Replacement of loanwords in Turkish

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The replacing of loanwords in Turkish is part of a policy of Turkification of Atatürk. The Ottoman Turkish language had many loanwords from Arabic and Persian, but also European languages such as French, Greek, and Italian origin—which were officially replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms—in the broader framework of Atatürk's Reforms—following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

The TDK, established by Atatürk in 1932 to research the Turkish language, also sought to replace foreign loanwords (mainly Arabic) with their Turkish counterparts. The Association succeeded in removing several hundred Arabic words from the language. While most of the words introduced into the language in this process were newly derived from existing Turkish verbal roots, TDK also suggested using old Turkish words which had not been used in the language for centuries; like yanıt, birey, gözgü. Most of these words are used today widely while their predecessors are not used in daily language anymore. Some words were used before language reform too but they were used much less than the Persian ones. Some words were taken from rural areas but most of them had different meanings, like ürün. Mongolian also played an important role too, because Mongolian preserved the old Turkic borrowings, such as ulus and çağ.

There are generational differences in vocabulary preference. While those born before the 1940s tend to use the old Arabic-origin words (even the obsolete ones), younger generations commonly use the newer expressions. Some new words have not been widely adopted, in part because they failed to convey the intrinsic meanings of their old equivalents. Many new words have taken up somewhat different meanings, and cannot necessarily be used interchangeably with their old counterpart.

Connotations and implications of word choice[edit]

Historically, Arabic was the language of the mosque and Persian was the language of education and poetry. A deliberate usage of either (eschewing the usage of a "western" word) often implies a religious subtext or romanticism, respectively. Similarly, the use of European words may be favored to impart a perceived "modern" character. The use of "pure Turkic" words may be employed as an expression of nationalism or as a linguistic "simplification".

Word derivations[edit]

Most of the new Turkish words are derived from other words with thematic suffixes. For example:

bat- is the root of the verb batmak, which means "to sink" or "to set". The derived word batı means "west" or the cardinal direction in which the sun "sinks". Another example would be aylık, which means "salary" as well as monthly. This is derived from the word ay, which means "moon, month".

Here are some other examples of derivations:

  • gün means "day" → günce means "agenda", güncel means "current", gündem means "current events and news", güncellemek means "to update", günay means "date", güney means "south", güneş means "sun", günlük means "diary" or "daily", gündüz means "daytime" (opposite of night) or "morning",
  • kes- is the root of the verb "to cut" → kesi means "incision", kesici means "cutter", kesin means "accurate", kesinlikle means "definitely", kesinleşmek means "to become definite", kesinsizlik means "the state of indefinity", keskenmek means "to pretend to hit with a hand motion", kesmece is a saying that means "the agreement of cutting a fruit before buying it", keser means "adze", kesiklik means "sudden feeling of tiredness, lethargy", kesilmek means "to act like something", kesir means "fraction", kesirli means "fractional", kesit means "cross section", keski means "chisel", keskin means "sharp", keskinlik means "acuity" and "sharpness", kesim means "segment", kesimlik means "animal (or tree) fit or ready to be slaughtered/cut", kesinti means "interruption", kesintili means "on and off", kesintisiz means "uninterrupted" and "seamless", kesme means "an object cut in the form of a geometrical shape", kestirme means "short-cut", kesik means "interrupted", kestirmek means "to forecast" and "to nap", kestirim means "guess", kesen means "a line that intersects a geometrical entity", kesenek means "deduction", kesişmek means "to intersect", kesişim means "intersection",
  • sap- is the root of the verb "to deviate" → sapık means "pervert", sapak means "turn" (as in roads, traffic),
  • duy- is the root of the verb "to hear", "to feel" → duyu means "sensory", duyarlı means "sensitive", duyarlılık means "sensitivity", duygu means "feeling", duyarga(ç) means "sensor", duyargan means "allergen", duyarca means "allergy", duyum means "hearsay", duyumsamazlık means "apathy",
  • yet- is the root of the verb "to suffice" → yeter means "sufficient", yetki means "authority", yetenek means "talent",
  • başka means "other" → başkalaşım means "metamorphosis",
  • tek means "single" → tekel means "monopoly", tekdüze means "monotonous",
  • ev means "home" → evlilik means "marriage", evcil means "domestic",
  • seç- is the root of the verb "to choose" → seçenek means "choice", seçkin means "elite", seçim means "election",
  • düş- is the root of the verb "to fall" → düşük means "miscarriage",
  • sür- is the root of the verb "to last", "to put forward" → süreğen means "chronic", sürüm means "version",
  • yaz- is the root of the verb "to write" → yazar means "writer", yazgı means "fate", yazılım means "software", yazanak means "report", yazıt means "inscription", yazman means "secretary", yazıcı means "printer", yazın means "literature", yazım means "orthography", yazışma means "correspondence", yazdırım means "dictation",
  • ver- is the root of the verb "to give" → veri means "data", vergi means "tax", verim means "efficiency",
  • öz means "self", "real" → özel means "special", özen means "attention", özgü means "peculiar", özgül means "specific", özge means "other", özne means "subject", özgün means "original", özgür means "free", özümleme means "assimilation", öznel means "subjective". The verb özle- (meaning "to miss", "to long for") is also derived from this word, and özlem is a noun that means "longing".

Some of the Turkish words are also compound words, such as:

  • Başvuru means "application". It is derived from baş (meaning "head") and vuru (meaning "hitting"), so the literal English translation of this compound word would be "head-hitting"
  • Ayak means "foot", and kap means "container", and the compound word ayakkabı means foot-container, "shoe".
  • Ana means "main", and yasa means "law", and the compound word anayasa means "constitution".
  • Öz means "self", and veri means "giving", and the compound word özveri means "altruism, self-sacrifice".
  • Büyük means "big", and elçi means "messenger", and the compound word büyükelçi means "ambassador".
  • Kesim means "cutting", ev means "house", and kesimevi means "slaughterhouse".

For more information, see the related article: Turkish vocabulary.

Lists of replaced loanwords[edit]

Loanwords of Arabic origin[edit]

The list gives the Ottoman Turkish word, the modern spelling of the word in Turkish (as suggested by TDK), the modern Turkish equivalent, and its meaning in English. Arabs also used the following words as loanwords for their language.

* Old words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.
** New words that are not as frequently used as the old words.

