List of regions by past GDP (PPP) per capita

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These are lists of regions and countries by their estimated real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year divided by population size. GDP per capita dollar (international dollar) estimates here are derived from PPP estimates.

Characteristics[edit]

In the absence of sufficient data for nearly all economies until well into the 19th century, past GDP per capita cannot be calculated, but only roughly estimated. A key notion in the whole process is that of subsistence, the income level which is necessary for sustaining one's life. Since pre-modern societies, by modern standards, were characterized by a very low degree of urbanization and a large majority of people working in the agricultural sector, economic historians prefer to express income in cereal units. To achieve comparability over space and time, these numbers are then converted into monetary units such as International Dollars, a step which leaves a relatively wide margin of interpretation.

World[edit]

1750–1990 (Bairoch)[edit]

In his 1995 book Economics and World History, economic historian Paul Bairoch gave the following estimates in terms of 1960 US dollars, for GNP per capita from 1750 to 1990, comparing what are today the Third World (Asia, Africa, Latin America) and the First World (Europe, North America, Japan).[1]

GNP (PPP) per capita in US dollars
Year 1960 dollars 1990 dollars
Third World[A] First World[B] Third World[A] First World[B]
1750 188 182 830 804
1800 188 198 830 874
1830 183 237 808 1,047
1860 174 324 768 1,431
1900 175 540 773 2,385
1913 192 662 848 2,924
1928 194 782 857 3,453
1938 202 856 892 3,780
1950 214 1,180 945 5,211
1970 340 2,540 1,502 11,217
1980 390 2,920 1,722 12,895
1990 430 3,490 1,899 15,413


According to Bairoch, in the mid-18th century, "the average standard of living in Europe was a little bit lower than that of the rest of the world."[2] He noted variations within both groups in 1750, citing the Asian civilizations of China and India as being the wealthiest among the Third World group, and Russia and Eastern/Southeastern Europe as being the poorest among the First World group.[3] He estimated that, in 1750, the average per-capita income of the East (Asia and Africa) was roughly equal to that of Western Europe, and that China's per-capita income was on-par with the leading European economies. He estimated that it was after 1800 that Western European per-capita income pulled ahead of the East.[4] China was still ahead in 1800; his GNP per capita estimates for 1800, in terms of 1960 dollars, are $228 for China ($1,007 in 1990 dollars) and $213 for Western Europe ($941 in 1990 dollars). But China fell behind not long after, falling to $204 ($901 in 1990 dollars) by 1860.[5]

1–2008 (Maddison)[edit]

The following estimates are taken exclusively from the 2007 monograph Contours of the World Economy, 1–2008 AD by the British economist Angus Maddison.[6]

