List of research stations in the Arctic

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Location of the major research stations in the Arctic

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in the Arctic. Also known as Arctic bases, Polar stations or Ice stations, these bases are widely distributed across the northern Polar region of the earth.

Historically few research stations have been permanent. Most of them were temporary, being abandoned after the completion of the project or owing to lack of funding to continue the research. Some of these facilities are constructed on land or on ice that rests on land, while others are drifting ice stations built on the sea ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.[1]

Research stations[edit]

Station
name
State/Province Country Year
Opened
Year
Closed
Abisko Scientific Research Station Abisko  Sweden 1903 Ongoing
Adam Mickiewicz University Polar Station Svalbard  Poland 2011 Ongoing
Alomar Observatory Andøya  Norway 1994 Ongoing
Arctic Yellow River Station (China) Svalbard  Norway 2003 Ongoing
Barrow Observatory Point Barrow  United States[2] 1973 Ongoing
Brønlundhus Peary Land  Greenland 1947 NA
Daneborg Wollaston Foreland  Greenland 1944 NA
Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) Cambridge Bay, Nunavut  Canada[3] 2017 Ongoing
Churchill Northern Studies Centre (CNSC) Churchill, Manitoba, Canada  Canada 1976 Ongoing
Danmarkshavn Dove Bay, Germania Land  Greenland 1906 Ongoing
Dirigibile Italia Arctic Station Svalbard  Norway 1997 Ongoing
Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory Alert, Nunavut  Canada 1986 Ongoing
Dye 3 Four different locations in Southern Greenland  Greenland 1971 1991
Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Devon Island, Nunavut  Canada 2001 Ongoing
Golomyanniy Station Sredniy Island,[4] Sedov Archipelago, off Severnaya Zemlya  Russia[5] 1954 NA
Heiberg Polar Station Heiberg Islands  Russia[6] 1940 1995
Himadri Station (India) Svalbard  Norway[7] 2008 Ongoing
Igloolik Research Centre Igloolik, Igloolik Island, Nunavut  Canada [8] 1975 NA
International Biological Station Lena-Nordenskiöld Tiksi, Sakha Republic  Russia[9] 1995 Ongoing
Iqaluit Research Centre Iqaluit, Baffin Island, Nunavut  Canada [10] 1978 Ongoing
Izluchin Polar Station Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya  Russia NA Abandoned
Kevo Research Station Kevo  Finland[11] 1958 Ongoing
Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Kilpisjärvi  Finland[12] 1964 Ongoing
Kiruna Observatory Kiruna  Sweden NA NA
Kluane Lake Research Station Kluane Lake  Canada [13] 1961 Ongoing
Kolyuchin Polar Station Kolyuchin Island  Russia NA Abandoned in the 1990s
Labytnangi Ecological Research Station Labytnangi  Russia 1954 Ongoing
Lavrentiya Research Station Lavrentiya, Chukotka  Russia NA NA
McGill Arctic Research Station Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut  Canada [14] 1959 Ongoing
Mestersvig Scoresby Land  Greenland 1956 Ongoing
Mývatn Research Station Mývatn  Iceland 1975 Ongoing
NEEM Camp Northern Greenland Ice Sheet  Greenland 2008 2015
Nicolaus Copernicus University Polar Station Kaffiøyra  Poland 1975 Ongoing
