List of refractive indices

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Refraction at interface

Many materials have a well-characterized refractive index, but these indexes depend strongly upon the frequency of light. Standard refractive index measurements are taken at the "yellow doublet" sodium D line, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers.

There are also weaker dependencies on temperature, pressure/stress, etc., as well on precise material compositions (presence of dopants, etc.); for many materials and typical conditions, however, these variations are at the percent level or less. Thus, it is especially important to cite the source for an index measurement if precision is required.

In general, an index of refraction is a complex number with both a real and imaginary part, where the latter indicates the strength of absorption loss at a particular wavelength—thus, the imaginary part is sometimes called the extinction coefficient . Such losses become particularly significant, for example, in metals at short (e.g. visible) wavelengths, and must be included in any description of the refractive index.

Refraction, critical angle and total internal reflection of light at the interface between two media.

List[edit]

Some representative refractive indices
Material λ (nm) n Ref.
Vacuum 1 (by definition)
Air at STP 1.000277
Gases at 0 °C and 1 atm
Air 589.29 1.000293 [1]
Carbon dioxide 589.29 1.001 [2][3][4]
Helium 589.29 1.000036 [1]
Hydrogen 589.29 1.000132 [1]
Liquids at 20 °C
Arsenic trisulfide and sulfur in methylene iodide 1.9 [5]
Carbon disulfide 589.29 1.628 [1]
Benzene 589.29 1.501 [1]
Carbon tetrachloride 589.29 1.461 [1]
Silicone oil (nD25) 589.29 1.393–1.403 [6]
Kerosene 1.39
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) 589.29 1.361 [1]
Acetone 1.36
Water 589.29 1.330 [1]
10% Glucose solution in water 589.29 1.3477 [7]
20% Glucose solution in water 589.29 1.3635 [7]
60% Glucose solution in water 589.29 1.4394 [7]
Solids at room temperature
Silicon carbide (Moissanite; 6H form) 589.29 2.65 [8]
Titanium dioxide (rutile phase) 589.29 2.614 [9][10]
Diamond 589.29 2.417 [1]
Strontium titanate 589.29 2.41 [11]
Tantalum Pentoxide 589.29 2.15 [12]
Amber 589.29 1.55 [1]
Sodium chloride 589.29 1.544 [13]
Fused silica (a pure form of glass, also called fused quartz) 589.29 1.458 [1][14]
Other materials
Liquid helium 1.025
Perfluorohexane (Fluorinert FC-72) 1.251 [15]
Water ice 1.31
TFE/PDD (Teflon AF) 1.315 [16][17]
Cryolite 1.338
Cytop 1.34 [18]
Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) 1.35–1.38 [19]
Sugar solution, 25% 1.3723 [20]
Cornea (human) 1.373/1.380/1.401 [21]
Lens (human) 1.386–1.406
Liver (human) 964 1.369 [22]
Intestinal mucosa (human) 964 1.329-1.338 [23]
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) 1.403 [24]
Sylgard 184 (polydimethylsiloxane) 1.4118 [25]
Sugar solution, 50% 1.4200 [20]
Polylactic acid 1.46 [26]
Pyrex (a borosilicate glass) 1.470 [27]
Vegetable oil 1.47 [28]
Glycerol 1.4729
Sugar solution, 75% 1.4774 [20]
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) 1.4893–1.4899
Halite (rock salt) 1.516
Plate Glass (window glass) 1.52

[29]

Crown glass (pure) 1.50–1.54
PETg 1.57
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 1.5750
Polycarbonate 150 1.60 [30]
Crown glass (impure) 1.485–1.755
Flint glass (pure) 1.60–1.62
Bromine 1.661
Flint glass (impure) 1.523–1.925
Sapphire 1.762–1.778
Boron nitride 2-2.14 [31]
Cubic zirconia 2.15–2.18 [32]
Potassium niobate (KNbO3) 2.28
Zinc oxide 390 2.4
Cinnabar (mercury sulfide) 3.02
Silicon 1200 - 8500 3.42–3.48 [33]
Gallium(III) phosphide 3.5
Gallium(III) arsenide 3.927
Germanium 3000 - 16000 4.05–4.01 [34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Morgan, Joseph (1953). Introduction to Geometrical and Physical Optics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, INC.
  3. ^ Hodgman, Charles D. (1957). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.
  4. ^ Pedrotti, Frank L.; Pedrotti, Leno M.; Pedrotti, Leno S. (2007). Introduction to Optics, Third Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-13-149933-1.
  5. ^ Meyrowitz, R, A compilation and classification of immersion media of high index of refraction, American Mineralogist 40: 398 (1955)
  6. ^ "Silicone Fluids: Stable and Inert Media" (PDF). Gelest, Inc. 1998.
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  18. ^ "CYTOP Amorphous Fluoropolymer". AGCCE Chemicals Europe, Ltd. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  19. ^ French, Roger H.; Rodriguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; et al. (2009). Optical properties of materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems (PDF). IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. p. 000394. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2009.5411657. ISBN 978-1-4244-2949-3. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  20. ^ a b c "Manual for Sugar Solution Prism" (PDF). A/S S. Frederiksen. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  21. ^ Patel, S; Marshall, J; Fitzke, FW 3rd. (March–April 1995). "Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma". J Refract Surg. 11 (2): 100–105. PMID 7634138.
  22. ^ Giannios, P; et, al (2016). "Visible to near-infrared refractive properties of freshly-excised human-liver tissues: marking hepatic malignancies". Sci. Rep. 6: 27910. Bibcode:2016NatSR...627910G. doi:10.1038/srep27910. PMC 4906272. PMID 27297034.
  23. ^ Giannios, P; al, et (2016). "Complex refractive index of normal and malignant human colorectal tissue". J. Biophotonics. 10 (2): 303–310. doi:10.1002/jbio.201600001. PMID 27091794.
  24. ^ Wright, S.F., Zadrazil, I. & Markides, C.N. (2017). "A review of solid–fluid selection options for optical-based measurements in single-phase liquid, two-phase liquid–liquid and multiphase solid–liquid flows". Experiments in Fluids. 58 (9): 108. Bibcode:2017ExFl...58..108W. doi:10.1007/s00348-017-2386-y.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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  28. ^ Index Of Refraction Of Vegetable Oil, The Physics Factbook.
  29. ^ "High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling"; Eds.: Thomas P. Seward III and Terese Vascott; The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2005, ISBN 1-57498-225-7
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  31. ^ "Combat Boron Nitride" (PDF). Saint Gobain. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  32. ^ French, Roger H.; Glass, S.; Ohuchi, F.; et al. (1994). "Experimental and theoretical determination of the electronic structure and optical properties of three phases of {ZrO2}" (PDF). Physical Review B. 49 (8): 5133. Bibcode:1994PhRvB..49.5133F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.49.5133. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  33. ^ "Silicon". Pmoptics.com. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  34. ^ "Germanium". Pmoptics.com. Retrieved 21 August 2014.

External links[edit]