GDP (PPP) per capita in 1990 International Dollars
Country / Region 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1989 2008
Austria 425 425 707 837 993 1,218 1,863 3,465 3,706 11,235 16,360 24,131
Belgium 450 425 875 976 1,144 1,319 2,692 4,220 5,462 12,170 16,744 23,655
Denmark 400 400 738 875 1,039 1,274 2,003 3,912 6,943 13,945 18,261 24,621
Finland 400 400 453 538 638 781 1,140 2,111 4,253 11,085 16,946 24,344
France 473 425 727 841 910 1,135 1,876 3,485 5,271 13,114 17,300 22,223
Germany 408 410 688 791 910 1,077 1,839 3,648 3,881 11,966 16,558 20,801
Italy 809 450 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,117 1,499 2,564 3,502 10,634 15,969 19,909
Netherlands 425 425 761 1,381 2,130 1,838 2,757 4,049 5,996 13,082 16,695 24,695
Norway 400 400 610 664 723 801 1,360 2,447 5,430 11,323 18,157 28,500
Sweden 400 400 695 824 977 1,198 1,662 3,096 6,739 13,493 17,710 24,409
Switzerland 425 410 632 750 890 1,090 2,102 4,266 9,064 18,204 20,935 25,104
UK 400 400 714 974 1,250 1,706 3,190 4,921 6,939 12,025 16,414 23,742
12 country average 599 425 798 907 1,032 1,243 2,087 3,688 5,018 12,157 16,751 22,246
Portugal 450 425 606 740 819 923 975 1,250 2,086 7,063 10,372 14,436
Spain 498 450 661 853 853 1,008 1,207 2,056 2,189 7,661 11,582 19,706
Other 539 400 472 525 584 711 1,027 1,840 2,538 7,614 10,822 19,701
West European average 576 427 771 889 997 1,202 1,960 3,457 4,578 11,417 15,800 21,672
Eastern Europe 412 400 496 548 606 683 937 1,695 2,111 4,988 5,905 8,569
Former USSR 400 400 499 552 610 688 943 1,488 2,841 6,059 7,112 7,904
United States 400 400 400 400 527 1,257 2,445 5,301 9,561 16,689 23,059 31,178
Other Western offshoots 400 400 400 400 408 761 2,244 4,752 7,425 13,399 16,724 23,073
Average Western offshoots 400 400 400 400 476 1,202 2,419 5,233 9,268 16,179 22,255 30,152
Mexico 400 400 425 454 568 759 674 1,732 2,365 4,853 5,899 7,979
Other Latin America 400 400 410 431 502 661 677 1,438 2,531 4,435 4,203 5,750
Latin American average 400 400 416 438 527 691 676 1,493 2,503 4,513 5,131 6,973
Japan 400 425 500 520 570 669 737 1,387 1,921 11,434 17,943 22,816
China 450 450 600 600 600 600 530 552 448 838 1,834 6,725
India[A] 450 450 550 550 550 533 533 673 619 853 1,270 2,975
Other east Asia 425 425 554 564 561 568 594 842 771 1,485 2,528 4,696
West Asia 522 621 590 591 591 607 742 1,042 1,776 4,854 4,590 6,947
Asian average (excl. Japan) 457 466 572 576 572 577 548 658 639 1,225 2,683 5,611
Africa 472 425 414 422 421 420 500 637 890 1,410 1,444 1,780
World 467 450 566 596 616 667 873 1,526 2,113 4,091 5,130 7,614
Country / Region 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1989 2008

A ^ From 1 AD to 1913 AD, India includes modern Pakistan and Bangladesh. From 1950 onwards, India refers only to the modern Republic of India.

Maddison's assumptions have been criticized and admired by academics and journalists. Bryan Haig has characterized Maddison's figures for 19th century Australia as "inaccurate and irrelevant",[7] John Caldwell's assessed Maddison's arguments as having a "dangerous circularity",[8] and W. W. Rostow said "this excessive macroeconomic bias also causes him (Maddison) to mis-date, in my view, the beginning of what he calls the capitalist era at 1820 rather than, say, the mid-1780s."[9]

A number of economic historians have criticized Maddison's estimates for Asia. For example, W. J. MacPherson has described Maddison's work on India and Pakistan of using "dubious comparative data."[10] Paul Bairoch has criticized Maddison's work for underestimating the per-capita incomes of non-European regions, particularly in Asia, before the 19th century; according to Bairoch, per-capita income in Asia (especially China and India) was higher than in Europe prior to the 19th century.[11] Others such as Andre Gunder Frank, Robert A. Denemark, Kenneth Pomeranz and Amiya Kumar Bagchi have criticized Maddison for grossly underestimating per-capita income and GDP growth rates in Asia (again, mainly China and India) for the three centuries up to 1820, and for refusing to take into account contemporary research demonstrating significantly higher per-capita income and growth rates in Asia. According to Frank and Denemark, his per-capita income figures for Asia up to 1820 are not credible, go "against what we know from sources" and may need to be adjusted by a factor of two.[12] Maddison's estimates have also been critically reviewed and revised by the Italian economists Giovanni Federico[13] and Elio Lo Cascio/Paolo Malanima (see below).[14]

