhard Casper Jurist Stanford, California, US
1993 Sir Henry Chadwick Church historian Cambridge, England
1993 Walter Gehring Biologist Basel
1993 Robert Huber Chemist Germering
1993 Witold Lutoslawski Composer and conductor Warsaw
1993 Aribert Reimann Composer Berlin
1994 Albrecht Dihle Classical philologist Heidelberg
1994 Ludwig Finscher Musicologist Wolfenbüttel
1994 Ernst-Joachim Mestmäcker Jurist Hamburg
1994 Fritz Stern Historian New York City
1995 Peter Busmann (de) Architect Cologne
1995 Erwin Neher Biophysicist Göttingen
1995 Hubertus von Pilgrim Sculptor and printmaker Pullach
1995 Bert Sakmann Neurobiologist Martinsried
1995 Robert Merton Solow Economist Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
1995 Andrzej Szczypiorski Writer Warsaw
1995 Jacques Tits Mathematician Paris
1995 Niklaus Wirth Computer scientist Zürich
1996 Pina Bausch Dancer and choreographer Wuppertal
1996 Peter von Matt Germanist Dübendorf, Switzerland
1996 Rudolf Ludwig Mößbauer Physicist Grünwald, Bavaria
1997 Eric R. Kandel Neurobiologist New York City
1997 Dani Karavan Sculptor Tel Aviv
1997 Jutta Lampe Actor Berlin
1997 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Biologist Tübingen
1998 Hans Belting Art historian Karlsruhe
1998 Umberto Eco Writer and semiotician Milan
1998 Charles Weissmann Molecular biologist Zürich
1999 Magdalena Abakanowicz Sculptor Warsaw
1999 Walter Burkert Classicist Zürich
1999 Hans Magnus Enzensberger Writer and poet Munich
1999 Sofia Gubaidulina Composer Appen near Hamburg
1999 György Kurtág Composer Paris
1999 Robert Weinberg Oncologist Berlin
1999 Rolf M. Zinkernagel Immunologist Zürich
2000 Horst Albach (de) Business economist Bonn
2000 Paul B. Baltes Psychologist and gerontologist Berlin
2000 Imre Kertész Writer Budapest
2000 Günther Uecker Painter and sculptor Düsseldorf
2000 Anton Zeilinger Physicist Vienna
2001 Günter Blobel Cellular biologist New York City
2001 Nikolaus Harnoncourt Conductor and cellist St Georgen im Attergau
2002 Norman Foster Architect London
2002 Bronislaw Geremek Historian and statesman Warsaw
2002 Richard Serra Artist New York City
2003 Ralf Dahrendorf Sociologist London
2005 Wim Wenders Film directory, author, and photographer Berlin
2006 Reinhard Selten Economist Bonn
2006 James J. Sheehan Historian Stanford, California, US
2006 Christian Tomuschat Jurist Berlin
2007 Yuri Manin Mathematician Bonn
2008 Durs Grünbein Poet and writer Berlin
2008 Theodor W. Hänsch Physicist Munich
2008 Svante Pääbo Geneticist and palaeontologist Leipzig
2009 Lorraine Daston Historian of science Berlin
2009 Josef van Ess (de) Scholar of Islam Tübingen
2009 Rudolf Jaenisch Molecular biologist Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
2010 Brigitte Fassbaender Opera singer and director Obing
2010 Anthony Thomas Grafton Historian Princeton, New Jersey, US
2010 Barbara Klemm Photographer Frankfurt am Main
2010 Willem J. M. Levelt Psycholinguist Amsterdam
2011 Hermann Parzinger Prehistorian Berlin
2011 András Schiff Pianist Budapest
2011 Peter Stein Theater, opera and film director Amelia, Umbria, Italy
2011 Eric F. Wieschaus Evolutionary biologist Princeton, New Jersey, US
2012 Caroline Walker Bynum Medievalist Atlanta, Georgia, US
2012 Wolfgang Rihm Composer Karlsruhe
2013 Reinhard Genzel Astrophysicist Garching
2014 Horst Bredekamp Art historian Berlin
2014 Claudio Magris Literary scholar and writer Trieste, Italy
2014 Onora O'Neill, Baroness O'Neill of Bengarve Philosopher London
2014 Michael Stolleis (de) Jurist and legal historian Kronberg im Taunus
2015 Daniel Barenboim Conductor and concert pianist Berlin
2015 Christoph Wolff Music historian Belmont, Massachusetts, US
2016 Hans Clevers Geneticist Amsterdam
2016 Rebecca Horn Artist and director Bad König
2016 Gidon Kremer Violinist and conductor Riga, Latvia
2017 Emmanuelle Charpentier Microbiologist Berlin
2017 Jürgen Osterhammel Historian Freiburg
2017 Karl Schlögel Historian Berlin
2018 Andrea Breth Stage director

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]