List of recipients of tribute from China
Chinese state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history. China also had a strong Confucian tradition, which believed that showing virtue and giving things/gifts/tribute would civilize "Barbarians". Many of them involved silk and tea, and during the Ming Dynasty, China's input of silver increased due to trade with Spanish merchants in Manila, so they could pay them off with silver.
- Xiongnu in 200 BCE-138 BCE: the Xiongnu repulsed the invading army of the Han Dynasty, advanced into the territory of China, and besieged its capital. The Chinese Emperor recognised the Great Wall as the border of the two states and was obliged to pay annual tribute (silk, liquor, rice) to the Xiongnu.
- Turkic Kaganate: The Qi and Zhou Dynasties of China surrendered to the Turks in 570 and began paying tribute. Note that the Qi and Zhou dynasties were only small parts of China proper which had fragmented into several states. The Qi and Zhou dynasties had a hybrid Sino-Turkic leadership.
- Uigur Kaganate: Successful campaigns of the Uigur Kaganate led to a peace with the Tang Dynasty which paid tribute in silk and grain for 12 years from 766.
- Jurchen: In 1142, after a disastrous defeat, the Song dynasty agreed to be a vassal state of Jurchen and pay annual tribute.
- Altan Khan of Mongolia in 1550s after Altan Khan besieged Beijing.
- Ligden Khan of Mongolia early 17th century: after a series of raids on China, the Ming court paid silver to Ligden Khan.
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- "Dallas MsCurley-Juedixi, Entertainment of War in Early China". Project Muse. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
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- F.W. Mote (1999). Imperial China, 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–71, 123–124. ISBN 0-674-01212-7.
- Tao, Jing-shen (1988). Two Sons of Heaven: Studies in Sung-Liao Relations. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1051-2.
- A short History of the Chinese, By L. Carrington Goodrich p.169
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, p. 141. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
- Luvsandanzan (17th century). Алтан товч (Altan Tobchi). Mongolia. Check date values in:
- Dai Qing Tai-Ju Gao-Hoangdi Shi-lu. (History of the Great Qing Tai-Ju Emperor). Tokio.