List of regicides of Charles I

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Large hand-written document, coloured yellow with age. There is a block of text at the top, and 59 signatures and red wax seals at the bottom.
The death warrant of King Charles I and the wax seals of the 59 commissioners[a]

Following the trial of Charles I in January 1649, 59 commissioners (judges) signed his death warrant. They, along with the several key associates and numerous court officials, were the subject of punishment following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 with the coronation of Charles II. Charles I's trial and execution had followed the English Civil War (1642–51) in which his supporters, Royalist "Cavaliers", were opposed by the Parliamentarian "Roundheads", led by Oliver Cromwell.

With the return of Charles II, Parliament passed the Indemnity and Oblivion Act (1660), which granted amnesty to many of Cromwell's supporters. Of those who had been involved in the trial and execution, 104 were specifically excluded from reprieve, although 24 had already died, including Cromwell, John Bradshaw (the judge who was president of the court) and Henry Ireton (a general in the Parliamentary army and Cromwell's son-in-law). They were given a posthumous execution: their remains were exhumed, and they were hanged, beheaded and their remains were cast into a pit below the gallows. Their heads were placed on spikes at the end of Westminster Hall, facing in the direction of the spot where Charles I had been executed. Several others were hanged, drawn and quartered, while 19 were imprisoned for life. Property was confiscated from many, and most were barred from holding public office or title again. Twenty-one of those under threat fled Britain, mostly settling in the Netherlands or Switzerland, although three fled to the Dominion of New England.

There is no agreed definition of who is included in the list of regicides. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act did not use the term either as a definition of the act, or as a label for those involved. "Regicide" has never been specific crime in English law, and has never been defined in law. Historians have identified different groups of people as being suitable for the name, and some do not include the associates who also faced trial and punishment.

Background[edit]

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Engraving depicting the executioner holding the severed head of Charles I

Civil war, the execution of Charles I, the Interregnum and the Restoration[edit]

The English Civil War took place between 1642 and 1651. It was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads", led by Oliver Cromwell) and Royalists ("Cavaliers", led by Charles I) over, principally, political power and authority. There were three main phases to the war, the first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) wars pitted the supporters of Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of Charles's son—Charles II—and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.[3]

At the end of the first war Charles I was being held by the Scottish Presbyterian army, who handed him over to the parliamentary forces.[4] In January 1649 a trial was arranged, comprising 135 commissioners. Some were informed beforehand of their summons, and refused to participate, but most were named without their consent being sought. Forty-seven of those named did not appear either in the preliminary closed sessions or the subsequent public trial.[5] At the end of the four-day trial, 57 the commissioners present signed the death warrant; two further commissioners added their names subsequently. The following day, 30 January, Charles I was beheaded outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall;[5][6] Charles II went into exile.[5] The English monarchy was replaced with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53) and then the Protectorate (1653–59) under Cromwell's personal rule.[7][8]

Charles II wearing a crown and ermine-lined cape
Charles II was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661, following the Restoration of the monarchy.

Following the death of Cromwell in 1658 a power struggle ensued. General George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle—who had fought for the king until his capture, but had joined Cromwell during the Interregnum—brought an army down from his base in Scotland and restored order; he arranged for elections to be held in early 1660. He began discussions with Charles II who made the Declaration of Breda—on Monck's advice—which offered reconciliation, forgiveness and moderation in religious and political matters. Parliament sent an invitation to Charles to return, accepting the Restoration of the monarchy as the English political form.[9] Charles arrived in Dover on 25 May 1660 and reached London on 29 May, his 30th birthday.[10]

Treatment of the regicides[edit]

In 1660 Parliament passed the Indemnity and Oblivion Act[b] which granted amnesty to many of those who had supported the Parliament during the Civil War and the Interregnum, although 104 people were specifically excluded; of these 49 named individuals and the two unknown executioners were to face a capital charge.[5][12] Charles would probably have been content with a smaller number to be punished, but Parliament took a stronger line, according to Howard Nenner, writing for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.[5]

A gallows is in the centre of the image, to its left a large bonfire; a crowd watch.
The execution of the bodies of Cromwell, Bradshaw and Ireton, from a contemporary print

