List of religious slurs

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The following is a list of religious slurs or religious insults in the English language that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about adherents of a given religion or to refer to them in a derogatory (critical or disrespectful), pejorative (disapproving or contemptuous), or insulting manner.

Christians[edit]

Non-denominational[edit]

Bible beater (also "Bible basher" in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand)
a dysphemism for people who believe in the fundamentalist authority of the Bible, particularly those from a Pentecostal or fundamentalist denomination; [1] It is also a slang term for an evangelising Christian.[2] Commonly used universally against Christians who are perceived to go out of their way to force their faith upon others.[3]
Bible thumper (mainly US)
Someone perceived as aggressively imposing their Christian beliefs upon others. The term derives from preachers thumping their hands down on the Bible, or thumping the Bible itself, to emphasis a point during a sermon. The term's target domain is broad and can often extend to anyone engaged in a public show of religion, fundamentalist or not. The term is most commonly used in English-speaking countries.[4]
Cafeteria Christian
used by some Christians, and others, to accuse other Christian individuals or denominations of selecting which Christian doctrines they will follow, and which they will not.[5]
Fundie (US)
Shortening of fundamentalist. Usually used to mean a Christian fundamentalist.[6]
God botherer (Australia, UK, New Zealand)
Predominantly tagged to a Christian, usually one who openly declares their faith,[7] especially when unwelcome.
Rice Christian (primarily from East Asian countries)
Someone who has formally declared himself/herself a Christian for material benefits rather than for religious reasons.[8]

Protestants[edit]

Historically, Catholics would label members of certain Christian churches (also certain non-Christian religions) by the names of their founders, either actual or purported. Such supposed founders were referred to as heresiarchs. This was done even when the party thus labeled viewed itself as belonging to the one true church. This allowed the Catholic party to claim that the other church was founded by the founder, while the Catholic church was founded by Christ. This was done intentionally in order to "produce the appearance of the fragmentation within Christianity"[9]–a problem which the Catholic side would then attempt to remedy on its own terms.

Ecclesial community
This term is used in place of the word "church" by Catholics to label Protestant churches which they do not want to regard as fitting the definition of "church", but is considered offensive by some Protestants. In 2001, several leaders from the Church of Denmark released a public statement, saying in part,[10]

However, it has a destructive effect on ecumenical relations if one church deprives another church of the right to be called a church. It is just as destructive as if one Christian denies another Christian the right to be called a Christian.

Holy Roller (US)
an enthusiastic Protestant prone to rolling on the floor, suffering from fits or "speaking in tongues" (Pentecostals during worship or prayer). The term holy roller, however, is applied to some Evangelical Protestants, especially charismatics, if they are vocal about their own religious views or critical of individuals who do not meet their moral standards. Similar to Bible thumper.[11]
Jaffa (Ireland/UK)
a Protestant (see Orangie); named after a common orange-flavoured cake/biscuit in the ROI and UK.[12]
Orangie (Ireland/UK)
a pro-British Ulster Protestant, referring to supporters of the Orange Order.[13]
Prod, proddy dog (Australian Catholics; Scottish and Irish Catholics, particularly school children)
a Protestant, particularly a rival child from a Protestant school. "Proddywhoddy" and "proddywoddy" are used in children's school rhymes in Cork.[14]
Russellite
a Jehovah's Witness, from American religious leader Charles Taze Russell.[15][16]
Shaker (US)
a member of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. Originated as "Shaking Quakers", in reference to their similarity to Quakers as well as their charismatic worship practices, which involved dancing, shouting, and speaking in tongues. The term was originally derogatory,[17][18] but very early on was embraced and used by the Shakers themselves.[19]
Soup-taker (Ireland)
a person who has sold out their beliefs, referring to the Irish potato famine when some Catholics converted to a Protestant faith in order to gain access to a free meal.[20]
Spike
a very High Church Anglican or Anglo-Catholic.[21]

Catholics[edit]

Left-Footer (especially Ireland and Scotland)
an informal phrase for a Roman Catholic particularly amongst the armed forces in the UK.[22][23]
Fenian
a term used to refer to the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood who supported a united Ireland and now used as a sectarian slur by Protestants especially in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Australia.[24]
Mackerel Snapper
a Roman Catholic; the term originated in the U.S. in the 1850s and refers to the custom of Friday abstinence.[25] The Friday abstinence from meat (red meat and poultry) distinguishes Catholics from other Christians, especially in North America.[26]
Mick (Australia; Canada; UK; US)
a Roman Catholic — usually Irish Catholic (a reference to the common "Mc'" patronymic of Irish surnames, or a hypocorism of Michael)[27]
Papist (Northern Ireland and Scottish Protestants)
a Roman Catholic person — usually Irish Catholic.[28]
Redneck (Northern English)
a Roman Catholic person, nowadays somewhat dated.[29]
Roman Catholic
a term brought into use by adherents of the Church of England in regard to Branch Theory as well as distaste to the Catholic Church’s association with the term Catholic.[30]
Shaveling (archaic)
Usually disparaging: a tonsured clergyman, priest.[31]
Taig (Northern Ireland Protestants)
a Catholic; from tadhg, Irish for "Timothy".[32]