Nord Princess Ingeborg Peninsula  Greenland 1952 Ongoing
North Ice Northern Greenland Ice Sheet  Greenland 1952 1954
Northeast Science Station Chersky, Sakha  Russia[15] 1977 Ongoing
Ny-Ålesund Spitsbergen, Svalbard  Norway[16] 1967 Ongoing
Peschanny Polar Station Cape Unslicht, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya  Russia NA Abandoned
Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Eureka, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut  Canada [17] 1993 Ongoing
Polish Polar Station, Hornsund Svalbard  Norway 1957 Ongoing
Popov Polar Station Bely Island  Russia November 1, 1933 March 2001
Prima Polar Station Cape Baranov, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya  Russia[18] NA Ongoing
Provideniya Research Station Provideniya  Russia NA NA
Resolute Nunavut Station Resolute, Cornwallis Island, Nunavut  Canada [19] 1947 NA
Russky Island Arctic Station Russky Island, Nordenskiöld Archipelago  Russia[20] 1935 1999
Samoylov Station Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve, Sakha, Siberia  Russia 1998 Ongoing
Sermilik Station Ammassalik Island  Greenland 1970 Ongoing
Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre Sodankylä  Finland[21] NA NA
Solnechny Polar Station Solnechny Bay, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya  Russia[22] 1952 Abandoned
Stanisław Baranowski Spitsbergen Polar Station ( Poland) Svalbard  Norway 1971 Ongoing
Stolbovoy Meteorological Station Stolbovoy Island, Laptev Sea  Russia[23] NA Abandoned
Summit Camp (USA) HP of the Greenland ice sheet  Greenland April 1989 Ongoing
Thule Research Station Pituffik  Greenland[24] 1995 Ongoing
Toolik Field Station Toolik Lake  United States[25] 1975 Ongoing
Troynoy Island Polar Station Izvestiy TSIK Islands  Russia[26] 1953 Ongoing
Tuktoyaktuk Station Mackenzie River  Canada [27] NA NA
Tundra Ecosystem Research Station (TERS) Daring Lake  Canada [28] 1994 Ongoing
Tyrtov Island Polar Station Tyrtov Island, Nordenskiöld Archipelago  Russia 1940 1975
Uedineniya Polar Station Uedineniya Island  Russia NA 1996
University of Copenhagen Arctic Station Kitaa  Greenland 1906 Ongoing
Vavilov Meteorological Station October Revolution Island, Severnaya Zemlya  Russia[29] 1974 1988
Vize Island Arctic Research Station Vize Island  Russia November 1, 1945 NA
Ward Hunt Island Observatory Research Station Ward Hunt Island, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut  Canada [30] 1957 Ongoing
Western Arctic Research Centre Inuvik  Canada [31] 1964 Ongoing
Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik Research Complex Whapmagoostui, Quebec  Canada [32] 1971 Ongoing
White Sea Biological Station (WSBS MSU) Chupa, Republic of Karelia  Russia[33] 1938 Ongoing
Willem Barents Biological Station Meduza Bay, Krasnoyarsk Krai  Russia [34] NA NA
Wrangel Island Research Station Wrangel Island  Russia[35] NA NA
Yenisei Ecological Station Mirnoye, Turukhansky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai  Russia[36] NA NA
Zackenberg Station Wollaston Foreland  Greenland 1997 Ongoing
Zeppelin (research station) Svalbard  Norway 1990 Ongoing