Of those who were listed to receive punishment, 24 had already died, including Cromwell, John Bradshaw (the judge who was president of the court) and Henry Ireton.[5] They were given a posthumous execution: their remains were exhumed, and they were hanged, beheaded and their remains were cast into a pit below the gallows. Their heads were placed on spikes above Westminster Hall the building where the High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I had sat.[13] In 1660 six of the commissioners and four others were found guilty of regicide and executed; one was hanged and nine were hanged, drawn and quartered. In 1662 three more regicides were hanged, drawn and quartered. Some others were pardoned, while a further nineteen served life imprisonment.[14] Most had their property confiscated and many were banned from holding office or title again in the future. Twenty-one of those under threat fled Britain, mostly settling in the Netherlands or Switzerland, although some were captured and returned to England, or murdered by royalist sympathisers. Three of the regicides, John Dixwell, Edward Whalley and William Goffe, fled to the Dominion of New England, where they avoided capture, despite a search.[5][c]

Nenner records that there is no agreed definition of who is included in the list of regicides. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act did not use the term either as a definition of the act, or as a label for those involved,[d] and historians have identified different groups of people as being suitable for the name.[5]

Shortly after the Restoration in Scotland the Scottish Parliament passed an Act of Indemnity and Oblivion. It was similar to the English Indemnity and Oblivion Act, but there were many more exceptions under the Scottish act than there were under the English act. Most of the Scottish exceptions were pecuniary, and only four men were executed (all for treason but none for regicide), of whom the Marquess of Argyll was the most prominent. He was found to be guilty of collaboration with Cromwell's government, and beheaded on 27 May 1661.[16][17]

Commissioners[edit]

Regicides[edit]

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A drawing of Oliver Cromwell's head on a spike
refer to caption
Illustration in a satirical book from the 1660s. The devil sits with eleven men: nine regicides and two chaplains who supported the execution of Charles I.
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Anonymous illustration comparing the execution of Charles I with that of the regicides
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Anonymously printed Dutch pamphlet attacking the beheading of Charles I, showing Oliver Cromwell with a fox at his shoulder

In the order in which they signed the death warrant, the Commissioners were:

