List of rice dishes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of rice dishes from all over the world, arranged alphabetically. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn), according to data for 2010.[1]

Rice dishes[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Akhni ꠝꠥꠞꠉꠧꠞ ꠀꠈꠘꠤ.jpg Bangladesh Mixed rice and meat dish, a variant of pilaf.
Akki rotti ಅಕ್ಕಿ ರೊಟ್ಟಿ.JPG India "Rice bread", a rice-based breakfast item unique to the state of Karnataka, India
Albaloo polo Iran Sour (morello) cherries in pilaf rice, usually made with spices like saffron and advieh.
American fried rice (Thai) American fried rice.jpg Thailand This is a dish from Thai cuisine where the rice is fried with tomato ketchup and raisins
Appam Paalappam.JPG India Appam is a type of pancake, originating from South India, made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. A common delicacy in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and Kerala.
Arancini Arancini 002.jpg Italy (Sicily)[2] Breaded and deep fried stuffed rice balls[2]
Arem-arem Arem-arem.JPG Indonesia Made of compressed rice cake in the form of a cylinder wrapped inside a banana leaf, filled with diced vegetables, tempeh or oncom, sometimes also filled with minced meat or abon (beef floss), and eaten as snack.
Arroz caldo Home - Dinner.jpg Philippines Thin rice porridge cooked with chicken, ginger, onions and garnished with spring onions, toasted garlic and calamansi
Arroz chaufa Arroz chaufa simple.JPG Peru "Chow fun rice" Chinese fried rice with a Peruvian twist
Arroz borracho Puerto Rico Rice cooked with sazón, sofrito, chickpeas, ground meat, and beer.
Arroz con gandules Arroz con gandules.jpg Puerto Rico A part of the Puerto Rican gastronomy consisting of a combination of rice, pigeon peas, olives, capers, and pork, cooked in the same pot with Puerto Rican-style sofrito, spices and annatto oil.[3]
Arroz con huevo frito HK Sheung Wan Cafe de Coral pan-fried egg Luncheon meat rice Aug-2012.JPG Central America and South America Rice with fried egg
Arroz con pollo Arroz-con-Pollo.jpg Spain "Rice with chicken", the dish, which originated in Spain as a form of pilaf, is a staple throughout Latin America.[4][5][6][7][8] It is a traditional dish of Latin America and the Caribbean, especially in Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Cuba, Costa Rica, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, where it is called locrio de pollo, and Saint Martin, where it is called lokri or locreo.
Arroz de lisa (mullet rice) Arroz de lisa 2 - Barranquilla.jpg Colombia, Caribbean region Traditionally served in bijao leaf with cooked cassava, a triangle of costeño cheese and a sauce of suero atollabuey
Arròs negre Arrosnegre.png Spain "Black rice", dish blackened with cuttlefish ink
Baghali polo Baghali Polo.png Iran A rice dish prepared with lima beans and dill.
Bánh chưng Bánh chưng.jpg Vietnam This is a cake-dish usually eaten on Tet, Vietnamese new year eve, which is pork in the center, mashed pea and rice wrapped in leaves.
Ba-wan Bawan umiao.jpg Taiwan This is a savory snack food made from rice paste, meat, and usually shiitake mushrooms and bamboo shoots. It is often found at Taiwan night markets. Also called "rou-wan-zhi."
Bai pong moan Cambodia A rice and egg dish with several variations.
Bhakari Bhakri 1.jpg Maharashtra, India A type of bread which is prepared by mixing rice dough and water and then heated dry or roasted on a type of flat vessel called tawa, mostly in the coastal districts of kokan region which includes palghar, thane, Mumbai, raigad, ratnagiri, sindhudurg of maharashtra and goa.
Bibimbap Dolsot-bibimbap.jpg Korea Mixed vegetables on rice with egg or meat on top
Bibingka Large bibinka.jpg Philippines A rice cake usually eaten during Christmas. May be topped with cottage cheese, salted egg or freshly grated shredded young coconut meat.
Biko Biko.jpg Philippines A sweet dish made of sticky rice cooked in coconut milk and sugar and topped with thick caramelized coconut syrup and latik
Biryani Dum biryani.JPG Indian subcontinent Preparation of spicy fried rice with meat, fish, chicken, and vegetables.