Ottoman Turkish word and its transliteration Modern spelling of the Ottoman Turkish word Modern Turkish equivalent Meaning in English Remarks
عفو ايتمك afv etmek* affetmek bağışlamak to forgive From the Persian bağışla– "to spare."[1]
اخلاق ahlak* ahlak töre customs, ethics From the Old Turkic noun töre "customary law."[1]
عائله aile* aile ocak** family From the Old Turkic noun ocak "hearth."[1]
عقبه akabe* akabe geçit passage From the root geç– "to pass."[1]
عقد akd*, مقاوله mukavele akit, mukavele sözleşme, anlaşma, bağıt contract From the Old Turkic söz "word."[1]
عقل akl, akıl* akıl us** wisdom From the Old Turkic noun us "intelligence."[1]
علاقه alaka* alaka(lı) ilgi(li) relevant, related to From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[1]
علامت alamet* alamet önsezi premonition From the adjective ön "front."[1]
عمه amme* amme sargı bandage From the root sar– "to wrap."[1]
عامل amil amil etken factor From the root et– "to do."[1]
عملیه ameliye ameliye işlem operation, process From the root işle– "to work."[1]
عامه amme amme kamu public, community From the Middle Persian adjective "kamu" "all."[1]
عمودی amudi* amudi dikey perpendicular; the Arabic survives in the expression amuda kalkmak. From the root dik– "to plant."[1]
عنعنه a'nane anane gelenek, görenek tradition Created by İsmet İnönü in 1947, from the root gel– "to come."[1]
عنعنوی a'nanevi* ananevi geleneksel customary Created by İsmet İnönü in 1947, from the root gel– "to come."[1]
عسكر asker* asker **, çeri** soldier The Turkish words are used in specific contexts such as subay, "army officer" and yeniçeri "janissary").
عصر asr* asır yüzyıl century A compound formed by yüz "one hundred" and yıl "year." The replacement does not preserve the distinction between "century" and "hundred years." The distinction is sometimes important: Speaking in 2020, "yedi asır kadar önce" (some seven centuries ago), has a margin of error of some 60 or 70 years and may refer to 1260–1380, whereas "yedi yüzyıl kadar önce" refers to 1320.
بارز bariz* bariz kesin, belli obvious, accurate From the root kes– "to cut."[1]
بسیط basit* basit kolay easy, simple From the noun kol "arm."[1]
بعضی bazı* bazı kimi some (pronoun)
بیاض beyaz* beyaz ak white The Arabic word and the Turkish word are used in somewhat different contexts: "beyaz" translates as "fair" or "(white) clean"
جامعه cami'a* camia topluluk community From the adjective toplu "collective."[1]
جبراً cebren cebren zorla forcefully From the adjective zor– "difficult."[1]
جلسه celse* celse oturum (law) hearing, session From the root otur– "to sit."[1]
جماعت cema'at* cemaat kurultay society From the Mongolian kurilta "assembly of the nobles."[1]
جمعیت cem'iyet* cemiyet toplum society From the adjective toplu "collective."[1]
جنوب cenub cenup güney south From the old Turkic Gün "sun" or "day," conserved in some Anatolian dialects to mean "sunny place."[1]
جراحت cerahat cerahat irin pus
جریان cereyan* cereyan akım flow From the root ak– "to flow."[1]
جواب cevab* cevap yanıt answer From the Old Turkic noun yanut.[1]
جهاز cihaz* cihaz aygıt apparatus
جواری civarı* civarı dolayları approximately, around
جمله cümle* cümle tümce** sentence From the noun tüm "all, entire."[1]
دفعه def'a*, کره kere* defa, kere kez times (repetition) Both defa and kere are still in popular use.
دفینه define* define gömü treasure From the root göm– "to bury."
دلیل delil* delil kanıt evidence
دور devr* devir çağ era Borrowed from Mongolian, which itself is from Old Turkic çak.[1]
دوره devre* devre dönem semester From the root dön– "to turn."[1]
ابعاد eb'ad* ebat boyut dimension, size From the Arabic buʻd.
ادبی ebedi* ebedî sonsuz forever The Turkish word literally means "without-end."
جد cedd cet ata ancestry The Turkish word literally means "father."
اجل ecel* ecel ölüm (predestined time of) death From the root öl– "to die."
اجنبی ecnebi* ecnebi el, yad stranger, foreigner
ادبیات edebiyat* edebiyat yazın** literature From the root yaz– "to write."
اهمیت ehemmiyet ehemmiyet önem importance
البسه elbise* elbise giysi cloth From the root giy– "to wear."
امر emir* emir buyruk order, command From the Old Turkic noun buyruk.[1]
امنیت emniyet* emniyet güvenlik security From the noun güven "trust."
اثر eser* eser yapıt production (music, film) From the root yap– "to make."[1]
اسیر esir* esir tutsak hostage From the root tut– "to hold."[1]
اطراف etraf* etraf ortalık surroundings, surrounding area From the adjective orta "middle."[1]
اوراق evrak* evrak belge paper document In Arabic, evrāk is the plural of vārāk; in modern Turkish, evrak is used as often a singular, although it should be used as a plural of varak.
أول evvel* evvel önce before Using the adjective ön "front" as a prefix.
فعال fa'al* faal etkin active From the root et– "to do."
فائز faiz* faiz ürem**, getiri interest (monetary) From the root ür– "to produce."
فقیر fakir* fakir yoksul poor From the root yok– "to not exist."
فرض farz* farz varsayım assumption From the root varsay– "to suppose."[1]
فائده faide* fayda yarar benefit, utility
فن fenn*, علم ilm* fen, ilim bilim science From the root bil– "to know."
فیضان feyezan feyezan taşkın flood From the root taş– "to overflow."[1]
فرقه fırka* fırka topluluk group From the adjective toplu "collective."[1]
فرقت fırkat fırkat ayrılık disparity From the Old Turkic root ayr– "to separate."[1]
فكر fikr, fikir* fikir görüş opinion From the root gör– "to see."
فعل fi'il* fiil eylem verb From the root ey– "to do."
غرب garb garp batı west From the root bat– "to sink."
غیر gayr gayri olmayan, başka, dışı non-, other
غذا gıda, gıza* gıda besin food
حادثه hadise* hadise olay event, happening, fact, occurrence From the root ol-, meaning "to be", "to become".[1]
حافظه hafıza* hafıza bellek memory The new word is commonly used in electronics, like computer memory, i.e. önbellek for cache
خفیف hafif* hafif yeğni** light (in weight) The Turkish word is rarely used.
حفریات hafriyat hafriyat kazı excavation From the root kaz-, meaning "to dig".[1]
حق hakk* hak pay portion
حقیقت hakikat* hakikat gerçek reality
حاكم hakim* hâkim yargıç judge
حال hal*, وضعیت vaz'iyet* hâl, vaziyet durum situation From the root dur– "to halt."[1]
خلیطه halita halita alaşım alloy
حامل hamile* hamile gebe pregnant
خراب harab* harap yıkık ruin From the root yık– "to destroy."[1]
حرارت harâret* hararet ısı, sıcaklık heat, temperature The old word can be used in both meanings in Turkish language.
حركت hareket* hareket devinim** movement, motion
حرف harf* harf ses, imce** letter From the Old Turkic noun ses– "to voice."[1]
حسرة hasra* hasret özlem longing
حساس hassas* hassas duyarlı sensitive From the root duy– "to feel."[1]
حشره haşere* haşere böcek insect
خطا hatâ*, قصور kusûr* hata, kusur yanlış mistake