Commissioners whose signatures appeared on the death warrant
Order[18][19] Name At the Restoration Fate Ref.
1 John Bradshaw, President of the Court Dead Posthumous execution: disinterred, hanged at Tyburn and beheaded. His body was thrown into a pit and the head placed on a spike at the end of Westminster Hall, facing the direction of the spot where Charles I had been executed. [20][13]
2 Lord Grey of Groby Dead Died in 1657 [21]
3 Oliver Cromwell Dead Posthumous execution: disinterred, hanged at Tyburn and beheaded. His body was thrown into a pit and the head placed on a spike at the end of Westminster Hall, facing the direction of the spot where Charles I had been executed. [13]
4 Edward Whalley Alive Fled to the Dominion of New England with a co-commissioner, his son-in-law William Goffe, to avoid trial. He was alive but in poor health in 1674, where he was sought by the agents of Charles II but shielded by the sympathetic colonists. He probably died in 1675. [22][23][24]
5 Sir Michael Livesey Alive Fled to the Netherlands. In June 1665 he was known to be at Rotterdam, and probably died there shortly afterwards. [25]
6 John Okey Alive Fled to Germany, but was arrested by the English Ambassador to the Netherlands, Sir George Downing. He was tried, found guilty and hanged, drawn and quartered in April 1662. [26][27]
7 Sir John Danvers Dead Died in 1655 [28]
8 Sir John Bourchier Alive Too ill to be tried and died in 1660 [29][30]
9 Henry Ireton Dead Posthumous execution: disinterred, hanged at Tyburn and beheaded. His body was thrown into a pit and the head placed on a spike at the end of Westminster Hall, facing the direction of the spot where Chares I had been executed. [13][31]
10 Sir Thomas Mauleverer Dead Died 1655, but was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act [32]
11 Sir Hardress Waller Alive Fled to France; later returned and was found guilty. Sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Died 1666 in prison on Jersey. [33]
12 John Blakiston Dead Died 1649 [34]
13 John Hutchinson Alive Pardoned in 1660, but was implicated in the 1663 Farnley Wood Plot; he was imprisoned in Sandown Castle, Kent where he died on 11 September 1664. [35]
14 William Goffe Alive Fled to the Dominion of New England with a co-commissioner, his father-in-law Edward Whalley, and died in 1679 [36]
15 Thomas Pride Dead Posthumous execution alongside Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw was ordered but not carried out [37]
16 Peter Temple Alive Brought to trial, sentenced to death but sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He died in the Tower of London in 1663 [38]
17 Thomas Harrison Alive First to be found guilty. Was hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross on 13 October 1660. He was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists who still posed a threat to the restoration. [39]
18 John Hewson Alive Fled to Amsterdam, then possibly Rouen. He died in one of those cities in either 1662 or 1663. [40]
19 Henry Smith Alive Brought to trial, sentenced to death but sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was held in the Tower of London until 1664 and was transported to Mont Orgueil castle in Jersey. Died 1668. [38]
20 Sir Peregrine Pelham Dead Died in 1650. [41]
21 Richard Deane Dead Died in 1653. Disinterred and buried in a communal pit. [42]
22 Sir Robert Tichborne Alive Brought to trial, sentenced to death but was reprieved. He spent the rest of his life imprisoned in the Tower of London. Died 1682. [43]
23 Humphrey Edwards Dead Died in 1658 [44]
24 Daniel Blagrave Alive Fled to Aachen—now in Germany—where he probably died in 1668 [45]
25 Owen Rowe Alive Brought to trial, sentenced to death, but died in the Tower of London in December 1661 while awaiting execution. [46]
26 William Purefoy Dead Died in 1659 [47]
27 Adrian Scrope Alive Tried, found guilty: hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross on 17 October 1660 [48]
28 James Temple Alive Brought to trial, sentenced to life imprisonment on Jersey; he died there, probably in 1674. [49]
29 Augustine Garland Alive Brought to trial, his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He died in or after 1677. [50]
30 Edmund Ludlow Alive Surrendered to the Speaker of the House of Commons, and then escaped to the Canton of Bern. Died 1692. [51]
31 Henry Marten Alive Tried and found guilty. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and died in Chepstow Castle in 1680. [52]
32 Vincent Potter Alive Brought to trial, he received the death sentence but it was not carried out; he died in the Tower of London, probably in 1661. [53]
33 Sir William Constable, 1st Baronet Dead Died in 1655. His body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey and reburied in a communal burial pit. [54]
34 Sir Richard Ingoldsby Alive Pardoned. Died 1685. [55]
35 William Cawley Alive Escaped to Switzerland, where he died in 1667 [56]
36 John Barkstead Alive Arrested by the English ambassador to the Netherlands, Sir George Downing, extradited and executed in 1662 [57]
37 Isaac Ewer Dead Died in 1650 or 1651 [58]
38 John Dixwell Alive Believed dead in England, he fled to the Dominion of New England, where he died in 1689 under an assumed name. [59]
39 Valentine Walton Alive Escaped to Germany after being condemned as a regicide. Died 1661. [60]
40 Simon Mayne Alive Tried and sentenced to death, he died in the Tower of London in 1661 before his appeal could be heard. [61]
41 Thomas Horton Dead Died of dysentery in 1649 while serving with Cromwell in the conquest of Ireland [62]
42 John Jones Maesygarnedd Alive Tried, found guilty: hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross on 17 October 1660 [63]
43 John Moore Dead In 1649 Moore fought in Ireland against the Marquess of Ormonde and became Governor of Dublin, dying of a fever there in 1650. [64]
44 Gilbert Millington Alive Tried and sentenced to death, but sentence commuted to life imprisonment. Millington spent his final years in Jersey and died in 1666. [65]
45 George Fleetwood Alive Brought to trial and sentenced to imprisonment in the Tower of London. He may have been transported to Tangier. Died c. 1672. [66]
46 John Alured Dead Died in 1651 [67]
47 Robert Lilburne Alive Tried in October 1660 and sentenced to death, although this was later commuted to life imprisonment. Died in prison in August 1665. [68]
48 William Say Alive Escaped to Switzerland. Died 1666. [69]
49 Anthony Stapley Dead Died in 1655 [70]
50 Sir Gregory Norton, 1st Baronet Dead Died 1652 [71]
51 Thomas Chaloner Alive Excluded from pardon and escaped to the Continent. In 1661, he died at Middelburg in the Netherlands. [72]
52 Thomas Wogan Alive Held at York Castle until 1664 when he escaped to the Netherlands [73]
53 John Venn Dead Died in 1650 [74]
54 Gregory Clement Alive Went into hiding, he was captured, tried and found guilty. He was hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross on 17 October 1660. [75]
55 John Downes Alive Tried, found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. Died 1666. [76]
56 Thomas Waite Alive Tried, found guilty of regicide, and sentenced to life imprisonment. Died 1668. [77]
57 Thomas Scot Alive Fled to Brussels, returned to England, was tried, found guilty; and hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross on 17 October 1660. Died unrepentant. [78]
58 John Carew Alive Joined Fifth Monarchists. Tried, found guilty; and hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross on 15 October 1660. [79]
59 Miles Corbet Alive Fled to the Netherlands; arrested by the English ambassador to the Netherlands Sir George Downing; extradited; tried; found guilty; and was hanged, drawn and quartered on 19 April 1662. [80]

