List of retroreflectors on the Moon

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The locations of lunar retroreflectors left by Apollo (A) and Lunokhod (L) missions.
The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from the Apollo 11 mission.
Apollo 14's LRRR on the lunar surface

This is a list of retroreflectors on the Moon, special devices left at five different sites on the Moon by the landing crews of the Apollo program and by the remote landers of the Lunokhod program.[1] Lunar reflectors have enabled precise measurements of the Earth–Moon distance since 1969.[2]

Reflectors placed by the United States[edit]

Name Mission Date Location
Lunar Ranging Retro Reflector (LRRR)[1] Apollo 11 21 July 1969[3] 0.67337°N

23.47293°E[4]

LRRR[1] Apollo 14 31 January 1971[5] 3.6453° S

17.471361° W [5]

LRRR[1] Apollo 15 31 July 1971[6] 26.1°N

3.6°E[6]

Reflectors placed by the Soviet Union[edit]

Name Mission Location
Lunokhod 1[1][a] Luna 17 38.17° N, 325.06° W[7]
Lunokhod 2[1][a] Luna 21 25.85° N, 30.45° E

Future reflectors by private landers[edit]

Name Mission Date Location
Beresheet lander
SpaceIL mission Launch: 22 February 2019
Landing: 11 April 2019
Mare Serenitatis[8] (Planned: 33 N, 17 E)
MoonLIGHT[9] MX-1E lander
Flight 1
2019 (planned) Malapert Mountain near the lunar south pole[10]
(84.9 S, 12.9 E)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b This retroreflector was a rover.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Lunar Retroreflectors
  2. ^ Slava G. Turyshev - From Quantum to Cosmos: Fundamental Physics Research in Space (2009) - Page 300
  3. ^ "What Neil & Buzz Left on the Moon: A cutting-edge science experiment left behind in the Sea of Tranquility by Apollo 11 astronauts is still running today". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 20 July 2004. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  4. ^ "Landing Site Coordinates". www.hq.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-26.
  5. ^ a b "APOLLO 14: The Eighth Mission: The Third Lunar Landing: 31 January–09 February 1971". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original on 14 November 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  6. ^ a b Archinal, Brent (13 April 2010). "The Apollo 15 Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector - A Fundamental Point on the Moon!". Arizona State University. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  7. ^ "LROC Observation M114185541R". Arizona State University. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  8. ^ Here's (almost) everything you need to know about Israel's Moon lander. Jason Davis, The Planetary Society. 8 November 2018.
  9. ^ UMD, Italy & MoonEx Join to Put New Laser-Reflecting Arrays on Moon. Lee Tune, University of Maryland. 10 June 2015.
  10. ^ Internatioinal Lunar Observatory to offer a new astrophysical perspective. Tonasz Nowakowski. Spaceflight Insider. 12 August 2017.