Bisi bele bath Bisi Bele Bath (Bisibelebath).JPG India A rice-based dish with its origins in the state of Karnataka, India. Bisi-bele-bhaath translates to hot lentil rice in the Kannada language. The traditional preparation of this dish is quite elaborate and involves the use of spicy masala, toor dal (a type of lentil) and vegetables. Spices like nutmeg and asafoetida, curry leaves and tamarind pulp used in its preparation contribute to the unique flavor and taste of this dish.
Black beans and rice La Casa Restaurant - Stierch - April 2019 03.jpg Cuba A very popular side dish, or entré if done right.
Bhaat Meshi 001.jpg Indian subcontinent Rice that has been cooked either by steaming or boiling.
Bhelpuri Indian cuisine-Chaat-Bhelpuri-03.jpg Indian subcontinent Bhelpuri is a savoury snack, originating from the Indian subcontinent, and is also a type of chaat. It is made of puffed rice, vegetables and a tangy tamarind sauce.
Bokkeumbap Korea-Busan-Haeundae Market-Bokkeumbap-Fried rice-01.jpg Korea Fried rice, usually with some other ingredient, like kimchi bokkeumbap (Kimchi fried rice)
Boribap Boribap.JPG Korea[9] Rice boiled with barley[9]
Boudin Smoked Boudin Blanc.jpg United States Cajun rice dressing stuffed into a sausage casing.
Bubur ayam Bubur ayam chicken porridge.JPG Indonesia An Indonesian chicken congee, served with condiments such as chopped scallion, crispy fried shallot, and tongcay (preserved salted vegetables).
Bubur pedas Bubur 100618-4100 sbs.jpg Indonesia Bubur pedas is made from finely ground sauteed rice and grated coconut. The stock is made either from tetelan (bony meat such as ribs) or chicken broth.
Burasa Kue buras.JPG Indonesia Cooked with coconut milk packed inside a banana leaf pouch
Buttered rice Myanmar Buttered rice uses long-grained paw hsan hmwe or basmati rice, and in its most basic form, is cooked with butter, lentils, and bay leaves. Cashew nuts and raisins may be added, and the dish can be spiced with cinnamon sticks, cardamom pods or cloves, and garnished with fried golden onions to serve. It is typically paired with a traditional Burmese or Indian influenced chicken or mutton curry.
Cabidela PortoExterior PatoDeCabidela.JPG Portugal Rice with chicken or rabbit meat.
Carri Carri-poulet.jpg Mauritius, Réunion Rice, with chicken or beef, tomatoes, chili and curry
Chalbap Korea Cooked sweet rice mixed with red beans, jujubes and chestnuts
Champorado Champorado.jpg Philippines Sweet chocolate rice porridge
Chao Cháo trắng hột vịt muối.JPG Vietnam Vietnamese rice congee, sometimes cooked with pandan leaves or mung bean.
Charleston red rice South Carolina red rice (5633428832).jpg Coastal Georgia and South Carolina Also known as Savannah red rice and as red rice.
Chazuke Sake chazuke by matsukawa1971.jpg Japan Dashi, green tea, or hot water poured over cooked rice. Common toppings include Japanese pickles (tsukemono), nori, and fish roe such as tarako or mentaiko.
Chiayi turkey rice Chiayi turkey pilaf.jpg Taiwan This is a bowl of rice with shredded turkey layered on top, often accompanied by pickled radish. The rice is drizzled with a kind of gravy made from the turkey drippings and soy sauce.[10][11]
Chitranna Chitranna (Lemon Rice) prepared by an indian woman.jpg India This is a rice preparation made by sauteing groundnut, sesame seeds, red chili and turmeric in oil and adding it to cooked rice and mixing.
Ci fan tuan CiFanTuan.png Shanghai (China), and Taiwan Prepared by tightly wrapping a piece of youtiao (fried dough) with glutinous rice.
Claypot rice Claypot Chicken Rice, Singapore.JPG China, Malaysia and Singapore A rice casserole. The rice is cooked in the claypot and the cooked ingredients such as proteins and vegetables are added in later. Some places serve it with dark soya sauce. Traditionally, the cooking is done over a charcoal stove, giving the dish a distinctive flavor.