However, economist and journalist Evan Davis has praised Maddison's research by citing it as a "fantastic publication" and that it was "based on the detailed scholarship of the world expert on historical economic data Angus Maddison." He also added that "One shouldn't read the book in the belief the statistics are accurate to 12 decimal places."[15]

1–1800 (Maddison Project)[edit]

The Maddison Project is an international group of scholars who continue and build upon Maddison's work. In their 2014 report they concentrate on the pre-1820 period. Their revised figures show pre-industrial Europe to be richer, but its economic growth to be slower than previously thought.[16] This is consistent with Maddison's view that the income gap to Asia was already large before the Industrial Revolution.[17] The entirety of their GDP per capita estimates can be obtained from their online database.[18] The following data selection they present in their published paper:[19]

GDP (PPP) per capita in 2011 International Dollars[20]
Country / Region 1 730 1000 1150 1280 1300 1348 1400 1500 1600 1661 1700 1766 1850 1870 1913 1929 1937 1960 1973 1995 2016
UK - - 1128 - 1058 1159 1229 1717 1697 1691 1610 2365 2822 4248 5716 8052 8601 9718 13512 18795 27447 37334
Netherlands 600 - - - - - - 2151 2617 4791 3560 3789 4891 4266 4992 7285 10237 9776 14911 23539 33649 45600
Belgium 1050 - - - - - - . 2407 2607 - 2255 - 3029 4415 6922 8291 8138 11404 19964 30020 38766
France 1050 - - - 1364 1469 1906 1853 1748 1661 1731 1748 1766 2627 3086 5733 7748 7381 12170 21097 30135 37124
Germany - - - - - - - - 2315 1631 - 1897 - 2884 3715 7369 8184 9464 15565 24173 34579 44689
Austria - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2861 3229 6009 6413 5471 11302 19479 31582 41445
Finland - - - - - - - - 1209 - 1352 1543 1845 3417 4398 5571 10087 17946 26069 37239
Russia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8972 16939 12369 23635
Ukraine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11123 6552 9214
USSR - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3040 2979 4634 8481 13026 8651 18635
Yugoslavia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1066 1880 2427 2265 4580 8759 7278 15416
Czechoslovakia - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2023 2182 3929 5704 5403 9578 13202 14916 27738
Hungary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2656 5105 6024 6188 8879 13615 13989 23279
Poland - - - - - - - 1050 1036 1266 1113 1202 1189 1202 1921 3383 4119 3726 6253 10386 10950 24838
Italy 1546 - - - - 3302 3089 3568 3125 2778 - 3009 - 3018 3143 4698 5663 5651 10922 19632 32061 33419
Spain 1050 - - - - - 1585 1430 1477 1558 - 1422 - 2017 2140 3629 4938 3139 5960 13770 24465 30110
Portugal 1050 - - - - - - - - 1615 1855 1554 1938 1597 1687 2164 2786 3041 5115 12222 20507 25346
Greece 1400 - - . - - - - - - - - 1940 2339 2264 4505 5327 6052 14727 19790 22574
Turkey 984 - 844 816 - - - - - - - 1114 - - 1449 1831 1931 2566 3765 6275 11756 17906
Egypt 1225 1278 1050 1155 1173 1068 - - 1190 - . - - - 1999 2799 - - 2643 3450 7399 11351
Iraq 1225 1610 1435 1190 - - - - - - . - - - 4197 5596 - - 19133 26256 6161 13898
Jordan 1225 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1440 2058 - - 4794 4915 8211 11529
Iran 1225 - - - - - - - - - - - - . 1670 2227 - - 6003 15205 10849 16783
Indonesia - - - - - - - - - - - - - 797 892 1498 1875 1867 1776 2616 5914 10911
India - - - - - - - - - 1055 - 970 - - 710 895 969 900 1002 1135 2053 6125
China - - - - - - - - - 1083 - 791 684 754 786 800 825 843 1207 3367 12569
South Korea - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 465 669 861 1202 1691 3895 17095 36103
Japan - 633 - 818 829 - - 527 - 903 - 990 - 1072 1160 2182 3188 3643 6273 17993 31577 37465
United States - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2825 3736 8101 10543 10450 18058 26603 39391 53015
Canada - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2249 2866 7521 8568 7566 14804 23405 32961 43745
Mexico - - - - - - - - - 950 1407 1758 1672 1255 1246 2385 2886 2955 5624 9046 11360 16133
Haiti - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2512 2330 1769 1728
Cuba - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1294 - 3088 3653 2975 4360 5076 3810 7889
Brazil - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1123 1405 1354 1899 2086 4404 7885 10905 13873
Venezuela - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2126 1996 1974 3319 4382 5913 17529 15837 15219
Chile - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1178 1629 4217 4953 4433 5913 6899 12357 21696
Argentinia - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2198 2578 6670 7671 7246 9765 13986 14091 18875
South Africa - - - - - - - - - - - 4041 3299 1552 1916 - 3553 4836 7216 9906 8674 12139
Australia - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3589 5947 9369 9562 10439 15972 23398 33908 48845
Country / Region 1 730 1000 1150 1280 1300 1348 1400 1500 1600 1661 1700 1766 1850 1870 1913 1929 1937 1960 1973 1995 2016