Commissioners who did not sign[edit]

Five images showing scenes from 1. The House of Lords; 2. The House of Commons; 3. The bishops looking at the book of common prayer; 4. The traitors being executed; 5. Their associates being dismissed
Frontispiece to Giles Duncombe's Scutum Regale, 1660, showing scenes representing the Restoration of the English monarchy
refer to caption
Anonymously printed Dutch pamphlet attacking the beheading of Charles I, showing Thomas Fairfax holding the king's severed head

The following ten Commissioners were present when the King's fate was decided, but did not sign the death warrant:

The commissioners who did not sign
Name[81][82] At the Restoration Fate Ref.
Francis Allen Dead Attended several session including the 27 January when the sentence was agreed upon. His name was one of 24 dead regicides who were excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 (section XXXVII of the act). [83]
Sir Thomas Andrewes (or Andrews) Dead Attended three sessions, including 27 January when the sentence was agreed upon. His name was one of 24 dead regicides who were excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 (section XXXVII of the act). [84]
Thomas Hammond Dead Attended 14 sessions. He was excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act, allowing the state to confiscate the property that had belonged to him (section XXXVII of the act). [85]
Sir James Harington, 3rd Baronet Alive Escaped and died in exile on the European mainland in 1680. Due to an oversight in the Indemnity and Oblivion Act, although he lost his title, the baronetcy passed to the next in line on his death. [86]
Edmund Harvey Alive He was tried in October 1660, and sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in Pendennis Castle, Cornwall, in June 1673. [87]
William Heveningham Alive Found guilty of treason but successfully petitioned for mercy and was thereafter imprisoned in Windsor Castle until his death in 1678 [88]
Cornelius Holland Alive He fled to the Netherlands, then on to Lausanne and Vevey where he died, probably in 1671. [89]
Sir John Lisle Alive Escaped to Lausanne, Switzerland but was shot or stabbed by the Irish Royalist James Fitz Edmond Cotter (using the alias Thomas Macdonnell) in August 1664. [90]
Nicholas Love Alive Escaped to Hamburg. Died in Vevey, Switzerland in 1682. [91]
Isaac Penington Alive Sentenced to life imprisonment and died in the Tower of London in 1661 [92]
Matthew Thomlinson Alive Imprisoned without trial for a short time, before being released. He died in 1681. [93]

Others[edit]

Officers of the court[edit]

refer to caption
Example of a man being hanged, drawn and quartered

The following were the officers of the court or the official Parliamentary Guard present during the trial.

Officers of the court
Name[81][82] Office At the Restoration Fate Ref.
Daniel Axtell Officer of the Guard Alive Tried, found guilty of participating in the regicide; hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn in October 1660. [94]
Andrew Broughton Clerk of the Court Alive Escaped to Switzerland in 1663. Died 1687. [95]
John Cook Solicitor-General Alive Tried, found guilty of regicide; hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross in October 1660 [96]
Edward Dendy Serjeant-at-arms Alive Escaped to Switzerland in 1663 [97]
Dr Isaac Dorislaus Assistant to the Solicitor-General Dead A distinguished scholar from the Netherlands, he was murdered in the Hague in 1649 by royalist refugees. [98]
Francis Hacker Officer of the Guard Alive Tried, found guilty of signing the execution order; hanged at Tyburn in October 1660 [99]
William Hewlett Captain in the Guard Alive Found guilty of regicide at the same trial as Daniel Axtell, but not executed with him [100]
Cornelius Holland Member of Council of State Alive Escaped to Lausanne, Switzerland at Restoration. Died 1671. [95]
Hercules Huncks Officer of the Guard Alive Refused to sign the order to the executioners, which Francis Hacker did in his place. He testified against Daniel Axtell and Hacker, and was pardoned. Died 1660. [101][102]
Robert Phayre Officer of the Guard Alive Refused to sign the order to the executioners. He was arrested but not tried; released in 1662. Died 1682. [103]
John Phelps Clerk of the Court Alive Escaped to Switzerland. Died 1666. [104]
Matthew Thomlinson Officer of the Guard Alive Pardoned for showing courtesy to the King and for testifying against Daniel Axtell and Francis Hacker. Died 1681. [105]