Drifting ice stations[edit]

Station name Head of the first shift Drift dates Drift coordinates Distance (km)
Began Ended Start Finish
North Pole-1 I.D.Papanin May 21, 1937 February 19, 1938 89°25′N 78°40′W / 89.417°N 78.667°W / 89.417; -78.667 (North Pole-1 (start)) 70°40′N 19°16′W / 70.667°N 19.267°W / 70.667; -19.267 (North Pole-1 (finish)) 2,850
North Pole-2 M.M.Somov April 2, 1950 April 11, 1951 76°03′N 166°36′W / 76.050°N 166.600°W / 76.050; -166.600 (North Pole-2 (start)) 81°44′N 163°48′W / 81.733°N 163.800°W / 81.733; -163.800 (North Pole-2 (finish)) 2,600
North Pole-3 A.F.Trioshnikov April 4, 1954 April 20, 1955 85°58′N 175°00′W / 85.967°N 175.000°W / 85.967; -175.000 (North Pole-3 (start)) 86°00′N 24°00′W / 86.000°N 24.000°W / 86.000; -24.000 (North Pole-3 (finish)) 1,865
North Pole-4 E.I.Tolstikov April 8, 1954 April 19, 1957 75°48′N 178°25′W / 75.800°N 178.417°W / 75.800; -178.417 (North Pole-4 (start)) 85°52′N 00°00′W / 85.867°N -0.000°E / 85.867; -0.000 (North Pole-4 (finish)) 6,970
North Pole-5 N.A.Volkov April 21, 1955 October 8, 1956 82°10′N 156°51′E / 82.167°N 156.850°E / 82.167; 156.850 (North Pole-5 (start)) 84°18′N 63°20′E / 84.300°N 63.333°E / 84.300; 63.333 (North Pole-5 (finish)) 3,630
North Pole-6 K.A.Sychev April 19, 1956 September 14, 1959 74°24′N 177°04′W / 74.400°N 177.067°W / 74.400; -177.067 (North Pole-6 (start)) 82°06′N 03°56′E / 82.100°N 3.933°E / 82.100; 3.933 (North Pole-6 (finish)) 8,650
North Pole-7 V.A.Vedernikov April 23, 1957 April 11, 1959 82°06′N 164°11′W / 82.100°N 164.183°W / 82.100; -164.183 (North Pole-7 (start)) 85°14′N 33°03′W / 85.233°N 33.050°W / 85.233; -33.050 (North Pole-7 (finish)) 3,520
North Pole-8 V.M.Rogachyov April 27, 1959 March 19, 1962 76°11′N 164°24′W / 76.183°N 164.400°W / 76.183; -164.400 (North Pole-8 (start)) 83°15′N 132°30′W / 83.250°N 132.500°W / 83.250; -132.500 (North Pole-8 (finish)) 6,090
North Pole-9 V.A.Shamontyev April 26, 1960 March 28, 1961 77°23′N 163°00′E / 77.383°N 163.000°E / 77.383; 163.000 (North Pole-9 (start)) 86°36′N 76°00′W / 86.600°N 76.000°W / 86.600; -76.000 (North Pole-9 (finish)) 2,660
North Pole-10 N.A.Kornilov October 17, 1961 April 29, 1964 75°27′N 177°10′E / 75.450°N 177.167°E / 75.450; 177.167 (North Pole-10 (start)) 88°32′N 90°30′E / 88.533°N 90.500°E / 88.533; 90.500 (North Pole-10 (finish)) 3,960
North Pole-11 N.N.Bryazgin April 16, 1962 April 20, 1963 77°10′N 165°58′W / 77.167°N 165.967°W / 77.167; -165.967 (North Pole-11 (start)) 81°10′N 139°34′W / 81.167°N 139.567°W / 81.167; -139.567 (North Pole-11 (finish)) 2,400
North Pole-12 L.N.Belyakov April 30, 1963 April 25, 1965 76°50′N 165°34′W / 76.833°N 165.567°W / 76.833; -165.567 (North Pole-12 (start)) 81°06′N 145°47′W / 81.100°N 145.783°W / 81.100; -145.783 (North Pole-12 (finish)) 1,595
North Pole-13 A.Ya. Buzuyev April 22, 1964 April 20, 1967 73°55′N 161°19′W / 73.917°N 161.317°W / 73.917; -161.317 (North Pole-13 (start)) 87°55′N 03°32′E / 87.917°N 3.533°E / 87.917; 3.533 (North Pole-13 (finish)) 3,545