Europe[edit]

Europe 1830–1938 (Bairoch)[edit]

The following estimates were made by the economic historian Paul Bairoch.[21] Unlike other estimates on this page, the GNP (PPP) per capita is given here in 1960 US dollars. Unlike Maddison, Bairoch allows for the fluctuation of borders, basing his estimates mostly on the historical boundaries at the given points in time.[22]

GNP (PPP) per capita in 1960 US dollars
Country / Region 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1913 1925 1938
Austria - - - - - - - - - - 655 640
Austria-Hungary 250 266 283 288 305 315 361 414 469 498 - -
Baltic countries - - - - - - - - - - 443 501
Belgium 295 345 411 490 571 589 630 721 854 894 985 1015
Bulgaria - - - 210 220 210 250 260 270 263 304 420
Czechoslovakia - - - - - - - - - - 504 548
Denmark 208 225 256 294 340 396 502 633 739 862 845 1045
Finland 188 205 227 241 313 327 368 425 451 520 578 913
France 264 302 333 365 437 464 515 604 680 689 893 936
Germany 245 267 308 354 426 443 537 639 705 743 712 1126
Greece - 200 215 230 250 260 290 300 325 322 393 590
Hungary - - - - - - - - - - 365 451
Ireland - - - - - - - - - - 624 649
Italy 265 270 277 301 312 311 311 335 366 441 480 551
Netherlands 347 382 427 452 506 542 586 614 705 754 909 920
Norway 280 305 350 401 421 464 523 577 673 749 863 1298
Poland - - - - - - - - - - 245 372
Portugal 250 255 260 275 270 270 270 287 290 292 320 351
Romania - - 190 200 210 230 246 275 307 336 316 343
Russia/USSR 170 170 175 178 250 224 182 248 287 326 232 458
Serbia - - - 220 230 240 250 260 282 284 - -
Spain 263 288 313 346 329 323 321 351 370 367 426 337
Sweden 194 198 211 225 246 303 356 454 593 680 765 1097
Switzerland 276 315 391 480 549 676 705 785 895 964 1020 1204
United Kingdom 346 394 458 558 628 680 785 881 904 965 970 1181
Yugoslavia - - - - - - - - - - 302 339
Europe 240 260 283 310 359 366 388 455 499 534 515 671
Western Europe[22] 276 - - 384 - - - 583 - 678 710 839
Eastern Europe[22] 190 - - 214 - - - 314 - 389 315 509
Country / Region 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1913 1925 1938

Western Europe 1–1870 (Lo Cascio/Malanima)[edit]

The following estimates are taken from a revision of Angus Maddison's numbers for Western Europe by the Italian economists Elio Lo Cascio and Paolo Malanima.[23] According to their calculations, the basic level of European GDP (PPP) per capita was historically higher, but its increase was less pronounced.