حطب hatb hatab odun wood
ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ hatavat hatavat adımlar steps
خاطره hatıra* hatıra anı memoir From the root an– "to call to mind."[1]
حیات hayat*, عمر ömr* hayat, ömür yaşam, dirim** life From the root yaşa– "to live."
حیثیت haysiyet* haysiyet saygınlık respectability From the root say– "to count."[1]
حزم hazm* hazım sindirim digestion
هدیه hediye* hediye armağan gift
هيئت hey'et* heyet kurul board (company) From the root kur– "to set up."[1]
حدت hiddet* hiddet kızgınlık, öfke anger
حكایه hikaye* hikâye öykü story Neologism coined by Nurullah Ataç.[1]
خلاف hilâf hilaf karşıt contrary From the noun karşı "opposite."
حس hiss* his duygu feeling From the root duy– "to feel."
خواجه hoca* hoca öğretmen teacher From the root öğret-, meaning "to teach".
حدود hudut* hudut sınır border. Sınır is a Greek borrowing.[1]
حقوق hukuk* hukuk tüze** (judiciary) law From the Old Turkic root tuz– "to command."[1]
خلاصه hulasa* hulasa özet summary
خصوص husus* husus konu subject Coined in 1935 from the root kon– "to be placed."[1]
حضور huzur* huzur dirlik** comfort
حجره hücre* hücre göze** cell
هجوم hücum* hücum saldırı attack From the root saldır– "to attack."[1]
حرمت hürmet* hürmet saygı respect From the root say– "to count."[1]
ارثیت ırsiyet* ırsiyet kalıtım heredity From the root kal– "to remain."[1]
اصرار ısrar* ısrar üsteleme insisting From the adjective üst "above."
اصطلاح ıstılah* ıstılah terim term Borrowed from Persian.[1]
اجتماع içtima içtima kavuşum new moon (astronomy)
اجتماعی ictimai içtimai toplumsal communal From the adjective toplu "collective."[1]
اداره idare* idare yönetim administration From the root yönet– "to give direction ."[1]
ادرار idrar* idrar sidik urine The original meaning of the Arabic word is "the action of yielding milk". The Turkish word is derived from an old Turkic verb siymek, meaning "to urinate".
افاده ifade* ifade anlatım narration From the root anlat– "to explain."
افتخار iftihâr* iftihar övünme pride From the root öv– "to praise."
احتراس ihtiras* ihtiras tutku passion From the root tut– "to hold."
احتوا ihtiva ihtiva etmek içermek to comprise From the adjective "inside."
احتياج ihtiyac* ihtiyaç gereksinme, gereksinim need iħtiyāj is an Arabic verbal-noun form of iħtāj, meaning "need"
اختيار ihtiyar* ihtiyar yaşlı old (age) From the noun yaş "age."
احتياط ihtiyat ihtiyat yedek backup, spare
احتياطلی ihtiyatlı* ihtiyatlı uyanık wide-awake From the root uyan– "to arouse."
اقتباس iktibas iktibas alıntı copying (in literature; referencing) From the root al– "to take"
الهه ilahe* ilahe tanrıça goddess Tanrı (God) + –ça of Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croat supplied the feminine suffix, –ça, which Turkish lacked.
علاوه 'ilave* ilave ek addition
الهام ilham* ilham esin inspiration
عمار 'imar* imar bayındırlık construction, development
امكان imkân* imkân olanak opportunity, possibility From the root ol– "to exist."[1]
املا imlâ* imla yazım orthography From the root yaz– "to write."[1]
امتداد imtidad* imtidad uzay space From the root uza– "to extend."[1]
امتحان imtihân imtihan sınav, yazılı examination From the Tatar root sına– "to test."
امتياز imtiyâz* imtiyaz ayrıcalık "to write." From the adjective ayrı "separate."
انحسار inhisâr inhisar tekel monopoly Ömer Asım Aksoy coined from tekel "single hand."[1]
انطباع intiba intiba izlenim impression
انتخاب intihab* intihab seçim election From the root seç– "to choose."
انتحال intihal intihal aşırma plagiarism From the root aşır– "to steal."
ابتدائی ibtidâ‘î iptidai ilkel primary; primitive From the word ilk "first."
ارتفاع irtifâʻ* irtifa yükseklik altitude The old word is only used in aviation, as in "the altitude of the plane".
ارثی irsî* ırsi kalıtsal, kalıtımsal hereditary From the root kal– "to remain."
اسم ism* isim ad name
اسكان iskan* iskân konut abode From the root kon– "to settle."[1]
استخدام istihdam* istihdam dağıtım distribution From the root dağıt– "to distribute."[1]
استحصال istihsal istihsal üretim production From the root üret– "to produce."[1]
استقامت istikamet* istikamet yön direction
استقلال istiklal* istiklal bağımsızlık independence, freedom From the noun bağ "tie, bond, impediment."[1]
استراحت istirâhat* istirahat dinlenme rest From the root dinlen– "to rest."
استثمار istismar* istismar sömürge colony From the root sömür– "to exploit."[1]
استثقال istiskal istiskal aşağılama abasement
استثنا istisna* istisna aykırı exception
اشارت işaret* işaret gösterge indicator From the root göster– "to show."[1]
اشتغال iştigal iştigal uğraş, uğraşı occupation
اشتراك iştirak* iştirak ortaklık association
اتمام itmam* itmam tamamlama completion From the adjective tam "complete, full."
ایضاح izah* izah açıklama clarification From the root aç– "to open."
ازدواج izdivac izdivaç evlilik marriage From the noun ev "house."
قابلیت kâbiliyet* kabiliyet yetenek, yeti talent, ability From the root yet– "to reach."[1]
قادر kader* kader yazgı fate From the root yaz– "to write."[1]
قفه kafa* kafa baş head
كافی kafi* kâfi yeter enough From the root yet– "to be enough."[1]
قاعده ka'ide* kaide taban floor
كائنات ka'inat* kâinat evren universe
قلب kalb* kalp yürek heart
قانون kanan* kanun yasa law Borrowed from Mongolian.[1]
قانون اساسى kanunuesasi kanunuesasi anayasa constitution (law) Literally "mother law."
قافیه kâfiye* kafiye uyak rhyme From the root uy– "to comply, fit."
كانون اول kanan-ı evvel aralık December "Aralık" was adopted during the drafting of the 1945 Constitution because it occurred in the text. With the new name for December it became the subject of jokes on the theme that the transition from December to January—Aralıktan Ocağa—now meant passing through the gap into the fire.[1]
كانون ثانی kanan-ı sânî ocak January "Ocak," the new name for January preserves the meaning of kânun "hearth."[1]
كلمه kelime* kelime sözcük, söz word Invented by Melih Cevdet Anday in 1958.[1]
قرمزی kırmızı* kırmızı al**, kızıl red The Arabic and the Turkish words are used in somewhat different contexts. kızıl is mostly used for red hair.
قسم kısm* kısım bölüm part From the root böl– "to divide."
كتاب kitab* kitap betik** book From the Old Turkic root biti– "to write". Some say it is a loanword from Chinese word , meaning "brush"[1] but it lacks evidence
كفر küfr* küfür sövme** curse From the root söv– "to swear, curse."[1]
قوت kuvvet* kuvvet güç, erk power, force In physics, the old word is used for "force" and the new word is used for "power".
كلیت külliyet* külliyet tüm whole
كره küre* küre yuvar** sphere
لطیفه latife latife şaka joke The new word is also of Arabic origin (from the word şaḳā (شقاء)), meaning "pity, being unfortunate"