North Pole-14 Yu. B.Konstantinov May 1, 1965 February 12, 1966 72°42′N 175°25′W / 72.700°N 175.417°W / 72.700; -175.417 (North Pole-14 (start)) 76°59′N 154°49′E / 76.983°N 154.817°E / 76.983; 154.817 (North Pole-14 (finish)) 1,040
North Pole-15 V.V.Panov April 15, 1966 March 25, 1968 78°49′N 168°08′E / 78.817°N 168.133°E / 78.817; 168.133 (North Pole-15 (start)) 85°45′N 10°30′W / 85.750°N 10.500°W / 85.750; -10.500 (North Pole-15 (finish)) 2,330
North Pole-16 Yu. B.Konstantinov April 10, 1968 March 22, 1972 75°31′N 172°00′W / 75.517°N 172.000°W / 75.517; -172.000 (North Pole-16 (start)) 86°00′N 85°27′W / 86.000°N 85.450°W / 86.000; -85.450 (North Pole-16 (finish)) 5,850
North Pole-17 N.I.Blinov April 18, 1968 October 16, 1969 80°30′N 165°26′E / 80.500°N 165.433°E / 80.500; 165.433 (North Pole-17 (start)) 86°48′N 25°20′E / 86.800°N 25.333°E / 86.800; 25.333 (North Pole-17 (finish)) 1,750
North Pole-18 N.N.Ovchinnikov October 9, 1969 October 24, 1971 75°10′N 165°02′W / 75.167°N 165.033°W / 75.167; -165.033 (North Pole-18 (start)) 86°06′N 153°51′E / 86.100°N 153.850°E / 86.100; 153.850 (North Pole-18 (finish)) 5,240
North Pole-19 A.N.Chilingarov November 7, 1969 April 16, 1973 74°54′N 160°13′E / 74.900°N 160.217°E / 74.900; 160.217 (North Pole-19 (start)) 83°08′N 16°17′E / 83.133°N 16.283°E / 83.133; 16.283 (North Pole 19- (finish)) 6,705
North Pole-20 Yu. P.Tikhonov April 22, 1970 May 17, 1972 75°56′N 175°22′E / 75.933°N 175.367°E / 75.933; 175.367 (North Pole-20 (start)) 81°44′N 166°47′W / 81.733°N 166.783°W / 81.733; -166.783 (North Pole-20 (finish)) 3,780
North Pole-21 G.I.Kizino April 30, 1972 May 17, 1974 74°06′N 178°15′E / 74.100°N 178.250°E / 74.100; 178.250 (North Pole-21 (start)) 86°16′N 143°35′E / 86.267°N 143.583°E / 86.267; 143.583 (North Pole-21 (finish)) 3,605
North Pole-22 V.G.Moroz September 13, 1973 April 8, 1982 76°16′N 168°31′W / 76.267°N 168.517°W / 76.267; -168.517 (North Pole-22 (start)) 86°10′N 00°00′W / 86.167°N -0.000°E / 86.167; -0.000 (North Pole-22 (finish)) 17,069
North Pole-23 V.M.Piguzov December 5, 1975 November 1, 1978 73°51′N 178°25′W / 73.850°N 178.417°W / 73.850; -178.417 (North Pole-23 (start)) 87°40′N 22°31′W / 87.667°N 22.517°W / 87.667; -22.517 (North Pole-23 (finish)) 5,786
North Pole-24 I.K.Popov June 23, 1978 November 19, 1980 76°45′N 163°00′E / 76.750°N 163.000°E / 76.750; 163.000 (North Pole-24 (start)) 86°03′N 29°40′E / 86.050°N 29.667°E / 86.050; 29.667 (North Pole-24 (finish)) 5,652
North Pole-25 V.S.Sidorov May 16, 1981 April 20, 1984 75°01′N 168°35′E / 75.017°N 168.583°E / 75.017; 168.583 (North Pole-25 (start)) 85°50′N 122°15′W / 85.833°N 122.250°W / 85.833; -122.250 (North Pole-25 (finish)) 5,754
North Pole-26 V.S.Sidorov May 21, 1983 April 9, 1986 78°30′N 174°46′E / 78.500°N 174.767°E / 78.500; 174.767 (North Pole-26 (start)) 82°46′N 170°31′W / 82.767°N 170.517°W / 82.767; -170.517 (North Pole-26 (finish)) 5,380
North Pole-27 Yu. P.Tikhonov June 2, 1984 May 20, 1987 78°31′N 160°30′E / 78.517°N 160.500°E / 78.517; 160.500 (North Pole-27 (start)) 86°28′N 09°02′W / 86.467°N 9.033°W / 86.467; -9.033 (North Pole-27(finish)) 5,655