GDP (PPP) per capita in 1990 International Dollars
Authors 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870
Lo Cascio/Malanima 1,000 900 1,350 1,250 1,400 1,350 1,960
Maddison 576 427 771 889 997 1,202 1,960

Indian subcontinent[edit]

According to evidence cited by the economic historians Immanuel Wallerstein, Irfan Habib, Percival Spear, and Ashok Desai, per-capita agricultural output and standards of consumption in 17th-century Mughal India was on-par with or higher than in 17th-century Europe and early 20th-century British India.[24]

According to economic historian Prasannan Parthasarathi, earnings data from primary sources show that mid-late 18th-century real wages and living standards in Mughal Bengal (under the Nawabs of Bengal) and the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore (under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan) were higher than in Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe.[25][26] The economic historian Sashi Sivramkrishna estimates Mysore's average income in the late 18th century to be five times higher than subsistence level,[27] i.e. five times higher than $400 (1990 international dollars),[28] or $2,000 per capita. According to Parthasarathi, real wage decline occurred in the early 19th century, or possibly beginning in the very late 18th century, under British rule.[25][26]

Economic historians Angus Maddison[29], Stephen Broadberry, Johann Custodis, Bishnupriya Gupta[30], Jutta Bolt, Robert Inklaar, Herman de Jong and Jan Luiten van Zanden [31] have offered differing estimates of historic productivity in region, but show a similar trend of a decline between the beginning of the 17th and middle of the 19th centuries, before recovering:

GDP (PPP) per capita in 1990 International Dollars[30][31][32]
Authors 1 1000 1500 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1820 1850 1870 1900 1930 1950
Broadberry & Gupta (2010) 782 736 719 661 639 580 586 526
Broadberry & Gupta (2015) 682 638 622 573 569 520 556 526
Maddison Project (2018) 758 714 697 641 620 562 568 510 657 898 823
Maddison (2009) 450 450 550 550 550 533 533 533 599 726 619

Ottoman Egypt[edit]

According to economic historian Jean Barou, Ottoman Egypt's average per-capita income in 1800 was comparable to that of leading Western European countries such as France, and higher than the overall average income of Europe and Japan.[33] Barou estimated that, in terms of 1960 US dollars, Egypt in 1800 had a per-capita income of $232 ($1,025 in 1990 dollars). In comparison, per-capita income in terms of 1960 dollars for France in 1800 was $240 ($1,060 in 1990 dollars), for Eastern Europe in 1800 was $177 ($782 in 1990 dollars), and for Japan in 1800 was $180 ($795 in 1990 dollars).[34][35]

Roman and Byzantine empires[edit]

Much of the recent work in estimating past GDP per capita has been done in the study of the Roman economy, following the pioneering studies by Keith Hopkins (1980) and Raymond Goldsmith (1984).[36] The estimates by Peter Temin, Angus Maddison, Branko Milanovic and Peter Fibiger Bang follow the basic method established by Goldsmith, varying mainly only in their set of initial numbers; these are then stepped up to estimations of the expenditure checked by those on the income side. Walter Scheidel/Steven Friesen determine GDP per capita on the relationship between certain significant economic indicators which were historically found to be plausible; two independent control assumptions provide the upper and lower limit of the probable size of the Roman GDP per capita.[37]

Estimates of Roman GDP (PPP) per capita
Unit Goldsmith
1984[38]
Hopkins
1995/96[39]
Temin
2006[40]
Maddison
2007[41]
Milanovic
2007[42]
Bang
2008[43]
Scheidel/Friesen
2009[44]
Lo Cascio/Malanima
2009[45]
Approx. year 14 AD 14 AD 100 AD 14 AD 14 AD 14 AD 150 AD 150 AD
GDP (PPP) per capita in Sesterces HS 380 HS 225 HS 166 HS 380 HS 380 HS 229 HS 260 HS 380
Wheat equivalent 843 kg 491 kg 614 kg 843 kg 500 kg 680 kg 855 kg
1990 International Dollars $570 $633 $620 $940

Italia is considered the richest region, due to tax transfers from the provinces and the concentration of elite income in the heartland; its GDP per capita is estimated at having been around 40%[45] to 66%[46] higher than in the rest of the empire.