Cơm tấm Com-Tam-2008.jpg Vietnam A dish in Vietnamese cuisine made from rice with fractured rice grains. Tấm refers to the broken rice grains, while cơm refers to cooked rice.[12][13]
Concoction rice Nigeria A Nigerian dish made using rice, palm oil, salt, and other seasonings.[14]
Congee Chinese rice congee.jpg East, South, and Southeast Asia A type of porridge. Sometimes called "rice congee" but often simply shortened to "congee." There is a large variety of congee in Hong Kong and it is eaten very frequently as a staple food. The base is made by boiling rice then letting it simmer for a long time. Different ingredients are added depending on the region. The length of the simmering also varies by region. Cantonese congee is generally cooked longer for a smoother texture.
Coriander rice CorianderRice.JPG India Easily made by using boiled Basmati rice, coriander paste, oil, chana dal, onion, peas, ginger and garlic paste, Indian spices, lemon juice and salt.
Curd rice Curd Rice.jpg India Simple preparations are a mixture of boiled rice and yogurt. More complex variations also exist.
Curry rice Curry rice by Hyougushi in Kyoto.jpg Japan, also popular in other parts of East and Southeast Asia Although curry is often eaten with rice in many countries it is seen as a main dish. The Japanese karē raisu (lit. "curry rice") though, is a standard combination of rice with a British influenced Japanese curry, of which there exist several types.
Dal bhat Dalbath.jpg Indian subcontinent Rice and lentil soup.
Danbauk Dan pauk.JPG Myanmar Burmese style Biryani.
Diri djondjon Haiti Rice in a sauce of djondjon or black mushrooms.
Dirty rice Pork chop and dirty rice.jpg Cajun cuisine, Creole cuisine Pictured is dirty rice topped with a pork chop.
Dolma Azerbaijan dolma ubergine pepper.jpg Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Middle East, Greece, Georgia Grape leaves, eggplant, zucchini, peppers, onion, or tomatoes stuffed with rice.
Dosa Masala Dosa (27429188304).jpg India Rice and lentil pancakes with origins in Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. Popular breakfast dish in South India.
Étouffée Crawfish etouffee.jpg Cajun, Creole cuisine Found in both Cajun and Creole cuisine, Étouffée is typically prepared with shellfish over rice. The dish employs a technique known as smothering, a popular method of cooking in the Cajun areas of southwest Louisiana.
Flattened rice Flattened Rice (Poha) (49684434042).jpg India Flattened Rice is plain parboiled rice flattened into flat, light, dry flakes originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Fried rice Yeung Chow Fried Rice in Hong Kong Fast Food Shop.JPG China A dish of cooked rice that has been stir-fried in a wok or a frying pan and is usually mixed with other ingredients such as eggs, vegetables, seafood, or meat.
Fried rice


Chicken Fried Rice.JPG India Basmati rice or other long grain rice boiled and then fried in oil or ghee with shrimp, egg, chicken, soy sauce, spices and various types of vegetables like carrots, green beans, bell peppers, onions, tomatoes, green onions, peas, celery etc.
Fried rice (Myanmar) Htamin jaw.JPG Myanmar Fried rice with boiled peas, sometimes with meat, sausage, and eggs.
Fried rice (Philippines) JfBuffetsinthe9025PhilippinesBaliuagfvf 01.JPG Philippines Day-old rice fried in oil with a lot of garlic, usually eaten for breakfast with dried fish, egg and tomatoes.
Gaifan Lurou fan(Taiwanese cuisine).jpg China, Taiwan Cooked rice covered with another dish.
Gallo pinto Costa Rican Gallo Pinto.jpg Central American countries such as Costa Rica and Nicaragua A Central American version of rice and beans
Gimbap Korea[15] Rice wrapped in seaweed,[15] origin from makizushi of Japan
Glutinous rice cakes Asia E.g. mochi (Japan), ddeok (Korea), tangyuan, niangao, zongzi (China), and many varieties of Indonesian, Thai and Laotian cakes.
