Research stations in Antarctica

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Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic research stations
Countries that have one or more stations in Antarctica

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the drifting ice stations set up in the Arctic, the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is (for practical purposes) fixed in place.

Many of the stations are staffed around the year. A total of 40 countries (as of October 2006), all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent. The population of people performing and supporting scientific research on the continent and nearby islands varies from approximately 4,000 during the summer season to 1,000 during winter (June).[1] In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific projects.[2][dubious ]

History[edit]

First bases[edit]

"Omond House", the first permanent base, built in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition

During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration in the late 19th century, the first bases on the continent were established. In 1898, Carsten Borchgrevink, a Norwegian/British explorer, led the British Antarctic Expedition to Cape Adare, where he established the first Antarctic base on Ridley Beach. The expedition is often referred to now as the 'Southern Cross' Expedition, after their ship's name. Most of the staff were Norwegian, but the funds for the expedition were British, provided by Sir George Newnes. The 10 members of the expedition explored Robinson Bay to the west of Cape Adare by dog teams, and later, after being picked up by the ship at the base, went ashore on the Ross Ice Shelf for brief journeys. The expedition hut is still in good condition and visited frequently by tourists.

The hut was later occupied by Scott's Northern Party under the command of Victor Campbell for a year in 1911, after its attempt to explore the eastern end of the ice shelf discovered Roald Amundsen already ashore preparing for his assault on the South Pole.

In 1903, Dr William S. Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition set off to Antarctica, with one of its aims to establish a meteorological station in the area. After the expedition failed to find land, Bruce decided to head back to the Laurie Island in the South Orkneys and find an anchorage there.[3] The islands were well-situated as a site for a meteorological station, and their relative proximity to the South American mainland allowed a permanent station to be established.[4] Bruce instituted a comprehensive programme of work, involving meteorological readings, trawling for marine samples, botanical excursions, and the collection of biological and geological specimens.[3]

The major task completed during this time was the construction of a stone building, christened "Omond House".[5] This was to act as living accommodation for the parties that would remain on Laurie Island to operate the proposed meteorological laboratory. The building was constructed from local materials using the dry stone method, with a roof improvised from wood and canvas sheeting. The completed house was 20 feet by 20 feet square (6m × 6m), with two windows, fitted as quarters for six people. Rudmose Brown wrote: "Considering that we had no mortar and no masons' tools it is a wonderfully fine house and very lasting. I should think it will be standing a century hence ..."[6]

Bruce later offered to Argentina the transfer of the station and instruments on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission.[7] Bruce informed the British officer William Haggard of his intentions in December 1903, and Haggard ratified the terms of Bruce proposition.[8]

The Scotia sailed back for Laurie Island on 14 January 1904 carrying on board Argentinean officials from the Ministry of Agriculture, National Meteorological Office, Ministry of Livestock and National Postal and Telegraphs Office. In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base on South Orkney Islands.

WWII and postwar expansion[edit]

Little happened for the following forty years until the Second World War, when the British launched Operation Tabarin in 1943, to establish a presence on the continent. The chief reason was to establish solid British claims to various uninhabited islands and parts of Antarctica, reinforced by Argentine sympathies toward Germany.

View of Chile's Captain Arturo Prat Base, established in 1947

Prior to the start of the war, German aircraft had dropped markers with swastikas across Queen Maud Land in an attempt to create a territorial claim, see New Swabia.[9] Led by Lieutenant James Marr, the 14-strong team left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944. Marr had accompanied the British explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton on his final Antarctic expedition in 1921 - 1922.

Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. These bases were the first ever to be constructed on the mainland Antarctica.[10]

The Operation provoked a massive expansion in international activity after the war. Chile organized its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48. Among other accomplishments, it brought the Chilean president Gabriel González Videla to personally inaugurate one of its bases, thereby becoming the first head of state to set foot on the continent.[11] Signy Research Station (UK) was established in 1947, Australia's Mawson Station in 1954, Dumont d'Urville Station was the first French station in 1956. In that same year, the United States built McMurdo Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, and the Soviet Union built Mirny Station.

List of research stations[edit]

The United States maintains the southernmost Base and the largest base and research station in Antarctica, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. The second-southernmost base is the Chinese Kunlun Station at 80°25′02″S during the summer season, and the Russian Vostok Station at 78°27′50″S during the winter season. Dakshin Gangotri is India first research station in Antarctica.