لسان lisan* lisan dil language dil means both tongue in the physical sense and language, while "lisan" only means tongue in the language sense.
لغات lügat lügat sözlük dictionary
لزوملو lüzumlu* lüzumlu gerekli necessary
ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻒ ma'arif* maarif eğitim education
معاش ma'aş* maaş aylık salary From the noun ay "moon, month"
معبد ma'bed* mabet tapınak temple From the root tap– "to worship."
مادی maddi* maddi özdeksel** material, materialistic The Turkish word is exclusively used in the context of philosophy.
مفصل mafsal mafsal eklem ligament The old word is used for "hinge" (non-anatomical).
مغدور mağdur* mağdur kıygın** wronged, injured The new word is almost never used.
مغلوبیت mağlubiyat* mağlubiyet yenilgi defeat From the root yen– "to defeat."
محلى mahalli* mahalli yöresel regional
محفوظ mahfuz mahfuz saklı hidden From the root sakla– "to hide."
مخلوق mahluk* mahluk yaratık creature From the root yarat– "to create."
محصول mahsul* mahsul ürün product The new word actually meant "weed".
مخصوص mahsûs* mahsus özgü peculiar
مقصد maksad*, غایه gaye*, هدف hedef* maksat, gaye, hedef amaç, erek goal
معقول ma'kul* makul uygun, elverişli reasonable From the root uy– "to comply."
معنه ma'na* mana anlam meaning From the root anla– "to comprehend."
معنوی manevî* manevî tinsel** moral, spiritual The Turkish word is exclusively used in the context of philosophy.
مانع mani'* mani engel obstacle
مصرف masraf* masraf gider, harcama cost From the root git– "to go, leave."
مطبعه matba'a* matbaa basım evi printing From the root bas– "to press."
معذرت mazeret* mazeret gerekçe corollary From the root gerek– "to need."
مبدأ mebde'* mebde başlangıç beginning
مجاز mecaz*, استعاره isti'are mecaz iğretileme, eğretileme metaphor
مجبور mecbur* mecbur zorunlu obligation, obligatory Both the new and the old words can be used as either a noun or an adjective.
مجهول mechul* meçhul bilinmeyen unknown From the root bil– "to know."
مدنی medeni* medeni uygar civil Borrowed from Uyghur.
مدنیت medeniyet* medeniyet uygarlık civilization From the name of the Uyghur Uygur, who established an advanced civilization in Eastern Turkestan in the tenth to twelfth centuries.[1]
مفهوم mefhum* mefhum kavram concept From the root kavra– "to grasp, understand."
مکروه mekrıh* mekruh iğrenç disgusting
مملكت memleket* memleket ülke country The old word is used for "one's native region"
ﻣﻨﺸﺄ menşe'* menşe kök root
مراسم merasim* merasim tören ceremony
مساحه mesaha* mesaha yüzölçüm area, measure of From the root ölç– "to measure."
مرثیه mersiye mersiye ağıt elegy
مسافه mesafe* mesafe uzaklık distance From the root uza– "to extend."[1]
مثانه mesane* mesane sidik kesesi urinary bladder
مثلا mesela* mesela örneğin for example
مسعود mes'ud* mesut mutlu, sevinçli happy
مسؤولیت mes'uliyet* mesuliyet sorumluluk responsibility
مشهور meşhur* meşhur ünlü famous From the noun ün "fame."
مشروبات meşrubat* meşrubat içecek beverage From the root iç– "to drink."
موقع mevki' مكان mekan* mevki, mekân yer, konum location From the root kon– "to settle."[1]
موضع mevzi'* mevzi bölge location From the root böl– "to divide."
میدان meydan*, ساحه saha meydan, saha alan** open area, plaza While the new word is used mainly in mathematics (as in the "area" of a triangle), it is seldom used with the same meaning of the old words except in compound words like havaalanı (airport), not hava meydanı (older version).
میل meyl* meyil eğim, eğilim inclination From the root eğil– "to incline."
مزار mezar* mezar gömüt** cemetery From the root göm– "to bury."
منطقه mıntıka mıntıka bölge region From the root böl– "to divide."
ملت millet* millet ulus ulus From the Mongolian noun uluş "confederation of people."[1]
مراث miras* miras kalıt** inheritance From the root kal– "to remain."[1]
مسافر misafir* misafir konuk guest From the root kon– "to settle."[1]
مثال misal* misal örnek example
مسكين miskin* miskin uyuşuk, mıymıntı lazy From the root uyuş– "to numb."
معامله mu'amele* muamele davranış treatment, behavior From the root davran– "to behave."
معما mu'amma muamma bilmece puzzle, trivia From the root bil– "to know."
معاصر mu'asır muasır çağdaş, güncel contemporary
معاون mu'avin* muavin yardımcı helper
معجزه mu'cize* mucize tansık** miracle The new word is almost never used.
مغدی mugaddi mugaddi besleyici nourisher
مغالطه mugalata mugalata yanıltmaca deceptive statement From the root yanılt– "to mislead."
مغنی، مغنیه muganni, muganniye muganni,muganniye şarkıcı singer
مغایرت mugayeret mugayeret aykırılık irregularity
مغایر mugayir mugayir aykırı irregular The old word has only remained as a legal term meaning "adverse".
مخابره muhabere muhabere iletişim, iletişme communication From the root ilet– "to transmit."
مهاجرت muhaceret muhaceret göç emigration From the root göç– "to move."
مهاجم muhacim muhacim saldıran, saldırıcı attacker, offender From the root saldır– "to attack."
مهاجر muhacir muhacir göçmen immigrant From the root göç– "to move."
محدب muhaddeb muhaddep dış bükey convex From the root bük– "to bend."
محافظه muhafaza* muhafaza koruma conservation From the root koru– "to protect."
محافظ muhafız muhafız koruyucu protector From the root koru– "to protect."
محاكمه muhakeme* muhakeme yargılama, uslamlama judgment, argumentation
محقق muhakkak* muhakkak kesin(likle) certain(ly)
محقق muhakkik muhakkik soruşturmacı investigator From the root sor– "to ask."
محال muhal muhal olanaksız impossible From the root ol– "to exist."
مخالفت muhalefet* muhalefet karşıtlık opposition From the adjective karşı "opposite."[1]
مخمن muhammen muhammen oranlanan, ön görülen pre-determined
مخمس muhammes muhammes beşgen pentagon From the noun beş "five."
محاربه muharebe, حرب harb muharebe, harp savaş war
محارب muharib muharip savaşçı warrior
محرر muharrer muharrer yazılı, yazılmış written From the root yaz– "to write."[1]
محرك muharrik muharrik kışkırtıcı, ayartıcı provoker From the root kışkırt– "to provoke."
محاصره muhasara muhasara kuşatma siege From the root kuşat– "to encircle."[1]
محاسبه muhasebe* muhasebe saymanlık accounting, bookkeeping From the root say– "to count."[1]
محاسبجی muhasebeci* muhasebeci sayman accountant, bookkeeper From the root say– "to count."[1]
محتمل muhtemel* muhtemel olası possible From the root ol– "to happen."
محتویات muhteviyat muhteviyat içindekiler ingredients From the adjective "inside."
مقدس mukaddes mukaddes kutsal sacred
منتظم muntazam* muntazam düzgün, düzenli tidy From the root düz– "to align."[1]
مربع murabba' murabba kare square A loanword from the French carré.
معتدل mu'tedil mutedil ılım(lı) moderate(ly)
موفقیت muvaffakıyyet muvaffakiyet başarı success From the root başar– "to succeed (in)."
مبالغه mübalaga mübalağa abartı exaggeration From the root abart– "to exaggerate."