North Pole-28 A.F.Chernyshov May 21, 1986 January 23, 1989 80°40′N 168°29′E / 80.667°N 168.483°E / 80.667; 168.483 (North Pole-28 (start)) 79°40′N 03°09′E / 79.667°N 3.150°E / 79.667; 3.150 (North Pole-28 (finish)) 7,634
North Pole-29 V.V.Lukin June 10, 1987 August 19, 1988 80°22.8′N 112°59′E / 80.3800°N 112.983°E / 80.3800; 112.983 (North Pole-29 (start)) 84°42.8′N 56°34.3′W / 84.7133°N 56.5717°W / 84.7133; -56.5717 (North Pole-29 (finish)) 2,686
North Pole-30 V.M.Piguzov October 9, 1987 April 4, 1991 74°18′N 171°24′W / 74.300°N 171.400°W / 74.300; -171.400 (North Pole-30 (start)) 82°31′N 126°26′W / 82.517°N 126.433°W / 82.517; -126.433 (North Pole-30 (finish)) 7,675
North Pole-31 V.S.Sidorov October 22, 1988 July 25, 1991 76°35′N 153°10′W / 76.583°N 153.167°W / 76.583; -153.167 (North Pole-31 (finish)) 73°33′N 161°04′W / 73.550°N 161.067°W / 73.550; -161.067 (North Pole-31 (finish)) 5,475
North Pole-32 V.S.Koshelev April 25, 2003 March 6, 2004 87°52.5′N 148°03′E / 87.8750°N 148.050°E / 87.8750; 148.050 (North Pole-32 (start)) 84°41′N 03°33′W / 84.683°N 3.550°W / 84.683; -3.550 (North Pole-32 (finish)) 2,418
North Pole-33 A.A.Vishnevsky September 9, 2004 October 5, 2005 85°05′N 156°31′E / 85.083°N 156.517°E / 85.083; 156.517 (North Pole-33 (start)) 86°14′N 95°54′E / 86.233°N 95.900°E / 86.233; 95.900 (North Pole-33 (finish)) 3,156
North Pole-34 T.V.Petrovsky September 19, 2005 May 25, 2006 85°39′N 115°19′E / 85.650°N 115.317°E / 85.650; 115.317 (North Pole-34 (start)) 87°26′N 07°39′E / 87.433°N 7.650°E / 87.433; 7.650 (North Pole-34 (finish)) 2,032
North Pole-35 Vladimir Chupun[37] September 21, 2007 July 22, 2008 81°30′N 103°54′E / 81.500°N 103.900°E / 81.500; 103.900 (North Pole-35 (start)) 81°00′N 31°18′E / 81.000°N 31.300°E / 81.000; 31.300 (North Pole-35 (finish)) 3,614
North Pole-36 Yuri Katrayev September 7, 2008 August 24, 2009 82°32′N 144°56′E / 82.533°N 144.933°E / 82.533; 144.933 (North Pole-36 (start)) 85°53′N 26°41′W / 85.883°N 26.683°W / 85.883; -26.683 (North Pole-36 (finish)) 2,905
North Pole-37 Sergey Lesenkov September 7, 2009 May 31, 2010 81°28′N 164°35′W / 81.467°N 164.583°W / 81.467; -164.583 (North Pole-37 (start)) 80°04′N 140°40′W / 80.067°N 140.667°W / 80.067; -140.667 (North Pole-37 (finish)) 2,076
North Pole-38 Tomash Petrovskiy October 14, 2010 September 20, 2011 76°07′N 176°32′W / 76.117°N 176.533°W / 76.117; -176.533 (North Pole-38 (start)) 83°53′N 154°18′W / 83.883°N 154.300°W / 83.883; -154.300 (North Pole-38 (finish)) 3,024
North Pole-39 Alexander Ipatov October 2, 2011 September 15, 2012 84°10′N 148°49′W / 84.167°N 148.817°W / 84.167; -148.817 (North Pole-39 (start)) 83°57′N 96°44′W / 83.950°N 96.733°W / 83.950; -96.733 (North Pole-39 (finish)) 1,885
North Pole-40 Nikolai Fomichev October 1, 2012 June 7, 2013 85°21′N 142°53′W / 85.350°N 142.883°W / 85.350; -142.883 (North Pole-40 (start)) 82°25′N 130°25′W / 82.417°N 130.417°W / 82.417; -130.417 (North Pole-40 (finish)) 1,736
North Pole-2015 Dmitrij Mamadaliev April 11, 2015 August 9, 2015