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints[edit]

Molly Mormon
a term for the stereotype of a "perfect" female member of LDS Church.[33]
Carrot-Snapper
a person from Utah, used primarily by southern Idahoans.[34]
Jello-Eater
a Mormon, derived from Utah's state snack[35]
Jack Mormon
a non-faithful LDS person or a non-Mormon altogether. Jack Mormon is usually used by non-Mormons to describe Mormons that do not follow the Word of Wisdom (dietary and health practices that exclude the use of tobacco or alcohol) and by Mormons to describe members that do not sufficiently follow practices. It is also used by Mormons to describe those who were Mormon but remain friendly to the Church. It may be applied to ex-Mormons who have repudiated the Church and its teachings but that is a rare usage.[36]

Jews[edit]

Abbie, Abe, and Abie (North America)
a Jewish male. From the proper name Abraham. Originated before the 1950s.[37]
Heeb, Hebe (US) 
a Jew, derived from the word "Hebrew".[38][39]
Hymie
a Jew, from the Hebrew Chaim ("life"). Also used in the term "Hymietown," a reference to New York, and in particular, Brooklyn, popularized by Jesse Jackson.[40]
Ikey, ike, ik
a Jew [from Isaac][41]
Ikey-mo, ikeymo
a Jew [from Isaac and Moses][41]
Jewboy
a young Jewish male, originally young Jewish boys who sold counterfeit coins in 18th century London [42][43]
Kike
the Yiddish word for "circle" is kikel (/ˈkkəl/ KY-kəl)—Illiterate Jews who entered the United States at Ellis Island signed their names with a circle instead of a cross because they associated the cross with Christianity.[44][45]
Mocky,[46] moky, moxy, mockey, mockie, mocky (U.S.)
a Jew. First used in the 1930s, possibly from the Yiddish word makeh meaning "plague".[47]
Moch (U.S.)
a Jew [first used in the 1960s as an abbreviated form of mocky (q.v.)][41]
Red Sea pedestrian (mainly Australian)
a Jew, from the story of Moses leading the Jewish people out of Egypt.[48]
Sheeny
from Yiddish sheyn or German schön meaning 'beautiful'.[49]
Shylock
Jewish people as shrewd and money-loving; named after the famous character from Shakespeare's play "Merchant of Venice".[50]
Yakubian (Nation of Islam
Jewish people; it is often mistaken as describing white people, as the Nation of Islam believes all white people are descended from Yakub, the biblical Jacob. Therefore white people and Jewish people are considered one and the same.[51]
Yid
Yiddish word for Jew.[52]

Muslims[edit]

Mussie
Corruption of the word "Muslim".[53]
Quran thumper
an excessively zealous Muslim.[54]
Hajji, Haji or Hodgie
Originated as military slang, now commonly used by non-military personnel to refer to Muslims or Middle Easterners in general. Originating from the word Hajji, an honorific title for Muslims who successfully completed the Hajj to Mecca.[55]
Mohammedan
a term once frequently used in English in a non-pejorative sense, but nowadays considered by Muslims to be offensive because of the suggestion that they worship Mohammed rather than Allah.[56]
Raghead, Towelhead
from Islamic wearing of turbans.[57]
Osama
from Osama bin Laden.[57]

Sikhs[edit]

Towelhead, Raghead
in reference to Sikh headgear (usually turbans), often used in the mistaken belief that Sikhs are connected to Islamic terrorism.[58] Also used against anyone wearing turbans or keffiyehs.[59]

Scientologists[edit]

Clam
a Scientologist, referring to a passage about clam engrams in L. Ron Hubbard's 1952 book, What To Audit, later renamed Scientology: A History of Man.[60]

General non-believers[edit]

Infidel 
a term used generally for non-believers.[61]
Heathen
a person who does not belong to a widely held religion (especially one who is not a Christian, Jewish, or Muslim) as regarded by those who do.[62]
Pagan
a person who holds religious beliefs that differ from main world religions. Synonymous with heathen.[63]

Religious practitioners in general[edit]