The GDP per capita of the Byzantine Empire, the continuation of the Roman Empire in the east, has been estimated by the World Bank economist Branko Milanovic to range between $680 and 770 (in 1990 International Dollars) at its peak around 1000 AD, the reign of Basil II.[47] This is 1.7 times the subsistence level as compared to the slightly higher value of 2.1 for the Roman Empire under Augustus (30 BC–14 AD).[48]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Paul Bairoch (1995). Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. University of Chicago Press. p. 95.
  2. ^ Chris Jochnick, Fraser A. Preston (2006), Sovereign Debt at the Crossroads: Challenges and Proposals for Resolving the Third World Debt Crisis, pages 86-87, Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Paul Bairoch (1995). Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. University of Chicago Press. p. 104.
  4. ^ John M. Hobson (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 75–76.
  5. ^ Fernand Braudel (1982). Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century. 3. University of California Press. p. 534.
  6. ^ Maddison 2007, p. 382, table A.7.
  7. ^ Haig, Bryan. 2005. "Review of The World Economy: Historical Statistics by Angus Maddison," Economic Reports, volume 81.
  8. ^ Caldwell, John C. (Sept. 2002), "Reviewed Work(s): The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective by Angus Maddison", Population and Development Review, Vol. 28, No. 3., pp. 559-561.
  9. ^ Rostow, W. W.. "Reviewed Work(s): Phases of Capitalist Development. by Angus Maddison," The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 45, No. 4. (Dec., 1985), pp. 1026-1028.
  10. ^ MacPherson, W. J. "Reviewed Work(s): Class Structure and Economic Growth. India and Pakistan since the Moghuls by Angus Maddison." The Economic Journal, Vol. 82, No. 328. (Dec., 1972), pp. 1470-1472.
  11. ^ Paul Bairoch (1995). Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. University of Chicago Press. pp. 105–106.
  12. ^ Andre Gunder Frank, Robert A. Denemark (2015). Reorienting the 19th Century: Global Economy in the Continuing Asian Age. Routledge. pp. 83–85.
  13. ^ Federico 2002, pp. 111–120
  14. ^ Lo Cascio, Malanima Dec. 2009, pp. 391–420
  15. ^ "China's magnificent historic past". BBC News. 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  16. ^ Bolt, Van Zanden 2014, p. 630
  17. ^ Bolt, Van Zanden 2014, pp. 631, 634, 638
  18. ^ Maddison Project Database, accessed 4 April 2015
  19. ^ Bolt, Van Zanden 2014, p. 635, table 1; 637, table 2. Anatolia is present-day Turkey, forming part of the Byzantine and then Ottoman Empires. 1348 Japanese GDP per capita is actually for the year 1280, 1600 US figure for 1650 and 1800 Anatolian value for 1820.
  20. ^ "Maddison Project Database 2018". rug.nl. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  21. ^ Bairoch 1976, pp. 286, table 6; 297, table 12; 301, table 14
  22. ^ a b c The border between "Western Europe" and "Eastern Europe" as defined by Bairoch corresponds to the iron curtain, with "Eastern Europe" being identical to the Eastern Bloc (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Romania, Poland, and the USSR plus Albania). All the rest of Europe makes up "Western Europe" (Bairoch 1976, pp. 317, 319).
  23. ^ Lo Cascio, Malanima Dec. 2009, p. 411, table 6
  24. ^ Vivek Suneja (2000). Understanding Business: A Multidimensional Approach to the Market Economy. Psychology Press. p. 13.
  25. ^ a b Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, pp. 38–45, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0
  26. ^ a b Jeffrey G. Williamson, David Clingingsmith (August 2005). "India's Deindustrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries" (PDF). Harvard University. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  27. ^ Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0
  28. ^ Angus Maddison (2007). The World Economy Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective Volume 2: Historical Statistics. Academic Foundation. p. 260.
  29. ^ Maddison, Angus (6 December 2007). Contours of the world economy, 1–2030 AD: essays in macro-economic history. Oxford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 0-19-922720-9.
  30. ^ a b Broadberry, Stephen; Gupta, Bishnupriya (2015). "India and the great divergence: an Anglo-Indian comparison of GDP per capita, 1600–1871". London School of Economics. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  31. ^ a b Bolt, Jutta; Inklaar, Robert (2018). "Maddison Project Database 2018". University of Groningen. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  32. ^ Broadberry, Stephen; Gupta, Bishnupriya (2010). "Indian GDP before 1870: Some preliminary estimates and a comparison with Britain" (PDF). Warwick University. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  33. ^ Jean Batou (1991). Between Development and Underdevelopment: The Precocious Attempts at Industrialization of the Periphery, 1800-1870. Librairie Droz. pp. 181–196.
  34. ^ Jean Batou (1991). Between Development and Underdevelopment: The Precocious Attempts at Industrialization of the Periphery, 1800-1870. Librairie Droz. p. 189.
  35. ^ M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 33.
  36. ^ Scheidel, Walter; Morris, Ian; Saller, Richard, eds. (2007): The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-78053-7
  37. ^ Scheidel, Friesen Nov. 2009, pp. 63–72
  38. ^ Goldsmith 1984, pp. 263–288
  39. ^ Hopkins 1995/96, pp. 41–75. His estimates are upward revisions from Hopkins 1980, pp. 101–125, where he lays out his basic method.
  40. ^ Temin 2006, pp. 31–54
  41. ^ Maddison 2007, pp. 43–47; 50, table 1.10; 54, table 1.12
  42. ^ Milanovic, Lindert, Williamson Oct. 2007, pp. 58–66
  43. ^ Bang 2008, pp. 86–91
  44. ^ Scheidel, Friesen Nov. 2009, pp. 61–91
  45. ^ a b Lo Cascio, Malanima Dec. 2009, pp. 391–401
  46. ^ Maddison 2007, pp. 47–51
  47. ^ Milanovic 2006, p. 468
  48. ^ Milanovic 2006, p. 459. This latter value also forms the basis for the only superficially lower $633 given by Milanovic et al. 2007 in the table above. The difference in the Roman and Byzantine GDP (PPP) per capita is due to the authors operating with differing conversion rates for the subsistence level: $300 in the Roman case (2.1 x $300 = ~$633), $400 in the Byzantine one (1.7 x $400 = $680). This means that Roman GDP (PPP) per capita was around 20% higher than the Byzantine one.