مجادله mücadele* mücadele çaba, uğraş endeavor
مجرد mücerrit mücerrit soyut abstract From the root soy– "to strip."[1]
مدافعه müdafa'a müdafaa koruma sustain, protect, defend From the root koru– "to protect."
مداخله müdahale* müdahale karışma intervention From the root karış– "to interfere, meddle with."
ملازم mülazım* mülazım teğmen lieutenant From the Old Turkic teğ– "to touch," which Turkish retains as değ–.[1]
مدت müddet* müddet süre duration From the root sür– "to last."
مدركه müdrike müdrike entelekt intellect (in psychology) A loanword from the French intellect
مؤدب mü'eddeb müeddep uslu well behaved, demure From the noun us "intelligence."
مؤلفات mü'elleffat müellefat (yazılı) yapıt (written) piece From the root yap– "to make."
مؤلف، محرر mü'ellif, muharrir müellif, muharrir yazar writer From the root yaz– "to write."
مؤمن mü'emmen müemmen sağlanmış secured From the adjective sağ "alive."
مؤنث mü'ennes müennes dişil feminine
مؤسسه mü'essese müessese kurum foundation From the root kur– "to set up." Kurum is recorded in Tarama Sözlüğü (1963-77) as occurring in two dictionaries from the fourteenth and eighteenth century.[1]
مؤثر mü'essir müessir dokunaklı touching From the root dokun– "to touch."
مؤسس mü'essis müessis kurucu founder From the root kur– "to set up."[1]
مفكره müfekkrire müfekkire düşünce gücü thought capacity From the root düşün– "to think."
مفرد müfred müfret tekil singular From the adjective tek "single."
مفلس müflis müflis batkın one that's gone bankrupt From the root bat– "to sink."
مهم mühim* mühim önemli important From the noun önem "importance."
مؤمن mü'min mümin inanan, inançlı believer From the root inan– "to believe."
مناسبت münasebet* münasebet ilişki relation From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[1]
منتخب müntehib* müntehip seçmen voter From the root seç– "to choose."
مراجعت müraca'at müracaat başvuru application From the root başvur– "to apply."
مركب mürekkeb mürekkep birleşmiş, birleşik ink From the root birleş– "to unite."
مرتب mürrettib mürettip dizgici type setter From the root diz– "to align."[1]
مسابقه müsabaka müsabaka karşılaşma match, competition From the adjective karşı "opposite."[1]
مسامحه müsamaha müsamaha hoşgörü tolerance From the root gör– "to see."
مساوی müsavi* müsavi eşit equal From the noun "pair."
مسدس müseddes* müseddes altıgen hexagon From the noun altı "six."
مستهجن müstehcen* müstehcen uygunsuz inappropriate, obscene From the root uy– "to comply."[1]
مستملكه müstemleke müstemleke sömürge colony (exploitee) From the root sömür– "to exploit."[1]
مسوده müsvedde* müsvedde taslak draft
مشابه، مماثل muşabbih, mümassil müşabih, mümasil benzer similar From the root benze– "to resemble."
مشابهت müşabehet müşabehet benzerlik similarity From the root benze– "to resemble."
مشخص müşahhas müşahhas somut concrete (in concept, the opposite of abstract)
مشكل müşkül müşkül çetin** difficult
مشرك m,şrik müşrik çoktanrıcı polytheist
مشتق müştak müştak türev derivative Borrowed from Kazakh, where verbs end not in –mek/–mak, but in –v.[1]
مشتكی müşteki müşteki yakınan, sızlanan one who complains, whiner
مشتملات müştemilat müştemilat eklenti attachment, appandage From the root ekle– "to add."
مشترك müşterek* müşterek ortak partner From the noun orta "middle."[1]
مشتری müşteri* müşteri alıcı, alımcı customer From the root al– "to buy."[1]
مطالعه mütala'a mütalâa düşünce thought From the root düşün– "to think."
متارکه mütareke mütareke antlaşma armistice From the noun ant "oath."[1]
متعدد müte'addid müteaddit birçok a lot, many
متعفن müte'affin müteaffin kokuşuk malodorous From the root kok– "to smell."
متعهد müte'ahhid* müteahhit üstenci contractor
متعاقب müte'akib müteakip sonra, ardından after, thereafter From the adjective arka "behind."
متعاليه müte'aliye mütealiye deneyüstücülük transcendentalism
متعلق müteallik müteallik ilişkin, ilgili related (to) From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[1]
متعمم müte'ammim müteammim yaygınlaşmış, genelleşmiş something that has widespread From the root yay– "to radiate."[1]
متعارفه müte'arife mütearife belit** axiom
متبقی mütebaki mütebaki kalan remaining From the root kal– "to remain."
متبدل mütebeddil mütebeddil değişen, kararsız one that changes, undecided From the root değiş– "to change."
متبسم mütebessim mütebessim gülümseyen, güleç one that smiles From the root gül– "to laugh."
متجانس mütecanis mütecanis bağdaşık homogenous
متجاوز mutecaviz mütecaviz saldırgan attacker From the root saldır– "to attack."
متدين mutedeyyin mütedeyyin dindar religious Borrowed from Persian, where it means "owner of religion."
متأثر müte'essir müteessir üzüntülü sad (person) From the root üz– "to aggrieve."
متفكر mütefekkir mütefekkir düşünür thinker, intellectual From the root düşün– "to think."
متفرق müteferrik müteferrik dağınık untidy From the root dağıt– "to distribute."
متحمل mütehammil mütehammil dayanıklı durable
متحرك müteharrik müteharrik devingen, oynar mobile
محترم muhterem* muhterem saygıdeğer honorable
متخصص mütehassıs mütehassıs uzman expert From the Old Turkic noun uz "skilled craftsman" and the intensive suffix "–man" in şişman "fat" and kocaman "huge."[1]
متشبث muteşşebbis müteşebbis girişimci entrepreneur From the root gir– "to enter."
متواضع mütevazı' * mütevazı alçakgönüllü humble
متوفی müteveffa müteveffa ölü, ölmüş dead From the root öl– "to die."
متفق müttefik* müttefik bağlaşık** ally From the root bağla– "to tie."[1]
مزایده müzayede müzayede açık arttırma auction
مزمن müzmin müzmin süreğen chronic From the root sür– "to last."
نادر nadir*, اندر ender* nadir, ender seyrek rare(ly)
نغمه nağme nağme ezgi melody
ناقص nakıs* nakıs eksi minus
نصیحت nasihat* nasihat öğüt advice, counsel
نظیر nazır nazır bakan minister
نفس nefes* nefes soluk breath
نسیج nesic nesiç doku tissue
نسل nesl* nesil kuşak generation
نتیجه netice* netice sonuç result From the combination of old Turkic nouns son "end" and "latter."[1]
نزیف nezif nezif kanama hemorrhage From the noun kan "blood"
نصف nısf nısıf yarı(m) half From the root yar– "to split."[1]
نهایت nihayet* nihayet son(unda) final(ly)
نكاح nikah* nikâh düğün wedding In modern Turkish, nikâh is generally used for the wedding ceremony, while düğün is used for the wedding reception or party.
نسبت nisbet* nispet oran ratio From the Old Turkic noun oran for "measure," "proportion" or "moderation."[1]
نطق nutk* nutuk söylev speech Borrowed from Kazakh, where verbs end not in –mek/–mak, but in –v.[1]
رفاه refah* refah gönenç prosperity
رغماً ragmen* rağmen karşın despite, in spite of From the adjective karşı "opposite."[1]
رئیس re'is reis başkan president
رأی re'y* rey oy vote
رجعت ric'at* ricat çekilme retreat From the root çek– "to pull."[1]