Cult, Cultist 
used as an ad hominem attack against groups with differing doctrines or practices.[64][65][66]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Garner's Modern American Usage (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, US. 2009. p. 286. ISBN 978-0199888771. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ Eble, Connie (1996). Slang & sociability in-group language among college students. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-1469610573. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  3. ^ Dalzell, Tom (2007). The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. London: Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 9780203962114.
  4. ^ Gilbert, Robert E. (1 October 2008). "Ronald Reagan's Presidency: The Impact of an Alcoholic Parent". Political Psychology. 29 (5): 737–765. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00662.x.
  5. ^ Odermann, Valerian (February 2002). "Pass it on: Encouraging the heart". The American Monastic Newsletter. 32 (1). Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Yet a danger does still remain. It is the danger of "cafeteria Christianity," which lets people mix and match traditions any way they want, without discipline and without accountability. Unless we transcend cafeteria Christianity, our practices will be more sarabaite or gyrovague than Benedictine. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
    - "Archbishop calls on Costa Ricans to abandon "cafeteria Christianity" and defend life". San Jose: Catholic News Agency. 29 March 2005. Archbishop Hugo Barrantes Urena of San Jose, Costa Rica, told Costa Ricans in his Easter message to embrace the faith without conditions or short-cuts and to defend the life of the unborn against efforts to legalize abortion. The archbishop warned that “based on a relativistic understanding of the Christian faith and a conditional adherence to the Church, some Catholics seek to construct a Christianity and, consequently, a Church to their own liking, unilateral and outside the identity and mission that Jesus Christ has fundamentally given us.”
  6. ^ Shuy, Roger W. (2009). The Language of Defamation Cases. Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780199742318.
  7. ^ Green, Jonathon (2005). Cassel Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 614. ISBN 978-0-304-36636-1. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  8. ^ "Rice Christians". Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  9. ^ Buell, Denise Kimber (1999). Making Christians: Clement of Alexandria and the Rhetoric of Legitimacy. Princeton University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780691059808.
  10. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark's reply to the Catholic Church
  11. ^ "roller, n1", definition 17b,[dead link] The Oxford English Dictionary (account required for online access). See also the sermon "Why I Am a Holy-Roller" Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine by William Marrion Branham, August 1953.
  12. ^ Hughes, Brendan (18 April 2017). "'Sponger' is slang for Catholic, says PSNI language guide". The Irish News. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  13. ^ Share, op. cit. p. 231.
  14. ^ Share, op. cit. p. 253.
  15. ^ "Russellite - Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias". enacademic.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. Russellite /rus"euh luyt'/, n. Offensive. a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses. [1875-80, Amer.; after C. T. Russell; see -ITE1] Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  16. ^ "russellite - Useful English Dictionary". enacademic.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. russellite ˈrəsəˌlīt noun (-s) Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: Charles Taze Russell died 1916 American religious leader + English -ite : one of the Jehovah's Witnesses — often taken to be offensive Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  17. ^ "Shaker Farms Country Club - Westfield, MA". www.shakerfarmscc.com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  18. ^ Paterwic, Stephen J. (11 August 2008). Historical Dictionary of the Shakers. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810862555. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  19. ^ ""Let us labor": The Evolution of Shaker Dance". Shaker Heritage Society. 4 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  20. ^ Hughes, "Ireland" p. 78
  21. ^ The Chambers Dictionary, Edinburgh 1993, p. 1662
  22. ^ "Left-footer definition and meaning - Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  23. ^ Partridge, Eric (2 May 2006). A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge. p. 674. ISBN 9781134963652.
  24. ^ "Socialist Worker page". web.archive.org. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  25. ^ The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English Archived 9 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine p. 1250 (2005 Taylor & Francis)
  26. ^ Morrow, Maria C. (2016). "To Eat Meat or Not?: Paenitemini, The NCCB's Pastoral Statement, and the Decline of Penance". Sin in the Sixties: Catholics and Confession, 1955-1975. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8132-2898-3. Retrieved 4 August 2017. So finally abstinence from meat on Friday became just a kind of badge of the fact we were Catholics
  27. ^ Dalzell, Tom; Victor, Terry (2014). The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge. p. 514. ISBN 9781317625124. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  28. ^ Simpson, "papist" op. cit.; Share, op. cit. p. 237.
  29. ^ Appleton, William (Reporter). "Wise v Dunning 1901 KB 169". In Pollock, Frederick; Stone, Arthur Paul (eds.). The Law Reports. 1902. Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales. At the meeting the appellant called Roman Catholics "rednecks," a name most insulting to them, and challenged them to get up.