Station
name
LOCODE Type Country Year
Est.
Administered by Location Status &
Activities
Coordinates Time zone
Aboa AQ ABA Summer  Finland 1988 Finnish Antarctic Research Program Queen Maud Land Active 73°02′32″S 13°24′26″W / 73.042283°S 13.407350°W / -73.042283; -13.407350
Aguirre Cerda AQ Summer  Chile 1955 Instituto Antártico Chileno Deception Island Closed
1957
62°56′01″S 60°35′45″W / 62.933704°S 60.5958931°W / -62.933704; -60.5958931
Amundsen–Scott South Pole AQ AMS Permanent  United States 1957 United States Antarctic Program Geographical South Pole Active 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (USA)) xUTC+12*
Arctowski AQ ARC Permanent  Poland 1977 Polish Academy of Sciences King George Island Active 62°09′37″S 58°28′24″W / 62.160140°S 58.473247°W / -62.160140; -58.473247
Arrival Heights Laboratory[12] AQ Permanent  New Zealand 1959 Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island Active 77°49′50″S 166°39′40″E / 77.830577°S 166.661174°E / -77.830577; 166.661174
Arrival Heights Satellite Station[12] AQ Permanent  New Zealand 1959 Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island Active 77°49′48″S 166°39′42″E / 77.830016°S 166.661659°E / -77.830016; 166.661659
Artigas AQ ART Permanent  Uruguay 1984 Uruguayan Antarctic Institute King George Island Active 62°11′04″S 58°54′14″W / 62.184444°S 58.903889°W / -62.184444; -58.903889 iUTC−3
Arturo Parodi AQ Summer  Chile 1999 Instituto Antártico Chileno Ellsworth Land Closed
Relocated to
Union Glacier
2014
80°18′15″S 81°23′13″W / 80.304170°S 81.3870573°W / -80.304170; -81.3870573
Arturo Prat AQ APT Permanent  Chile 1947 Chilean Navy Greenwich Island Active 62°28′44″S 59°39′52″W / 62.478889°S 59.664444°W / -62.478889; -59.664444 hUTC−3
Asuka AQ Summer  Japan 1985 National Institute of Polar Research Queen Maud Land Closed
Unmanned activity
71°31′33″S 24°06′41″E / 71.525950°S 24.111409°E / -71.525950; 24.111409
Beaver Lake[13] AQ Summer  Australia 1995 Australian Antarctic Division Beaver Lake Active 70°47′42″S 68°10′08″E / 70.795115°S 68.168909°E / -70.795115; 68.168909
Belgrano I AQ Permanent  Argentina 1955 Instituto Antártico Argentino Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Abandoned
1980
77°46′S 38°11′W / 77.767°S 38.183°W / -77.767; -38.183 iUTC−3
Belgrano II AQ BEL Permanent  Argentina 1979 Instituto Antartico Argentino Coats Land Active 77°52′25″S 34°37′39″W / 77.873696°S 34.627588°W / -77.873696; -34.627588 iUTC−3
Belgrano III AQ Permanent  Argentina 1980 Instituto Antártico Argentino Berkner Island Abandoned
1984
77°54′02″S 45°47′01″W / 77.900556°S 45.783611°W / -77.900556; -45.783611 iUTC−3
Bellingshausen AQ BHN Permanent  Russia 1968 Russian Antarctic Expedition King George Island Active 62°11′55″S 58°57′38″W / 62.198591°S 58.960547°W / -62.198591; -58.960547
Bharati AQ Permanent  India 2012 Indian Antarctic Program Larsemann Hills Active 69°24′29″S 76°11′14″E / 69.408030°S 76.187361°E / -69.408030; 76.187361
Borga AQ Summer  South Africa 1969 South African National Antarctic Programme Borg Massif Closed
1976
72°58′00″S 3°48′00″W / 72.966667°S 3.8°W / -72.966667; -3.8
Brockton AQ Summer  United States 1965 United States Navy Ross Ice Shelf Abandoned
1972
80°02′00″S 178°42′00″W / 80.033333°S 178.7°W / -80.033333; -178.7
Brown AQ Summer  Argentina 1951 Instituto Antártico Argentino Paradise Harbor Active 64°53′44″S 62°52′15″W / 64.895476°S 62.870905°W / -64.895476; -62.870905 hUTC−3
Byrd AQ Permanent
Summer
since 1972
 United States 1957 United States Antarctic Program Marie Byrd Land Closed
2005
80°00′53″S 119°33′56″W / 80.01472°S 119.56556°W / -80.01472; -119.56556
Cámara AQ Summer  Argentina 1953 Instituto Antartico Argentino Half Moon Island Active 62°35′41″S 59°55′07″W / 62.594847°S 59.918558°W / -62.594847; -59.918558 iUTC−3
Carvajal
(ex Station T)
AQ Summer  Chile 1984 Instituto Antártico Chileno Adelaide Island Active 67°45′40″S 68°54′52″W / 67.761201°S 68.914365°W / -67.761201; -68.914365
Casey AQ CAS Permanent  Australia 1957 Australian Antarctic Division Vincennes Bay Active 66°16′57″S 110°31′36″E / 66.282514°S 110.526613°E / -66.282514; 110.526613 tUTC+8
Charcot[14] AQ Permanent  France 1957 French Polar Institute Adélie Land Closed 1959
Abandoned
69°22′30″S 139°01′00″E / 69.375°S 139.016667°E / -69.375; 139.016667
Collins AQ Summer  Chile 2006 Instituto Antártico Chileno Fildes Peninsula Active 62°10′09″S 58°51′07″W / 62.169250°S 58.851852°W / -62.169250; -58.851852
Comandante Ferraz AQ CFZ Permanent  Brazil 1984 Brazilian Antarctic Program King George Island Active 62°05′07″S 58°23′29″W / 62.085379°S 58.391513°W / -62.085379; -58.391513 iUTC−3
Concordia AQ CON Permanent  Italy
 France
2005 National Antarctic Research Program
and
IPEV
Dome C
Antarctic Plateau
Active 75°05′59″S 123°19′56″E / 75.099780°S 123.332196°E / -75.099780; 123.332196 sUTC+10
Dakshin Gangotri AQ Permanent  India 1983 Indian Antarctic Program Dakshin Gangotri Glacier Closed
