List of recipients of tribute from China
Chinese zhongyuan state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history. China proper also had a strong Confucian tradition, which believed that showing virtue and giving things/gifts/tribute would civilize "Barbarians". Many of them involved silk and tea, and during the Ming Dynasty, China's input of silver increased due to trade with Spanish merchants in Manila, so they could pay them off with silver.
- Xiongnu in 200 BCE-138 BCE: the Xiongnu repulsed the invading army of the Western Han Dynasty, advanced into the territory of China, and besieged its capital. The Chinese Emperor recognised the Great Wall as the border of the two states and was obliged to pay annual tribute (silk, liquor, rice) to the Xiongnu.
- Turkic Kaganate: The Qi and Zhou Dynasties of North China surrendered to the Turks in 570 and began paying tribute. Note that the Qi and Zhou dynasties were only small parts of China proper which had fragmented into several states. The Qi and Zhou dynasties had a hybrid Sino-Turkic leadership.
- Uigur Kaganate: Successful campaigns of the Uigur Kaganate led to a peace with the Tang Dynasty which paid tribute in silk and grain for 12 years from 766.
- Khitan: From 936, Shi Jingtang of Later Jin described as a puppet of the emerging Liao dynasty. After Khitan's victory over the Song Dynasty in 1005, they hold a invasion "Chanyuan Treaty", Song pay annual tribute to Liao.
- Jurchen: In 1142, after a disastrous defeat, the Song dynasty agreed to be a vassal state of Jin dynasty and pay annual tribute.
- Altan Khan of Tumed Mongols in 1550s after Altan Khan besieged Beijing.
- Ligden Khan of Northern Yuan Chahar Mongols early 17th century: after a series of raids on China proper, the Ming court paid silver to Ligden Khan.
Notes and references
- "Xiongnu-- En el invierno del 200 adC". Dimelo. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
- "Dallas MsCurley-Juedixi, Entertainment of War in Early China". Project Muse. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
- Dr., Prof. Ts. Gantulga, Dr. T. Jambaldorj, Dr., Prof. S. Tsolmon, Dr., Prof. J. Zaanhuu, T. Altanceceg, S. Sodnam (2005). History of Mongolia II. Ulaanbaatar.
- "Chronological table of history of Siberia and Mongolia". Historical Server of Central Asia. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
- F.W. Mote (1999). Imperial China, 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–71, 123–124. ISBN 0-674-01212-7.
- Tao, Jing-shen (1988). Two Sons of Heaven: Studies in Sung-Liao Relations. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1051-2.
- A short History of the Chinese, By L. Carrington Goodrich p.169
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, p. 141. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
- Luvsandanzan (17th century). Алтан товч (Altan Tobchi). Mongolia. Check date values in:
- Dai Qing Tai-Ju Gao-Hoangdi Shi-lu. (History of the Great Qing Tai-Ju Emperor). Tokio.