روح ruh* ruh tin** spirit The Turkish word is almost never used, except in the context of philosophy.
رطوبت rutubet* rutubet yaşlık, ıslaklık moisture From the adjective yaş "dank."
رؤيا rü'ya* rüya düş dream
سادهّ sade, سائد sa'aid* sade yalın plain The Turkish word is rarely used.
صفحة safha* safha evre, aşama stage, phase
صفرا safra* safra öd bile
ساحل sahil* sahil kıyı coast
صاحب sahib* sahip iye** owner The Turkish word is seldom used; however, it is commonly used in the context of grammar when describing the possessive suffix (iyelik eki)
سطح sath satıh yüzey surface From the noun yüz "face."
سیاره seyyare seyyare araba, taşıt car Araba is the outdated expression for "car" in Arabic. The current word in Arabic for car is seyyara but in Turkish seyyar, means "transportable" or given to travel.
سبب sebeb* sebep neden reason
سفارت safarat sefaret büyükelçilik embassy
سلامت selamet selamet esenlik health, soundness
سما sema sema gök sky
سنه sene* sene yıl year
صحت sıhhat sıhhat sağlık health From the adjective sağ "alive."
سحر sihr* sihir büyü magic
صحبت sohbet* sohbet söyleşi chat From the root söyle– "to say."
سؤال su'al sual soru question From the root sor– "to ask."
صلح sulh sulh barış peace
صنع suni' suni yapay artificial From the root yap– "to make."[1]
سكوت sükut sükût sessizlik silence From the noun ses "voice."
شاهد şâhid* şahit tanık witness From the root tanı– "to recognize."
شاعر şa'ir* şair ozan poet
شعير şe'ir* şeir arpa barley
شرق şark şark doğu east From the root doğ– "to be born."[1]
شرط şart* şart koşul condition Coined in 1947 by Nurullah Ataç.[1]
شمال şimal şimal kuzey north From the noun kuz "side of a mountain out of reach of the sun." Kuzey was also used in some Anatolian dialects, meaning sunless place.[1]
شعاع şu'a')* şua ışın ray, gleam
تعلق taalluk taalluk ilinti connection, relation From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[1]
طبقه tabaka* tabaka katman layer From the noun kat "floor."
طبيعت tabi'at* tabiat doğa nature From the root doğ– "to be born."
طبیعی tabi'i* tabii doğal natural From the root doğ– "to be born."
تعبير، افاده ta'bîr, ifade* tabir, ifade deyiş** narration
تابعیت tabiiyet* tabiiyet uyruk** nationality
تحلیل tahlil* tahlil inceleme (laboratory) test (as in medicine)
تخمین tahmin* tahmin kestirim** guess, prediction From the root kes– "to cut."
تعقیب taʻkib* takip izlem** follow-up From the root izle– "to watch."
طلب ṭaleb* talep istek request, demand, wish From the root iste– "to demand, request."
طلبه ṭalebe talebe öğrenci student (plural of طالب ṭâlib, "seeker" [of knowledge]) From the Old Turkic root igid– "to feed."[1]
تعمیم tâmîm* tâmîm genelge circular, notice From the adjective genel "general."
تعمير taʻmîr*, تعديلات taʻdîlât* tamir, tadilat onarım repair, renovation From the root onar– "to repair."
طرف taraf* taraf yan side
ترصدات tarassut* tarassut gözetleme observation
تاريخ tarih* tarih günay** date (in time) The Arabic word tarih also means "history". The Turkish word günay (literally meaning "day-month") is rarely used.
تسلط tasallut tasallut sarkıntılık (sexual) harassment From the root sark– "to dangle from."
تصور tasavvur tasavvur canlandırma, tasarı imagine
تصدیق tasdik* tasdik onay approve
تصحيح tashîh tashih düzeltme correction From the adjective düz "even, flat."
تصویر tasvir* tasvir betimleme description
طیاره tayyare tayyare uçak airplane From the root uç– "to fly."
توصيه tavsiye* tavsiye salık advice
تعادل te'adül teadül denklik equivalence From the adjective denk "equal."
تعامل te'amül teamül tepkime, davranış reaction, behavior From the root davran– "to behave."
تبسم tebessüm tebessüm gülümseme smile From the root gül– "to laugh."
تبدیل tebdil tebdil değişiklik change From the root değiş– "to change."
تبريك tebrîk* tebrik kutlama congratulate From the root kutla– "to celebrate."
تجلى tecelli tecelli belirme emerge, appear
تجسم tecessüm tecessüm görünme appearance, manifestation From the root gör– "to see."
تجربه tecrübe* tecrübe deneyim experience From the root dene– "to attempt."[1]
تجهیزات techizat* teçhizat donanım equipment
تداوی tedavi* tedavi sağaltım** therapy
تدبیر tedbîr* tedbir önlem precaution From the root önle– "to prevent."
تدریسات tedrіsat)* tedrisat öğretim teaching
تأثر te'essür teessür üzüntü agony From the root üz– "to aggrieve."
تكامل tekamül tekâmül evrim, başkalaşım maturation, metamorphosis, evolution
تقاعد tekaʻüd tekaüt emeklilik retirement
تكفل tekeffül tekeffül yükümlenme standing surety
تكلیف teklif* teklif öneri proposal From the root öner– "to propose."
تكرار tekrar* tekrar yine again
تلاش telaş* telaş tasa, kaygı worry
تمییز temyiz* temyiz yargıtay Borrowed from Chagatai.
تناسب tenasüb tenasüp uyum congruity From the root uy– "to conform."
تنبيه tenbih* tembih uyarı warning From the root uyar– "to warn."
ترقی teraḳḳі* terakki ilerleme progress
ترجمه tercüme* tercüme çeviri translation
تردد terreddüd* tereddüt duraksama hesitancy From the root dur– "to halt, stop."
ترتیب tertib* tertip düzen order, tidiness From the root düz– "to align."
تأثیر tesir* tesir etki effect From the root et– "to do."
تسلی teselli* teselli avunma console From the root avun– "to console oneself."
تشخیص teşhis* teşhis tanı diagnosis From the root tanı– "to recognize."[1]
تشكیلات teşkilat* teşkilat örgüt organization From the noun örgü "plait."[1]
تشكیل teşkil teşkil etmek oluşturmak to constitute
تشرین أول teşrin-i evvel ekim October From the root ek– "to harvest."
تشرین ثانی teşrin-i sani kasım November
تشویق teşvik* teşvik özendirme, kışkırtma (providing) incentive, provocation
تدقیق tedkit* tetkit araştırma research
تولد tevellüd* tevellüt doğum birth From the root doğ– "to be born."
تذكار tezkar* tezkâr anılmaya değer worth-mentioning From the root an– "to call to mind."[1]
تجارت ticaret* ticaret alımsatım business
عنصر unsur* unsur öğe constituent, element
عنوان unvan* unvan, ünvan san (professional) title
اسلوب üslub* üslup biçem** style
وعد va'd* vaat söz promise (noun)
واقعه vak'a* vaka olay event From the root ol– "to happen."
وقور vakur vakur ağır başlı dignified The Turkish expression literally means "heavy headed".
وصف vasf* vasıf nitelik feature, quality
واسطه vasıta vasıta araç vehicle
وسيع vasi' vâsi engin vast
وطن vatan* vatan yurt homeland
وظیفه vazife* vazife görev task, mission
و ve* ve ile and From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[1]
وهم vehm vehim kuruntu apprehension, fancy
ولایت vilayet* vilayet il province
تفسیر tefsir* tefsir yorum interpretation, analysis, comment
ضبط zabıt* zabıt tutanak minute of proceeding, trial From the root tut– "to hold."[1]
ضمیر zamir* zamir adıl** pronoun From the noun ad "noun."
زاویه zaviye zaviye açı angle From the root aç– "to open."
ذی‌قیمت zі-kıymet)* zikıymet değerli valuable