1990
Support base
69°24′24″S 76°11′36″E / 69.406752°S 76.193379°E / -69.406752; 76.193379
Dallmann AQ Summer  Germany 1994 Alfred Wegener Institute Carlini Station Active 62°14′18″S 58°40′04″W / 62.238251°S 58.667764°W / -62.238251; -58.667764
Davis AQ DAV Permanent  Australia 1957 Australian Antarctic Division Princess Elizabeth Land Active 68°34′36″S 77°58′03″E / 68.576667°S 77.9675°E / -68.576667; 77.9675 sUTC+7
Deception AQ Summer  Argentina 1948 Instituto Antartico Argentino Deception Island Active 62°58′31″S 60°41′52″W / 62.975284°S 60.697771°W / -62.975284; -60.697771 iUTC−3
Dirck Gerritsz Laboratory AQ Summer  Netherlands 2013 British Antarctic Survey Rothera Station Active 67°34′08″S 68°07′29″W / 67.568979°S 68.124626°W / -67.568979; -68.124626
Dobrowolski
(ex Oazis Station)
AQ Summer  Poland 1959 Polish Academy of Sciences Wilkes Land Closed
1998
66°16′28″S 100°45′00″E / 66.274514°S 100.749889°E / -66.274514; 100.749889
Dome Fuji AQ DMF Summer  Japan 1995 National Institute of Polar Research Queen Maud Land Closed 77°18′59″S 39°42′04″E / 77.316285°S 39.701049°E / -77.316285; 39.701049
Drescher AQ Summer  Germany 1986 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land Closed
2004
72°50′00″S 19°02′00″W / 72.833333°S 19.033333°W / -72.833333; -19.033333
Druzhba AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1960 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Zavadovskiy Island Closed
1960
66°43′00″S 86°24′00″E / 66.716667°S 86.4°E / -66.716667; 86.4
Drúzhnaya 1 AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1975 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1986
Lost
77°34′00″S 40°13′00″W / 77.566667°S 40.216667°W / -77.566667; -40.216667
Drúzhnaya 2 AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1982 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Lassiter Coast Closed
1986
75°36′00″S 57°52′00″W / 75.6°S 57.866667°W / -75.6; -57.866667
Drúzhnaya 3 AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1982 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land Closed
1986
71°06′00″S 10°49′00″W / 71.1°S 10.816667°W / -71.1; -10.816667
Drúzhnaya 4 (ru) AQ DRZ Summer  Soviet Union
 Russia
1987 Soviet Antarctic Expedition
Russian Antarctic Expedition
Princess Elizabeth Land Closed
1995
69°44′00″S 73°42′00″E / 69.7333333°S 73.7°E / -69.7333333; 73.7
Dumont d'Urville AQ DDU Permanent  France 1956 IPEV Adélie Land Active 66°39′46″S 140°00′07″E / 66.662778°S 140.001944°E / -66.662778; 140.001944 vUTC+10
E Base AQ Summer  South Africa 1985 Fimbul Ice Shelf Active 70°18′00″S 2°26′00″W / 70.3°S 2.433333°W / -70.3; -2.433333
East Base AQ Permanent  United States 1941 United States Antarctic Service Expedition Stonington Island Closed
1948
68°11′02″S 66°59′53″W / 68.183841°S 66.998158°W / -68.183841; -66.998158
Eco-Nelson AQ Permanent  Czech Republic 1989 Private station Nelson Island Active 62°14′47″S 58°58′56″W / 62.246312°S 58.982251°W / -62.246312; -58.982251
Eduardo Frei
and
Villa Las Estrellas
AQ Permanent  Chile 1969 Chilean Air Force King George Island Active 62°11′35″S 58°58′55″W / 62.193126°S 58.981986°W / -62.193126; -58.981986 hUTC−3
Eights AQ Permanent  United States 1963 National Science Foundation Queen Maud Land Closed
1965
75°14′00″S 77°10′00″W / 75.233333°S 77.166667°W / -75.233333; -77.166667Coordinates: 75°14′00″S 77°10′00″W / 75.233333°S 77.166667°W / -75.233333; -77.166667
Ellsworth AQ Permanent  Argentina 1957 Instituto Antártico Argentino Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1962
77°39′00″S 41°02′00″W / 77.65°S 41.033333°W / -77.65; -41.033333
Elichiribehety
(ex Station D)
AQ Summer  Uruguay 1997 Uruguayan Antarctic Institute Hope Bay Active 63°24′09″S 56°59′27″W / 63.402478°S 56.990707°W / -63.402478; -56.990707
Escudero AQ ESC Permanent  Chile 1994 Instituto Antártico Chileno King George Island Active 62°12′05″S 58°57′44″W / 62.201382°S 58.962358°W / -62.201382; -58.962358 hUTC−3
Esperanza AQ ESP Permanent  Argentina 1953 Instituto Antartico Argentino Hope Bay Active 63°23′51″S 56°59′52″W / 63.3975°S 56.997778°W / -63.3975; -56.997778 iUTC−3
Filchner AQ Summer  Germany 1982 Alfred Wegener Institute Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Abandoned
and lost 1999
77°06′00″S 50°24′00″W / 77.10000°S 50.4000°W / -77.10000; -50.4000
Fossil Bluff
(ex Station KG)
AQ Permanent intermittently
Summer
 United Kingdom 1961 British Antarctic Survey Alexander Island Active 71°18′41″S 68°19′25″W / 71.311515°S 68.323540°W / -71.311515; -68.323540
Gabriel de Castilla AQ GDC Summer  Spain 1989 Spanish National Research Council Deception Island Active
Marine biology[15]
62°58′37″S 60°40′31″W / 62.976951°S 60.675305°W / -62.976951; -60.675305
General Bernardo O'Higgins AQ OHG Permanent  Chile 1948 Chilean Army Cape Legoupil Active
Logistics
63°19′15″S 57°53′59″W / 63.320947°S 57.899677°W / -63.320947; -57.899677 hUTC−3
Georg Forster AQ Permanent  East Germany
 Germany
1976