Goto 09919jfLuna Cagayan Valley Roadfvf 08.JPG Philippines Thin rice porridge cooked with strips of ox-tripe, ginger, onion, garlic, and garnished with spring onions and calamansi.
Gumbo Mmm... gumbo (7858028252) (2).jpg Cajun,[16] Creole[17] A stew that is typically served over rice[18]
Hainanese chicken rice Hainanese Chicken Rice.jpg Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore,[19] and Thailand Hainanese chicken rice is a dish of poached chicken and seasoned rice, served with chilli sauce and usually with cucumber garnishes.
Hainanese curry rice Hainanese Curry Rice by Banej.jpg Singapore A Singaporean rice dish consisting of steamed white rice smothered in a mess of curries and gravy.
Havij Polo Havij polo.jpg Iran[20] Carrot Rice with minced meat balls[20] usually cooked in Tehran and other cities of Iran
Hoppin' John Hoppin-john-bowl.JPG Southern United States Rice, black-eyed peas and pork
Horchata Horchata jar.jpg Mexico Sugared rice milk.
Hsi htamin Burmese Oiled Glutinous Rice.jpg Myanmar A traditional Burmese snack or mont, popularly served as a breakfast dish, often served with sesame powder alongside peas or dried fish
Htamanè Htamanè.JPG Myanmar Dessert made from glutinous rice, shredded coconuts and peanuts
Htamin Baung Myanmar Steamed rice cooked with chicken and vegetables, of Chinese origin
Htamin jin Inle dish.jpg Myanmar A Burmese dish of fermented rice. It is the regional specialty and signature dish of the Intha people of Inle Lake in Shan State, Myanmar
Idiyappam Idiyappam with Egg Masala Curry.jpg South India, Sri Lanka Rice noodles also known as String Hoppers. Had with curry or coconut milk
Idli Idli Sambar.JPG India Steamed rice cakes, made with lentils or other pulses. Pictured is idli along with ramekins of sambar and a ramekin of chutney in the center of the dish.
Imbul Kiribath Kiribath.jpg Sri Lanka Tightly wrapped Kiribath with treacle soaked scraped coconut (Pani-pol) in it.
Indonesian rice table Rijsttafel Den Haag Javastraat.jpg Indonesia Rice accompanied by side dishes served in small portions. Usually known as Rijsttafel
Iskilip Dolmasi Iskilip dolmasi - Corum.jpg Turkey Very specific rice food. It takes almost a day to prepare and cook. Cooked for several hundred years only in Iskilip. Extremely traditional and rare.
Jambalaya Homemade Jambalaya.JPG Cajun, Creole Meat-seafood-vegetable stock to which rice is added.
Jíbaro Puerto Rico Yellow-rice cooked with annatto oil, sofrito, and spices with a fried egg on top.
Jiuniang Kueh hrua lau cau.jpg China This is a sweet dish made from fermenting sticky rice with yeast. This can be eaten alone steamed, or is added to other foods.
Jhalmuri Jhal muri 2.jpg India,


Jhalmuri is a popular Bengali street snack, made of puffed rice and an assortment of spices, vegetables, chanachur and mustard oil.
Jollof rice Jollof rice.jpg West Africa Tomato and pepper based stew to which rice is added and boiled in, and usually served with chicken, salad and fried plantain.
Ofada rice OfadaRice with assorted meat and egg.png Nigeria[21] Nigerian rice sometimes served in palm leaves. It is made from locally produced rice that is grown almost entirely in Ogun State.[21] It is typically consumed with a vegetable stew,[21] and sometimes a meat-based stew.
Juk Rice porridge with abalone flavor (9578736740).jpg Korea Generic term for porridge made from rice. There are many different varieties.
Kabli palao Afghanistan Fried grated carrots in rice, accompanied with mixed spices and alubukhara.
Kabsa Kabsa.jpg KSA, Jordan Rice (usually long-grain, mostly basmati) cooked with meat, spices and vegetables.
Kande Pohe Kande pohe.jpg India A simple flattened rice dish from Maharashtra usually eaten as breakfast.