Bibliography[edit]

GDP per capita of the Roman Empire
GDP per capita of the Byzantine Empire
  • Milanovic, Branko (2006): "An Estimate of Average Income and Inequality in Byzantium around Year 1000", Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 449–470
European GDP per capita
  • Bairoch, Paul (1976): "Europe's Gross National Product: 1800–1975", Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 5, pp. 273–340
Angus Maddison — reviews and revisions
  • Maddison, Angus (2006): The World Economy. A Millennial Perspective (Vol. 1). Historical Statistics (Vol. 2), OECD, ISBN 92-64-02261-9
  • Maddison, Angus (2007): "Contours of the World Economy, 1–2030 AD. Essays in Macro-Economic History", Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1, p. 382, table A.7.
  • Federico, Giovanni (2002): "The World Economy 0–2000 AD: A Review Article", European Review of Economic History, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 111–120 — review
  • Lo Cascio, Elio; Malanima, Paolo (Dec. 2009): "GDP in Pre-Modern Agrarian Economies (1–1820 AD). A Revision of the Estimates", Rivista di storia economica, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 391–420 — critique of Maddison's estimates
  • Bolt, Jutta; Van Zanden, Jan Luiten (2014): "The Maddison Project: Collaborative Research on Historical National Accounts", The Economic History Review, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 627–651

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