89°34′N 17°08′W / 89.567°N 17.133°W / 89.567; -17.133 (North Pole-2015 (start))

86°15′N 07°52′W / 86.250°N 7.867°W / 86.250; -7.867 (North Pole-2015 (finish)) 714

In fiction[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "North Pole drifting stations (1930s-1980s)". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved 30 April 2009. 
  2. ^ Barrow Observatory - NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  3. ^ Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) Archived 2014-05-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Книга: Два года на северной земле
  5. ^ Golomyanniy Station in Severnaya Zemlya
  6. ^ ДИКСОН — СНЕЖНОЙ АРКТИКИ СТОЛИЦА. К 90-ЛЕТИЮ НАЧАЛА НАБЛЮДЕНИЙ НА о. ДИКСОН
  7. ^ Stensdal, Iselin (2013). "Asian Arctic Research 2005-2012:" (PDF). Fridtjof Nansen Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014. 
  8. ^ Igloolik Research Centre, Igloolik, Igloolik Island, NU
  9. ^ International Biological Station (IBS) “Lena-Nordenskiold”, Lena River Delta
  10. ^ Iqaluit Research Centre, Nunavut Arctic College (Nunavut Research Institute)
  11. ^ Kevo Research Station - Turun yliopisto
  12. ^ University of Helsinki - Kilpisjärvi Biological Station
  13. ^ Kluane Lake Research Station
  14. ^ McGill Arctic Research Station|McGill Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.). Dale T. Anderson, Centre for the study of life in the universe. Retrieved April 11, 2015
  15. ^ BBC news report
  16. ^ UK Arctic Research Station
  17. ^ Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory, PEARL
  18. ^ Фотогалерея: 2004 - "Полярное Кольцо" - Местонахождение: 17 мая, Северная Земля, о.Большевик, м.Баранова, п/ст Примах
  19. ^ Resolute, Nunavut Station
  20. ^ F. Romanenko, O. Shilovtseva. Russian-Soviet polar stations and their role in the Arctic Seas exploration. Moscow State University, Geography Department, 1998
  21. ^ FMI ARC
  22. ^ "Polyarnaya Stantsiya Solnechnaya". Mapcarta. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  23. ^ Северный морской путь оснащается современными приборами навигации
  24. ^ Thule Research Station, Technical University of Denmark - Isaaffik
  25. ^ Toolik Field Station
  26. ^ Luhn, Alec; Hunt, Elle (14 September 2016). "Besieged Russian Scientists Drive Away Polar Bears". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  27. ^ Tuktoyaktuk, N.W.T.
  28. ^ Tundra Ecosystem Research Station (TERS)
  29. ^ Bassford, Robin; Siegert, Martin; Dowdeswell, Julian; Oerlemans, Johannes; Glazovsky, Andrey; Macheret, Yuri (February 2006). "Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap". Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. university of Colorado. 38 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2006)038[0001:QTMBOI]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  30. ^ Ward Hunt Island Observatory Research Station; Centre d’études nordiques (CEN)/ Centre for Northern Studies
  31. ^ Western Arctic Research Centre (WARC)
  32. ^ CEN station in Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik - Centre d'études Nordiques
  33. ^ White Sea Biological Station (WSBS MSU)
  34. ^ Willem Barents Biological Station
  35. ^ Russia's Far East, Wrangel Island. The research station on Wrangel Island
  36. ^ Сайт Лаборатории популяционной экологии ИПЭЭ РАН - Енисейская экологическая станция "Мирное"
  37. ^ Скалина, Ирина (10 July 2008). "Опасный дрейф; Полярников эвакуируют на судне "Михаил Сомов"" (web). "Российская газета". Retrieved 2008-07-12. (Russian/English)Skalina, Irina (July 10, 2008). "A dangerous drift; Polarnik evacuated on the ship "Mikhail Somov"" (web). Google Translation. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 

External links[edit]