1990
Alfred Wegener Institute Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1993
70°46′39″S 11°50′56″E / 70.777493°S 11.848847°E / -70.777493; 11.848847
German Antarctic Receiving Station AQ Permanent  Germany 1991 German Aerospace Center Cape Legoupil Active 63°19′15″S 57°54′02″W / 63.320873°S 57.900615°W / -63.320873; -57.900615
Gondwana AQ Summer  Germany 1983 Alfred Wegener Institute Transantarctic Mountains Active 74°38′07″S 164°13′19″E / 74.635399°S 164.222014°E / -74.635399; 164.222014
González Videla AQ Summer  Chile 1951 Chilean Air Force Waterboat Point
Graham Land
Active 64°49′26″S 62°51′25″W / 64.823954°S 62.857077°W / -64.823954; -62.857077
Great Wall AQ GWL Permanent  China 1985 Polar Research Institute of China King George Island Active 62°13′01″S 58°57′43″W / 62.216838°S 58.961855°W / -62.216838; -58.961855
Guillermo Mann AQ Summer  Chile 1991 Instituto Antártico Chileno Cape Shirreff Active 62°28′12″S 60°46′17″W / 62.469917°S 60.771250°W / -62.469917; -60.771250
Halley AQ HLY Temporary summer[16]  United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey [17] Brunt Ice Shelf Temporary abandoned since March 2017[18] 75°36′45″S 26°11′52″W / 75.612543°S 26.197797°W / -75.612543; -26.197797
relocated 23 kilometres (14 mi) inland[19]
Jang Bogo AQ JBS Permanent  South Korea 2014 Korea Polar Research Institute Terra Nova Bay Active 74°37′26″S 164°13′44″E / 74.624015°S 164.228815°E / -74.624015; 164.228815 UTC+11
Jinnah AQ Summer  Pakistan 1991 Pakistan Antarctic Programme Sør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land Active 70°24′00″S 25°45′00″E / 70.3999984°S 25.749997°E / -70.3999984; 25.749997
Juan Carlos Primero AQ JCP Summer  Spain 1988 Spanish National Research Council South Bay, Livingston Island Active 62°39′47″S 60°23′17″W / 62.663138°S 60.387992°W / -62.663138; -60.387992 iUTC−3
Jubany
(renamed Carlini)
AQ JUB Permanent  Argentina 1953 Instituto Antartico Argentino King George Island Active 62°14′18″S 58°40′04″W / 62.238251°S 58.667764°W / -62.238251; -58.667764 iUTC−3
Julio Ripamonti AQ Summer  Chile 1982 Instituto Antártico Chileno Ardley Island Active 62°12′36″S 58°56′08″W / 62.210106°S 58.935508°W / -62.210106; -58.935508 UTC-3
King Baudouin
(first station)
AQ Permanent  Belgium 1957 National Center for Polar Research Princess Ragnhild Coast Closed 1961
Abandoned
70°25′33″S 24°19′00″E / 70.425833°S 24.316667°E / -70.425833; 24.316667
King Baudouin
(second station)
AQ Permanent  Belgium
 Netherlands
1964 National Center for Polar Research Princess Ragnhild Coast Closed 1967
Abandoned
70°25′33″S 24°19′00″E / 70.425833°S 24.316667°E / -70.425833; 24.316667
King Sejong AQ KSG Permanent  South Korea 1988 Korea Polar Research Institute King George Island Active 62°13′22″S 58°47′18″W / 62.222803°S 58.788256°W / -62.222803; -58.788256 UTC−3
Kohnen AQ KHN Summer  Germany 2001 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land Active 75°00′07″S 0°04′00″E / 75.001882°S 0.066792°E / -75.001882; 0.066792
Komsomolskaya AQ Permanent  Soviet Union 1957 Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute Queen Mary Land Closed
1962
74°06′S 94°30′E / 74.1°S 94.5°E / -74.1; 94.5
Kunlun AQ Summer  China 2009 Polar Research Institute of China Dome A Active 80°25′02″S 77°06′59″E / 80.417340°S 77.116449°E / -80.417340; 77.116449
Law AQ LAW Summer  Romania 1986 Romanian Polar Research Institute Larsemann Hills
Princess Elizabeth Land
Active 69°22′25″S 76°22′18″E / 69.373573°S 76.371594°E / -69.373573; 76.371594
Lázarev AQ Permanent  Soviet Union 1959 Russian Antarctic Expedition Lazarev Ice Shelf Closed 1961
Abandoned
69°58′00″S 12°55′00″E / 69.966667°S 12.916667°E / -69.966667; 12.916667
Lenie AQ Summer  United States 1985 United States Antarctic Program Admiralty Bay Active 62°10′42″S 58°26′46″W / 62.178439°S 58.446158°W / -62.178439; -58.446158
Leningradskaya AQ Summer  Russia 1971 Russian Antarctic Expedition Oates Coast
Victoria Land
Closed
1991
69°30′05″S 159°23′31″E / 69.501333°S 159.391840°E / -69.501333; 159.391840
Little America AQ Permanent  United States 1929 Ross Ice Shelf Lost
1987
78°12′S 162°12′W / 78.2°S 162.2°W / -78.2; -162.2
Little Rockford AQ Summer  United States 1958 Marie Byrd Land Closed 1965
Abandoned
79°30′00″S 147°19′00″W / 79.5°S 147.316667°W / -79.5; -147.316667
Machu Picchu AQ Summer  Peru 1989 Instituto Antàrtico Peruano [20] Admiralty Bay
King George Island
Active 62°05′29″S 58°28′12″W / 62.091497°S 58.469905°W / -62.091497; -58.469905
Maitri AQ MTR Permanent  India 1989 Indian Antarctic Program Schirmacher Oasis Active 70°46′00″S 11°43′53″E / 70.766632°S 11.731516°E / -70.766632; 11.731516
Maldonado AQ Summer  Ecuador 1990 Instituto Antártico Ecuatoriano Greenwich Island Active 62°26′57″S 59°44′29″W / 62.449056°S 59.741389°W / -62.449056; -59.741389
Marambio AQ MRB Permanent  Argentina 1969 Instituto Antartico Argentino Marambio Island Active 64°14′28″S 56°37′36″W / 64.241014°S 56.626753°W / -64.241014; -56.626753 iUTC−3
Mario Zucchelli AQ MZU Summer[21]  Italy 1986 National Antarctic Research Program
ENEA
CNR
Terra Nova Bay Active 74°41′39″S 164°06′50″E / 74.694206°S 164.113869°E / -74.694206; 164.113869 xUTC+12*
[22]
Matienzo AQ Summer  Argentina 1961 Instituto Antartico Argentino Graham Land Active 64°58′32″S 60°04′17″W / 64.975659°S 60.071501°W / -64.975659; -60.071501 iUTC−3
Maudheim AQ Permanent  Norway
 Sweden
 United Kingdom
1949 Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land Closed
1952
71°03′00″S 10°56′00″W / 71.05°S 10.933333°W / -71.05; -10.933333
Mawson AQ MAW Permanent  Australia 1954 Australian Antarctic Division Mac Robertson Land Active 67°36′12″S 62°52′27″E / 67.603232°S 62.874170°E / -67.603232; 62.874170 rUTC+6
McMurdo AQ MCM Permanent  United States 1956 United States Antarctic Program Ross Island Active 77°50′47″S 166°40′06″E / 77.846323°S 166.668235°E / -77.846323; 166.668235 xUTC+12*
Melchior AQ Summer  Argentina 1947 Instituto Antartico Argentino Melchior Islands Active 64°19′32″S 62°58′34″W / 64.325688°S 62.976063°W / -64.325688; -62.976063 iUTC−3
Mendel AQ Summer  Czech Republic 2006 Masaryk University James Ross Island Active 63°48′02″S 57°52′56″W / 63.800623°S 57.882178°W / -63.800623; -57.882178
Mir AQ Summer  Soviet Union Meteo station
1958
1960
Russian Antarctic Expedition Drygalski Island Closed
1960
65°45′S 92°30′E / 65.75°S 92.5°E / -65.75; 92.5
Mirny AQ MIR Permanent  Russia 1956 Russian Antarctic Expedition Davis Sea Active 66°33′11″S 93°00′35″E / 66.553122°S 93.009724°E / -66.553122; 93.009724
Mizuho AQ Summer  Japan 1970 National Institute of Polar Research Mizuho Plateau Active
occasionally
transhipment station
70°41′57″S 44°16′45″E / 70.699174°S 44.279057°E / -70.699174; 44.279057
Molodyozhnaya AQ Summer  Russia 1962
reopened
in 2007
Russian Antarctic Expedition Thala Hills
East Antarctica
Closed 1990
Active
Meteorology
[23]
67°39′55″S 45°50′18″E / 67.665348°S 45.838400°E / -67.665348; 45.838400
Neumayer I AQ NEU Permanent  Germany 1981 Alfred Wegener Institute Princess Martha Coast Closed
1993
70°39′05″S 8°15′47″W / 70.651509°S 8.263172°W / -70.651509; -8.263172
Neumayer II AQ NEU Permanent  Germany 1992 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land Closed
2009
70°38′16″S 8°15′42″W / 70.637847°S 8.261744°W / -70.637847; -8.261744
Neumayer III AQ NEU Permanent  Germany 2009 Alfred Wegener Institute Atka Bay Active 70°40′38″S 8°16′18″W / 70.677250°S 8.271600°W / -70.677250; -8.271600 lUTC
Norway AQ Permanent  Norway 1957 Sixth Norwegian Antarctic Expedition Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1960
Transferred to
South Africa
70°30′S 2°30′W / 70.5°S 2.5°W / -70.5; -2.5
Novolazarevskaya AQ NOV Permanent  Russia 1961 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land Active 70°46′36″S 11°49′20″E / 70.776762°S 11.822356°E / -70.776762; 11.822356
Oazis
(renamed
Dobrowolski)
AQ Summer  Soviet Union
 Poland
1956