Associates[edit]

refer to caption
The Most Excellent Thomas Fairfax, Captin Generall of the Armyes etc, etching, 1640s. National Portrait Gallery, London

The following were known and important associates of the regicides, including some who were named as commissioners but did not participate in the trial.

Known and important associates of the regicides
Name[82][106] At the Restoration Fate Ref.
James Chaloner (or Challoner) Alive Brother of Thomas Chaloner. He died in July 1660 from an illness caught after being imprisoned the previous year for supporting General Monck. [107]
John Dove Alive He took no part in the trial other than being present when the sentence was agreed. At the Restoration he was contrite and, after making an abject submission to Parliament, he was allowed to depart unpunished. Died 1664 or 1665. [108]
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron Alive He refused to sign the execution order. He was given a royal pardon and was allowed to keep his titles despite his involvement as Lord General of the Parliamentarian Forces. [109]
John Fry Dead He was debarred from sitting on the High Court for heterodoxy on 26 January 1649, one day before the sentence was pronounced. His name was one of 24 dead regicides who were excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act in 1660. Died 1657. [110]
John Lambert Alive Lambert was not in London for the trial of Charles I. At the Restoration, he was found guilty of high treason and remained in custody for the rest of his life, first in Guernsey and then on Drake's Island. [111][112]
Sir Henry Mildmay Alive Tried, stripped of his knighthood and sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in Antwerp in 1664 while being exiled to Tangier. [113]
William Mounson, 1st Viscount Monson Alive Tried, stripped of his titles and property and imprisoned for life in the Fleet Prison where he died in 1673. [113][114]
Hugh Peter Alive A radical preacher, he was tried and found guilty of inciting regicide; hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross in October 1660. [115]
Sir Gilbert Pickering, 1st Baronet Alive He only attended two sittings at the trial and he did not sign Charles's death warrant, so he was able to use the influence of his brother-in-law Earl of Sandwich, to secure his pardon, although he was banned for life from holding any office. [116]
Sir Henry Vane the Younger Alive After much debate in Parliament, he was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. He was tried for high treason, found guilty and beheaded on Tower Hill in June 1662. [117]
Robert Wallop Alive Sentenced to life imprisonment and died in the Tower of London in 1667 [114]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 2011 the death warrant for Charles I was added by UNESCO to the UK Memory of the World Register. The warrant has been held by the Parliamentary Archives since July 1660, after it was returned to them by Charles I's executioner.[1][2]
  2. ^ The long title of the Act is "An act of free and generall [sic] pardon indemnity and oblivion".[11]
  3. ^ The three are commemorated by three intersecting major avenues in New Haven (Dixwell Avenue, Whalley Avenue, and Goffe Street), and by place names in other Connecticut towns.[15]
  4. ^ Nenner writes that "Regicide was a sin, but it was not a crime. In English law it never had been. The government therefore eschewed the word, abandoning the debate over its use to the arena of popular discourse, where the allegations of regicide were trumpeted from the pulpit and elaborated in the press".[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Death Warrant of King Charles I". UK Parliament. Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  2. ^ "2011 UK Memory of the World Register". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  3. ^ Parker 2001, p. 1.
  4. ^ Parker 2001, pp. 22–23.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nenner 2004.
  6. ^ Spencer 2014, pp. 52–54.
  7. ^ Leniham 2008, pp. 135–7.
  8. ^ "The Civil War: November 1640–1660". UK Parliament. Retrieved 9 April 2016. 