  30. ^ "Roman Catholic" Archived 1 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine at Catholic Encyclopedia online.
  31. ^ "Shaveling". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  32. ^ Simpson, "teague"
  33. ^ Lori G. Beaman, "Molly Mormons, Mormon Feminists and Moderates: Religious Diversity and the Latter Day Saints Church Archived 23 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine" "Sociology of Religion", Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring 2001), pp. 65–86
  34. ^ Hart, John (29 January 1995). "UTAHNS? WHY, THEY WERE JUST 'CARROTSNAPPERS'". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  35. ^ Lindeman, Scarlett (24 March 2010). "Jell-O Love: A Guide to Mormon Cuisine". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  36. ^ Spears (2001), "Jack"
  37. ^ Spears, p. 1.
  38. ^ Madresh, Marjorie (28 May 2004). "Founder of 'Hip to be Heeb' magazine speaks to students". The Triangle Online. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  39. ^ "Hebe". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  40. ^ Hymie, Eric Wolarsky, Rhetoric of Race Dictionary Project, College of New Jersey. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  41. ^ a b c John A. Simpson, Oxford Dictionary Of Modern Slang ISBN 0-19-861052-1. "ikey", "ikeymo", "mock"
  42. ^ Shalev, Chemi (22 January 2016). "Israeli anti-Semites and American Jewboys, From Dan Shapiro to Wyatt Earp". Haaretz.com (Elul 15, 5778). Amos Schocken, M. DuMont Schauberg. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  43. ^ Stone, Bryan Edward (1 May 2013). The Chosen Folks: Jews on the Frontiers of Texas. University of Texas Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-292-75612-0. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  44. ^ Encyclopedia of Swearing: Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, and Ethnic Slurs in the English Speaking World/ Geoffrey Hughes. Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, c2006
  45. ^ Leo Rosten: The Joys of Yiddish, cited in Kim Pearson's Rhetoric of Race by Eric Wolarsky. The College of New Jersey.
  46. ^ "English contemporary dictionary - Mocky". enacademic.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. mocky adj. (Offensive slang) Jewish, of or pertaining to the Jewish religion or race in a derogatory manner Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  47. ^ Stevenson, Angus (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press. p. 1137. ISBN 9780199571123. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. ORIGIN 1930S: perhaps from Yiddish makeh, 'a plague'. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  48. ^ Red Sea pedestrian - Green's Dictionary of Slang. Oxford University Press. 2010. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199829941.001.0001. ISBN 9780199829941.
  49. ^ Rockaway, Robert A. (2000), But He Was Good to His Mother: The Lives and Crimes of Jewish Gangsters, Gefen Publishing House Ltd., p. 95, ISBN 978-965-229-249-0
  50. ^ Rothman, Lily (17 September 2014). "When Did 'Shylock' Become a Slur?". time.com. TIME Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015. The word "shylock," [...] is an eponym from a Jewish character in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. [...] Today, "shylock" is considered an antisemitic slur. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  51. ^ Deutsch, Nathaniel (2000), Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism, Oxford University Press, p. 100–104
  52. ^ "Yid - Origin and history of Yid by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  53. ^ "Australian television personality defends calling Muslim MP a 'Mussie'". 10 August 2015. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  54. ^ 2008, Alum Bati, Harem Secrets, page 130
  55. ^ Bay, Austin (28 January 2007). "Iraq's battlefield slang". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  56. ^ "Mohammedan Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  57. ^ a b Peek, Lori (2011). Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans After 9/11. Temple University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-59213-984-2. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  58. ^ Sidhu, Dawinder S.; Gohil, Neha Singh (23 May 2016). Civil Rights in Wartime: The Post-9/11 Sikh Experience. Taylor & Francis. pp. 104–107. ISBN 978-1-317-16560-6. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  59. ^ Stevenson, Angus (19 August 2010). Oxford Dictionary of English. OUP Oxford. p. 1881. ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  60. ^ Scientology Critical Information Directory [1] Archived 23 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ "Infidel". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014.
  62. ^ Hobson, Archie (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Difficult Words. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-517328-4. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  63. ^ Peter Brown (1999). "Pagan". In Glen Warren Bowersock; Peter Brown; Oleg Grabar (eds.). Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. pp. 625–626. ISBN 978-0-674-51173-6.
  64. ^ Compare: T.L. Brink (2008) Psychology: A Student Friendly Approach. "Unit 13: Social Psychology". pp 320 [2] Archived 26 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine - "Cult is a somewhat derogatory term for a new religious movement, especially one with unusual theological doctrine or one that is abusive of its membership."
  65. ^ Chuck Shaw – Sects and Cults Archived 25 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine – Greenville Technical College. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  66. ^ Bromley, David Melton, J. Gordon 2002. Cults, Religion, and Violence. West Nyack, New York: Cambridge University Press.

References[edit]