1959
Russian Antarctic Expedition Bunger Hills Active 66°16′00″S 100°44′00″E / 66.266667°S 100.733333°E / -66.266667; 100.733333
Oazis 2 AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1987 Russian Antarctic Expedition Bunger Hills Closed
1995
66°16′28″S 100°45′00″E / 66.274514°S 100.749889°E / -66.274514; 100.749889
Orcadas AQ ORC Permanent  Argentina 1904 Instituto Antartico Argentino
Argentine Navy
Laurie Island
South Orkney Islands
Active 60°44′17″S 44°44′17″W / 60.738085°S 44.738130°W / -60.738085; -44.738130 iUTC−3
Palmer AQ PLM Permanent  United States 1968 United States Antarctic Program Anvers Island Active 64°46′27″S 64°03′10″W / 64.774230°S 64.052718°W / -64.774230; -64.052718 hUTC−3
Petrel AQ Summer  Argentina 1952 Instituto Antartico Argentino Dundee Island Active 63°28′41″S 56°13′44″W / 63.477947°S 56.228753°W / -63.477947; -56.228753 iUTC−3
Pionérskaya AQ Permanent  Soviet Union 1956 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Mary Land Closed
1959
69°44′00″S 95°31′00″E / 69.733333°S 95.516667°E / -69.733333; 95.516667
Plateau AQ Permanent  United States 1965 United States Navy
National Science Foundation
Queen Maud Land Closed
1969
79°15′03″S 40°33′38″E / 79.25082°S 40.56042°E / -79.25082; 40.56042
Pobeda AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1960 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Mary Land Closed
1960
64°39′S 98°54′E / 64.65°S 98.9°E / -64.65; 98.9
Port Martin AQ Permanent  France 1950 French Antarctic Expedition Cape Margerie Closed
1952
66°49′06″S 141°24′02″E / 66.818250°S 141.400694°E / -66.818250; 141.400694
Primavera AQ Summer  Argentina 1977 Instituto Antartico Argentino Graham Land Active 64°09′21″S 60°57′19″W / 64.155766°S 60.955183°W / -64.155766; -60.955183 iUTC−3
Princess Elisabeth AQ Summer  Belgium 2007 International Polar Foundation
Energy passive station.
Queen Maud Land Reopened
23 November 2017[24]
71°57′00″S 23°20′49″E / 71.949944°S 23.347079°E / -71.949944; 23.347079
Progress AQ PRO Summer  Soviet Union
 Russia
1988 Russian Antarctic Expedition Prydz Bay Active 69°22′25″S 76°22′18″E / 69.373575°S 76.371678°E / -69.373575; 76.371678
Risopatrón AQ Summer  Chile 1954 Instituto Antártico Chileno Robert Island Active 62°22′42″S 59°42′03″W / 62.378333°S 59.700833°W / -62.378333; -59.700833
Rothera
(ex Station R)
AQ ROT Permanent  United Kingdom 1975 British Antarctic Survey Adelaide Island Active 67°34′06″S 68°07′33″W / 67.568417°S 68.125796°W / -67.568417; -68.125796
Russkaya AQ Summer  Soviet Union
 Russia
1980
reopened in 2007
Russian Antarctic Expedition Marie Byrd Land Closed 1990
Active
74°46′00″S 136°48′10″W / 74.766755°S 136.802882°W / -74.766755; -136.802882 fUTC−6
[25]
Salyut AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1978 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Mary Land Closed
1978
65°32′00″S 96°30′00″E / 65.533333°S 96.5°E / -65.533333; 96.5
San Martín AQ SMT Permanent  Argentina 1951 Instituto Antartico Argentino Barry Island Active 68°07′48″S 67°06′05″W / 68.130043°S 67.101311°W / -68.130043; -67.101311 iUTC−3
SANAE I AQ SNA Permanent  South Africa 1960 South African National Antarctic Programme Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1963
Abandoned
70°18′00″S 2°22′00″W / 70.3°S 2.366667°W / -70.3; -2.366667
SANAE II AQ SNA Permanent  South Africa 1971 South African National Antarctic Programme Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1979
Abandoned
70°18′00″S 2°22′00″W / 70.3°S 2.366667°W / -70.3; -2.366667
SANAE III AQ SNA Permanent  South Africa 1979 South African National Antarctic Programme Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1997
Abandoned
70°18′00″S 2°22′00″W / 70.3°S 2.366667°W / -70.3; -2.366667
SANAE IV AQ SNA Permanent  South Africa 1960
SANAE I
South African National Antarctic Programme Vesleskarvet
Queen Maud Land
Active 71°40′22″S 2°50′26″W / 71.672650°S 2.840575°W / -71.672650; -2.840575 iUTC+2
Sarie Marais AQ Summer  South Africa 1982 South African National Antarctic Programme Ahlmann Ridge Closed 1999
Dismantled 2001
Geology
Biology
72°01′35″S 2°48′18″W / 72.026389°S 2.805°W / -72.026389; -2.805
Scott Base AQ SBA Permanent  New Zealand 1957 Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island Active 77°50′57″S 166°46′06″E / 77.849132°S 166.768196°E / -77.849132; 166.768196 xUTC+12
Shirreff AQ Summer  United States 1991 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cape Shirreff Active 62°28′13″S 60°46′16″W / 62.470271°S 60.770998°W / -62.470271; -60.770998
Signy
(ex Station H)
AQ SGN Permanent
1947-1995
Summer
since 1996
 United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Signy Island
South Orkney Islands
Active 60°42′29″S 45°35′42″W / 60.708137°S 45.594888°W / -60.708137; -45.594888
Site 2 AQ Summer  United States 1957 Law Dome Closed 1966
Abandoned
Glaciology
66°30′07″S 113°12′09″E / 66.501944°S 113.2025°E / -66.501944; 113.2025
Syowa AQ SYW Permanent  Japan 1957 National Institute of Polar Research East Ongul Island Active 69°00′16″S 39°34′54″E / 69.004448°S 39.581713°E / -69.004448; 39.581713 oUTC+3
Siple AQ Summer  United States 1973 Stanford's STAR Lab Ellsworth Land Closed
1988
75°55′00″S 83°55′00″W / 75.916667°S 83.916667°W / -75.916667; -83.916667
Sobral AQ Permanent  Argentina 1965 Instituto Antártico Argentino Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1968
81°04′45″S 40°31′12″W / 81.07917°S 40.52000°W / -81.07917; -40.52000
Sodrúzhestvo AQ Summer  Soviet Union 1971 Russian Antarctic Expedition Amery Ice Shelf Closed
1974
69°43′00″S 73°44′00″E / 69.716667°S 73.733333°E / -69.716667; 73.733333
South Ice AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1957 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Edith Ronne Land Closed
1958
Abandoned
82°05′00″S 30°00′00″W / 82.083333°S 30.0°W / -82.083333; -30.0
Sovetskaya AQ Permanent  Soviet Union 1958 Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute Kaiser Wilhelm II Land Closed
1959
Abandoned
77°58′00″S 89°16′00″E / 77.966667°S 89.266667°E / -77.966667; 89.266667
Soyuz AQ Permanent  Soviet Union 1982 Russian Antarctic Expedition Prince Charles Mountains Closed
1989
70°34′36″S 68°47′30″E / 70.576667°S 68.791667°E / -70.576667; 68.791667 UTC+5
St. Kliment Ohridski AQ Summer  Bulgaria 1988 Bulgarian Antarctic Institute Emona Anchorage
Livingston Island
Active 62°38′29″S 60°21′53″W / 62.641389°S 60.364722°W / -62.641389; -60.364722 iUTC−3
Station A[26] AQ Summer  United Kingdom 1944
reopened 1996
British Antarctic Survey Goudier Island Closed
1962
64°49′31″S 63°29′37″W / 64.825276°S 63.493688°W / -64.825276; -63.493688
Station B[27] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1944 Falkland Islands and Dependencies Aerial Survey Expedition Deception Island Closed
1969
62°58′38″S 60°33′50″W / 62.977231°S 60.563809°W / -62.977231; -60.563809
Station C[28] AQ Summer  United Kingdom 1946 British Antarctic Survey Cape Geddes Closed 1947
Abandoned
60°41′16″S 44°34′24″W / 60.687642°S 44.573196°W / -60.687642; -44.573196
Station D[29] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1945 British Antarctic Survey Hope Bay Closed
1964
63°24′09″S 56°59′27″W / 63.402478°S 56.990707°W / -63.402478; -56.990707
Station E[30] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1946 British Antarctic Survey Stonington Island Closed
1975
68°11′08″S 66°59′41″W / 68.185678°S 66.994815°W / -68.185678; -66.994815
Station F[31] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Galindez Island Closed
1996
65°14′45″S 64°15′28″W / 65.245791°S 64.257786°W / -65.245791; -64.257786
Station G[32] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Admiralty Bay Closed
1961
62°05′14″S 58°23′39″W / 62.087217°S 58.394049°W / -62.087217; -58.394049
Station J[33] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1957 British Antarctic Survey Prospect Point Closed 1959
Removed 2004
65°59′55″S 65°19′06″W / 65.998516°S 65.318273°W / -65.998516; -65.318273
Station N[34] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1955 British Antarctic Survey Anvers Island Closed 1958
Demolished
1991
64°45′36″S 64°04′48″W / 64.760032°S 64.079991°W / -64.760032; -64.079991
Station O[35] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey Danco Island Closed 1959
Demolished
2004
64°44′00″S 62°36′00″W / 64.733333°S 62.600000°W / -64.733333; -62.600000
Station P[36] AQ Summer  United Kingdom 1957 British Antarctic Survey Mateev Cove Closed
1958
62°38′58″S 60°35′25″W / 62.649306°S 60.590278°W / -62.649306; -60.590278
Station T[37] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1961 British Antarctic Survey Adelaide Island Closed
1977
67°45′40″S 68°54′52″W / 67.761201°S 68.914365°W / -67.761201; -68.914365
Station V[38] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1953 British Antarctic Survey View Point Closed
1963
63°33′16″S 57°22′42″W / 63.554392°S 57.378279°W / -63.554392; -57.378279
Station W[39] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey Detaille Island Closed
1959
66°52′01″S 66°47′53″W / 66.867006°S 66.797971°W / -66.867006; -66.797971
Station Y[40] AQ Permanent  United Kingdom] 1955
reopened 1969
British Antarctic Survey Horseshoe Island Closed
1960
1969
67°48′30″S 67°17′39″W / 67.808285°S 67.294266°W / -67.808285; -67.294266
Svea AQ Summer  Sweden 1988 Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land Active 74°35′00″S 11°13′00″W / 74.583333°S 11.216667°W / -74.583333; -11.216667
Taishan[41] AQ Summer  China 2014 Polar Research Institute of China Princess Elizabeth Land Active 73°51′50″S 76°58′29″E / 73.863883°S 76.974717°E / -73.863883; 76.974717
Tor AQ TOR Summer  Norway 1993 Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land Active 71°53′22″S 5°09′34″E / 71.889477°S 5.159545°E / -71.889477; 5.159545
Troll AQ TRL Permanent  Norway 1990 Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land Active 72°00′42″S 2°32′06″E / 72.011662°S 2.535138°E / -72.011662; 2.535138
Union Glacier AQ Summer  Chile 2014 Chilean Army
Chilean Navy
Chilean Air Force
Instituto Antártico Chileno
Union Glacier Active 79°46′10″S 82°54′26″W / 79.76944°S 82.90722°W / -79.76944; -82.90722 (Joint Scientific Polar Station "Union Glacier" (Chile))
Vanda AQ Permanent until 1974
Summer since 1976
 New Zealand 1969 Antarctica New Zealand Victoria Land Active 77°31′00″S 161°40′00″E / 77.516667°S 161.666667°E / -77.516667; 161.666667
Vechernyaya[42] AQ Summer  Belarus 2007 National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Mount Vechernyaya, Thala Hills Active 67°39′33″S 46°09′29″E / 67.659123°S 46.158125°E / -67.659123; 46.158125
Vernadsky
(ex Station F)
AQ VKY Permanent  Ukraine