Loanwords of French origin[edit]

French words started to infiltrate the Turkish language in the 1800s, when administrative reforms (Tanzimat) started taking place in the Ottoman Empire. The extent of French influence was such that the number of French loanwords was close to 5,000.

Most of the French loanwords are still widely used in Turkish today.

* Words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.

Loanword Turkish equivalent Meaning in English Original French spelling
ajanda * andaç (replaced with gündem) agenda agenda
aksesuar * süs accessory (decorative) accessoire
aktif * etkin active actif
alternatif * seçenek alternative (noun) alternatif
analiz * çözümleme analysis analyse
asansör ? lift ascenseur
asimilasyon, anabolizma * özümleme assimilation, anabolism assimilation, anabolisme
astronomi * gökbilim astronomy astronomie
avantaj * üstünlük advantage avantage
done veri data donnée
detay * ayrıntı detail détail
direkt * doğrudan directly direct
dikte * yazdırım dictation dictée
doktrin öğreti doctrine doctrine
doküman * belge document document
domestik * evcil domestic domestique
dominant baskın dominant dominant
egzersiz * alıştırma exercise exercice
endemik * salgın endemic endémique
enerji * erke energy énergie
enflamasyon * yangı inflammation inflammation
enformatik bilişim information technology informatique
enteresan * ilginç interesting intéressant
eritrosit alyuvar red blood cell érythrocyte
eksper * bilirkişi expert expert
faks * belgeç, belgegeçer fax fax
faktör * etken factor facteur
fenomen * olgu phenomenon phénomène
filoloji * dilbilim philology philologie
filtre * süzgeç filter filtre
fizyoloji * işlevbilim physiology physiologie
fonksiyon * işlev function fonction
fotokopi * tıpkıbasım photocopy photocopie
garanti * güvence insurance, assurance garantie
global * küresel global global
gramer dil bilgisi grammar grammaire
grup * öbek group groupe
halüsinasyon * sanrı hallucination hallucination
histoloji doku bilimi histology histologie
homojen * bağdaşık homogenous homogène
hoplamak* zıplamak Jump Oup La
illüzyon * yanılsama illusion illusion
istatistik * sayımlama statistics statistiques
izolasyon * yalıtım isolation isolation
kalite * nitelik quality qualité
kampüs * yerleşke campus campus
kapasite * sığa, kapsam capacity capacité
karakter * kişilik character, personality caractère
kategori * ulam category catégorie
kompleks * karmaşık complex complexe
komünikasyon iletişim communication communication
konsantrasyon * derişim concentration concentration
konsolidasyon * süreletme consolidation (economics) consolidation
kontrol * denetim control contrôle
korelasyon bağıntı correlation corrélation
kramp * kasınç (muscle) cramp crampe
kriter * ölçüt criteria critères
kronik * süreğen chronic(ally) chronique
kuaför * güzellik salonu/berber beauty/hair salon, barber coiffeur
külot * don underpants culotte
kürdan * ? tooth pick cure-dent
lenf * ak kan lymph lymphe
liste * dizelge list liste
lokosit akyuvar white blood cell leucocyte
medya * basın-yayın media média
mekanizma * düzenek mechanism mécanisme
meridyen * boylam longitude méridien
mesaj, posta * ileti message message
metamorfoz * başkalaşım metamorphosis métamorphose
metot * yöntem method méthode
monoton * tekdüze monotonous monotone
mobilya * döşenek furniture mobilier
moral * özgüç moral morale
mutasyon * değişinim mutation mutation
normal * olağan normal normal
objektif * nesnel objective objectif
organizasyon * düzenleme organization organisation
orijinal * özgün original original
otorite * yetke authority autorité
over yumurtalık ovary ovaire
paradoks * çelişki paradox paradoxe
paralel * enlem latitude parallèle
parazit * asalak parasite parasite
pasif * edilgen passive passif
performans * başarım performance performance
plaj * kumsal beach plage
plato * yayla plateau plateau
popüler, favori * gözde popular, favorite populaire, favori
prensip * ilke principal principe
prezentasyon sunum presentation présentation
primer birincil primary primaire
problem * sorun problem problème
prodüktör yapımcı producer producteur
program * izlence program programme
proje * tasarı project projet
prosedür * işlem, işleyiş procedure procédure
proses süreç process procès
provokasyon kışkırtma provocation provocation
radyoaktif * ışın etkin radioactive radioactif
randıman * verim efficiency rendement
rapor * yazanak report rapport
rejisör yönetmen director régisseur
resesif çekinik recessive récessif
restoran * aşevi restaurant restaurant
rezistans direnç resistance résistance
sekunder, sekonder ikincil secondary secondaire
sekreter * yazman secretary secrétaire
sembol * simge symbol symbole
semptom * belirti symptom symptôme
sendrom * belirge syndrome syndrome
sentez * bireşim synthesis synthèse
sistem * dizge system système
simülasyon * öğrence simulation simulation
solüsyon çözelti solution solution
spesifik özellikli specific spécifique
spesiyal özel special spécial
standart * ölçün standard standard
statik * duruk static statique
statü * durum status statut
subjektif * öznel subjective subjectif
teori * kuram theory théorie
tretuvar kaldırım pavement / sidewalk trottoir
tümör * ur tumor tumeur
versiyon * sürüm version version
viraj * dönemeç turn (as in traffic) virage
ultrason * yansılanım (the act of echoing) ultrasound ultrason