  9. ^ Parker 2001, p. 27.
  10. ^ Fraser 2002, p. 235.
  11. ^ Raithby 1819, p. 226.
  12. ^ Raithby 1819, pp. 226–33.
  13. ^ a b c d Spencer 2014, pp. 203–04.
  14. ^ Kirby, Michael (22 January 1999). "The Trial of King Charles 1 – Defining Moment for our Constitutional Liberties" (PDF). Retrieved 9 April 2016. 
  15. ^ Major 2013, p. 153.
  16. ^ Macinnes 2007, p. 82.
  17. ^ "The king's majesty's gracious and free pardon, act of indemnity and oblivion". The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 9 April 2016. 
  18. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 329–34.
  19. ^ McIntosh, A W (1981). "The Mystery of the Death Warrant of Charles I: Some Further Historic Doubts" (PDF). UK Parliament. Retrieved 30 March 2016. 
  20. ^ Kelsey 2008.
  21. ^ Bradley 2008.
  22. ^ Durston 2008a.
  23. ^ Noble 1798b, pp. 328–29.
  24. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 290.
  25. ^ Peacey 2008a.
  26. ^ Durston 2015.
  27. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 223.
  28. ^ Kelsey 2009.
  29. ^ Scott 2008.
  30. ^ Spencer 2014, pp. 197–98.
  31. ^ Gentles 2004a.
  32. ^ Hopper 2011.
  33. ^ Waller 2004.
  34. ^ Peacey 2008b.
  35. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, p. 330.
  36. ^ Durston 2008b.
  37. ^ Gentles 2004b.
  38. ^ a b Jordan & Walsh 2013, p. 323.
  39. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 221–22, 235.
  40. ^ Durston 2004a.
  41. ^ Hopper 2004a.
  42. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, p. 331.
  43. ^ Lindley 2004a.
  44. ^ Goodwin 2004.
  45. ^ Peacey 2004a.
  46. ^ Jarvis 2004.
  47. ^ Hughes 2004.
  48. ^ Wroughton 2004.
  49. ^ Peacey 2004b.
  50. ^ Firth & Kelsey 2004a.
  51. ^ Firth & Worden 2004.
  52. ^ Barber 2004a.
  53. ^ Hopper 2004b.
  54. ^ Scott 2004a.
  55. ^ Venning 2004a.
  56. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 298.
  57. ^ Durston 2004b.
  58. ^ Noble 1798a, pp. 204–05.
  59. ^ Peacey 2004c.
  60. ^ Firth 2007.
  61. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 242.
  62. ^ Denton 2010.
  63. ^ Roberts 2004.
  64. ^ Gratton 2004.
  65. ^ Greaves 2008.
  66. ^ Durston 2004c.
  67. ^ Scott 2004c.
  68. ^ Coward 2004.
  69. ^ Peacey 2004d.
  70. ^ Porter 2004.
  71. ^ Peacey 2004e.
  72. ^ Scott 2004b.
  73. ^ Peacey 2004f.
  74. ^ Lindley 2004b.
  75. ^ Peacey 2004g.
  76. ^ Peacey & Roots 2004.
  77. ^ Hopper 2004c.
  78. ^ Firth & Kelsey 2004b.
  79. ^ Peacey 2004h.
  80. ^ Barber 2004b.
  81. ^ a b Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 334–35.
  82. ^ a b c Raithby 1819, pp. 226–34.
  83. ^ McIntosh 2004a.
  84. ^ McIntosh 2004b.
  85. ^ Aylmer 2004.
  86. ^ Kelsey 2004a.
  87. ^ Roots & Wynne 2013.
  88. ^ Hollis 2004.
  89. ^ Peacey 2004i.
  90. ^ Venning 2004b.
  91. ^ Kelsey 2004b.
  92. ^ Lindley 2004c.
  93. ^ Barnard 2004.
  94. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 230–31, 240.
  95. ^ a b Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 289, 322.
  96. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 174–75.
  97. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 230.
  98. ^ Spencer 2014, pp. 63–65.
  99. ^ Spencer 2014, pp. 183–85.
  100. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 211.
  101. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, p. 234.
  102. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 103.
  103. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 231–32.
  104. ^ Spencer 2014, pp. 231, 293–94.
  105. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 233, 234.
  106. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 335–36.
  107. ^ Scott 2004d.
  108. ^ Goodwin & Warmington 2004.
  109. ^ Gentles 2004c.
  110. ^ Pfanner 2004.
  111. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 283–84.
  112. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 99.
  113. ^ a b Spencer 2014, pp. 245–46.
  114. ^ a b Jordan & Walsh 2013, p. 280.
  115. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, pp. 236–37.
  116. ^ Venning 2004c.
  117. ^ Jordan & Walsh 2013, p. 291.

Sources[edit]