 United Kingdom
1994 National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine Galindez Island Active 65°14′45″S 64°15′28″W / 65.245791°S 64.257786°W / -65.245791; -64.257786 iUTC−3
Vostok AQ VOS Permanent  Soviet Union
 Russia
1957 Russian Antarctic Expedition Antarctic Ice Sheet Active 78°27′50″S 106°50′15″E / 78.463889°S 106.83757°E / -78.463889; 106.83757 rUTC+6
Vostok I AQ VOS Permanent  Soviet Union 1957 Russian Academy of Sciences East Antarctica Closed 1957
Abandoned
72°08′00″S 96°35′00″E / 72.133333°S 96.583333°E / -72.133333; 96.583333
Wasa AQ WSA Summer  Sweden 1989 Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land Active 73°02′24″S 13°23′55″W / 73.039901°S 13.398584°W / -73.039901; -13.398584
Weddell 1 AQ Summer  Russia
 United States
1992 Russian Antarctic Expedition
National Science Foundation
Weddell Sea Closed
1992
71°48′00″S 51°43′00″W / 71.8°S 51.716667°W / -71.8; -51.716667
World Park AQ Permanent 1987 Greenpeace Cape Evans Dismantled
1992
77°38′20″S 166°24′50″W / 77.6389°S 166.4139°W / -77.6389; -166.4139
Yelcho AQ Summer  Chile 1962
reopened 2015
Instituto Antártico Chileno South Bay
Doumer Island
Active 64°52′33″S 63°35′01″W / 64.87591°S 63.583721°W / -64.87591; -63.583721
Zhongshan AQ ZGN Permanent  China 1989 Polar Research Institute of China Larsemann Hills
Prydz Bay
Active 69°22′25″S 76°22′18″E / 69.373587°S 76.371652°E / -69.373587; 76.371652
* Observes daylight saving time.