Loanwords of Persian origin[edit]

The list gives the Ottoman Turkish word, the modern spelling of the word in Turkish (as suggested by TDK), the modern Turkish equivalent, and its meaning in English.

Most of the original Persian words are still widely used in modern Turkish. In fact, there are over 1,500 Persian words in Turkish. However, for many of the Persian words (unlike Arabic words[citation needed]), there is no TDK-prescribed equivalent. TDK did not put as much effort into replacing Persian words as it did for Arabic words[citation needed], largely because the Persian words were better assimilated into the language.[citation needed] Arabic language and culture is general perceived by Turks to be more "foreign" than Persian language and culture, which had a native presence in Anatolia since the time of the Achaemenids, and was patronised for millennia afterwards by other dynasties with a presence in Anatolia such as the Sasanians, Seleucids, Seljuks, Sultanate of Rum, and lastly, the Ottomans, amongst others.

* New words that are not as frequently used as the old words.

Ottoman Turkish word and its transliteration Modern spelling of the Ottoman Turkish word Modern Turkish equivalent Meaning in English Remarks
آموزندە amuzende* amuzende okutman lector
بدبين bedbin* bedbin bitki plant From the root bit– "to grow."[1]
برابر beraber* beraber birlikte together
بوسه buse* buse öpücük kiss
جنگ cenk* cenk savaş war
چاره çare* çare çözüm solution
چهره çehre* çehre yüz face
چنبر çember* çember yuvarlak circle
چشيت çeşit* çeşit tür kind, variety
چهار یک çeyrek* çeyrek dörtte bir quarter Both the Persian and the Turkish expressions literally mean one in four.
درد dert* dert ağrı pain
دمار demar* demar ölüm death From the root öl– "to die."
دیگر diğer* diğer öbür, öteki other
دشمن düşman* düşman yağı enemy
دوز düz* düz yatay horizontal
انديشه endişe* endişe kaygı worry
فروخت füruht* füruht satış sale From the root sat– "to sell."[1]
گوشت gûşt* guşt et meat
گزيده güzide* güzide seçkin élite
خسته hasta* hasta sayrı patient, sick The original Persian word actually means tired
همیشه hemîşe* hemîşe her zaman always
هنوز henüz* henüz daha yet
قورناز kurnaz* kurnaz açıkgözlü cunning
مهتاب mehtap* mehtap ay ışığı moonlight
محافظه كار* muhafazakar* muhafazakar tutucu conservative From the root tut– "to hold."
موشكيل-پسند müşkülpesent* müşkülpesent titiz fussy
خبز عزيز nân-ı aziz* nân-ı aziz ekmek bread
نيكبين nikbin* nikbin iyimser optimist
پاپوش pabuç* pabuç ayakkabı shoe Both the Persian and the Turkish words literally mean foot cover.
پ۪يشْدَارْ pişdar* pişdar öncü vanguard
سرخوش sarhoş* sarhoş esrik drunk
ساخته* sahte* sahte düzmece fake From the root düz– "to align."[1]
سر ser* ser baş head
سربست serbest* serbest erkin free, footloose
سرسری serseri* serseri başıboş rascal
سياه siyah* siyah kara black
بهار sonbahar* sonbahar güz fall (season)
سطور sütur* sütur binek ride From the root bin– "to ride."
شخص şahıs* şahıs birey individual From the root biregü [< bir+egü "from someone."[1]
شایان şayan* şayan değerli valuable
شهر şehir* şehir kent city The word kent is of Sogdian origin.
تازه taze* taze yeni new
تنبل tembel* tembel haylaz lazy
ویران viran* viran yıkık ruin
اميد ümit* ümit umut hope
یاور yaver* yaver yardımcı helper
يَكْنَسَقْ yeknesak* yeknesak tekdüze monotonous
یکپاره yekpare* yekpare bütün whole
زهر zehir* zehir ağı poison, toxin
زنگین zengin* zengin varlıklı rich
زور zor* zor çetin difficult

Loanwords of other origin[edit]

* Words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.

Loanword Turkish equivalent Meaning in English Origin language Original spelling Remarks
angarya * yüklenti drudgery, forced labor Greek αγγαρεία The Turkish word is still unused.
endoskopi * iç görüm ("inside seeing") endoscopy Greek (via English) The Turkish word is less common.
fetüs * dölüt fetus Latin fetus The Turkish word is used occasionally.
genetik * kalıtım (bilimi) ("the science of heredity") genetics German Genetik Both the loanword and the Turkish word are used.
hegemonya * boyunduruk hegemony Greek ηγεμονία The Turkish word is more commonly used.
İnternet * Genel Ağ Internet English The Turkish word is still unused.
konsonant ünsüz consonant German[2] Konsonant The loanword is now unused.
kundura * ayakkabı shoe Italian condura The Turkish word is more commonly used.
otoban * otoyol highway German Autobahn Both the loanword and the Turkish word are used.
vokal * ünlü vowel German[3] Vokal The loanword is now unused.
pezevenk * dümbük procurer Armenian բոզավագ The Turkish word is less common.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du Lewis, Geoffrey (2000). Turkish Grammar (Second ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-870036-9.
  2. ^ TDK Online Dictionary - konsonant Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  3. ^ TDK Online Dictionary - vokal Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]

Sources[edit]

  • Yazım Kılavuzu, the official spelling guide of the Turkish language on TDK website