List of Subantarctic research stations[edit]

Station
name
LOCODE Type Country Year
Est.
Administered
by
Location Status &
Activities
Coordinates Time zone
Alfred Faure TF Permanent  France 1963 Île de la Possession Active
Meteorology
Seismology
Biology
46°25′56″S 51°51′30″E / 46.432333°S 51.858217°E / -46.432333; 51.858217
Bird GS Permanent  United Kingdom 1957 British Antarctic Survey Bird Island Active
Bird and seal research
54°00′30″S 38°03′04″W / 54.008329°S 38.051132°W / -54.008329; -38.051132
Campbell NZ Permanent  New Zealand 1946 MetService Campbell Island Active
Meteorology
52°33′04″S 169°09′04″E / 52.550973°S 169.150981°E / -52.550973; 169.150981
Gough SH TDC Permanent  South Africa 1956 South African Weather Service Gough Island Active
Meteorology
40°20′58″S 9°52′49″W / 40.349307°S 9.880331°W / -40.349307; -9.880331
King Edward Point
(ex Station M)
GS Permanent  United Kingdom 1950 British Antarctic Survey King Edward Point Active
Support sustainable fishing
54°17′00″S 36°29′36″W / 54.283335°S 36.493196°W / -54.283335; -36.493196
Marion ZA Permanent  South Africa 1948 South African National Antarctic Programme Prince Edward Islands Active
Meteorology
Biology
46°52′32″S 37°51′31″E / 46.875460°S 37.858540°E / -46.875460; 37.858540
Port-aux-Français TF PFR Permanent  France 1963 Kerguelen Islands Active
Meteorology
Geophisics
Biology
49°20′55″S 70°13′10″E / 49.348667°S 70.219306°E / -49.348667; 70.219306

Map[edit]

This map is referred to permanent research stations only.

Research stations in Antarctica is located in Antarctica
Amundsen–Scott South Pole
Amundsen–Scott South Pole
Asuka
Asuka
BharatiZhongshan
Bharati
Zhongshan
Casey
Casey
Concordia
Concordia
DavisDakshin Gangotri
Davis
Dakshin Gangotri
Dumont d'Urville
Dumont d'Urville
ArctowskiArtigasBellingshausenFerrazFreiEscuderoGreat WallJubanyKing Sejong
Arctowski
Artigas
Bellingshausen
Ferraz
Frei
Escudero
Great Wall
Jubany
King Sejong
Belgrano II
Belgrano II
Esperanza
Esperanza
O'HigginsMarambio
O'Higgins
Marambio
Halley
Halley
Jang Bogo
Jang Bogo
MaitriNovolazarevskaya
Maitri
Novolazarevskaya
Mawson
Mawson
McMurdo Scott Base
McMurdo
Scott Base
Mirny
Mirny
Neumayer III
Neumayer III
Orcadas
Orcadas
Palmer
Palmer
Rothera
Rothera
San Martín
San Martín
SANAE IV
SANAE IV
Syowa
Syowa
Troll
Troll
Vernadsky
Vernadsky
Vostok
Vostok
Locations of permanent research station in Antarctica

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Silja Vöneky; Sange Addison-Agyei (May 2011). "Oxford Public International Law". Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. 
  2. ^ 4.0 Antarctica - Past and Present
  3. ^ a b Rudmose Brown, R. N.; Pirie, J. H.; Mossman, R. C. (2002). The Voyage of the Scotia. Edinburgh: Mercat Press. pp. 34–57. ISBN 1-84183-044-5. 
  4. ^ Rudmose Brown, p. 57.
  5. ^ "Voyage of the Scotia 1902–04: The Antarctic". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  6. ^ Speak, Peter (2003). William Speirs Bruce: Polar Explorer and Scottish Nationalist. Edinburgh: NMS Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 1-901663-71-X. 
  7. ^ Escude, Carlos; Cisneros, Andres. "Historia General de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina" (in Spanish). Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  8. ^ Moneta, Jose Manuel (1954). Cuatro Años en las Orcadas del Sur (9th ed.). Ediciones Peuser. 
  9. ^ "HMS Carnarvon Castle 1943". 
  10. ^ "Spirit of Scott 2012: Britain's polar interests lie under a cloud". The Daily Telegraph. 
  11. ^ Antarctica and the Arctic: the complete encyclopedia, Volume 1, by David McGonigal, Lynn Woodworth, page 98
  12. ^ a b "New Zealand". Antarctic Treaty. Retrieved 25 September 2017. 
  13. ^ Antarctic Treaty
  14. ^ "Dumont d'Urville". Institute Polaire Français. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  15. ^ BAE Gabriel de Castilla Archived 2010-03-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Halley Research Station will not winter in 2018 British Antarctic Survey
  17. ^ "Halley VI Antarctic Research Station". Archello.com. 
  18. ^ Halley British Antarctic Survey
  19. ^ Halley Research Station relocation British Antarctic Survey
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Stazione Mario Zucchelli ItaliAntartide
  22. ^ "Current Local Time in Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  23. ^ http://www.tvr.by/eng/news.asp?id=15751&date=17.03.2006%2019:31:00#1
  24. ^ Waking the Princess International Polar Foundation
  25. ^ "French Polar Team - R1 Russkaya Station / Antarctica". 
  26. ^ "Port Lockroy Station A". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  27. ^ "Deception Island Station B". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  28. ^ "Sandefjord Bay Station C". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  29. ^ "Hope Bay Station D". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  30. ^ "Stonington Island Station E". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  31. ^ "Faraday Station F". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  32. ^ "Admiralty Bay Station G". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  33. ^ "Prospect Point Station J". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  34. ^ "Anvers Island Station N". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  35. ^ "Danco Island Station O". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  36. ^ "Livingstone Island Station P". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  37. ^ "Adelaide Station T". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  38. ^ "View Point Station V". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  39. ^ "Detaille Island Station W". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  40. ^ "Horseshoe Island Station Y". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  41. ^ "中国正式建成南极泰山科考站". 
  42. ^ Varetto, Gianni (August 24, 2017). "Belarusian Antarctic Research Vechernyaya Station (WAP BLR-New)". Worldwide Antarctic Program. 

External links[edit]