Kateh Iran[22] A simple sticky-rice dish from Mazandaran and Gilan
Katsudon Katsudon 001.jpg Japan A bowl of rice topped with a deep-fried pork cutlet, egg, and condiments.
Kedgeree Kedgeree.jpg India Flaked fish (usually smoked haddock), boiled rice, eggs and butter.
Ketupat Ketupat.jpg Indonesia (Also called Lontong) – Rice wrapped in coconut leaves weaved pouch, boiled and serve with other food such as Satay, vegetables, fried chicken, curry, etc.
Khao kan chin 2013 Khao kan chin.jpg Thailand A northern Thai dish of rice that is mixed with pork blood and steamed inside a banana leaf. It is served with cucumber, onions and fried, dried chillies.
Khao kha mu Khao kha mu 02.JPG Thailand Originally a Thai Chinese dish, it is rice served with sliced pork leg that has been stewed in soy sauce and spices
Khao khluk kapi Khao.kluke.kapi-01.jpg Thailand Rice is fried with shrimp paste and served with sweet pork, sour mango, fried shrimp, chillies and shallots.
Khao lam Khao lam87.jpg Thailand Glutinous rice is boiled or steamed with sugar, and sometimes other ingredients, in a section of bamboo. Most often eaten as a snack or dessert. This is very similar to lemang.
Khao man kai 2013 Khao man kai CM.jpg Thailand The Thai version of Hainanese chicken rice, it is made in a slightly different way than the original and served with a very different dipping sauce made from fermented soy beans, garlic, ginger, and bird's eye chilies.
Khao mok Khao mok nuea.jpg Thailand The Thai version of a biryani, it is typical of Thai-Muslim cuisine.
Khao na pet Khao na pet.JPG Thailand The Thai version of a Cantonese style roast duck served with rice
Khao niao mamuang Mango with glutinous rice.jpg Thailand Sticky rice cooked in sweetened thick coconut milk, served with slices of ripe mango
Khao phat kaeng kiao wan Khao phat kaeng khiao wan.jpg Thailand Rice fried with green curry
Khao phat kaphrao Khao phat kraphao mu.jpg Thailand Rice fried with holy basil and meat
Khao phat nam liap Khao phat nam liap.jpg Thailand Rice fried with the fruit of the Canarium album
Khao tom mat Khao tom mat sai kluai 01.jpg Thailand A traditional Thai dessert made from sticky rice, coconut milk, and bananas. It's usually wrapped in banana leaf or coconut leaf.
Khao tom pla Khao tom pla 01.jpg Thailand A rice soup with fish
Khao yam 2019 02 Khao yam unmixed.jpg Thailand A rice salad containing fruit, vegetables, herbs, roasted coconut, and dried prawns
Kharcho Kharcho soup of beef with walnuts and rice, Georgian cuisine (2).jpg Georgia A beef and rice soup.
Kheer/Payas/Payasam Kheer.jpg Indian subcontinent Sweet dish of rice cooked in milk with dry fruit and sugar or jaggery. Cooled before serving.
Khichdi Khichuri-edit.jpg Indian subcontinent Rice cooked with lentils, vegetables and spices
Kiribath Kiribath.jpg Sri Lanka Cooked with milk. Also known as Milk-rice
Kongbap Kong bap.jpg Korea Brown or white rice cooked together with beans (and sometimes also other grains)
Kushari Egyptian food Koshary.jpg Egypt Rice, lentils, chickpeas and macaroni topped with tomato sauce and fried onion
Lemang Cara belah buluh lemang.jpg Indonesia and Malaysia Glutinous rice with coconut milk cooked in bamboo stalks over open fire. Traditional dish of the Minangkabau people accompanying Rendang.
Lemper Lemper.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian savory snack made of glutinous rice filled with seasoned shredded chicken, fish or abon (meat floss).
Lepet Lepet.JPG Indonesia A type of sticky rice dumpling mixed with peanuts cooked with coconut milk packed inside janur (young coconut leaf or palm leaf).
Lontong Lontong.jpg Indonesia Made of compressed rice cake in the form of a cylinder wrapped inside a banana leaf. Rice is rolled inside a banana leaf and boiled, then cut into small cakes as a staple food replacement of steamed rice.
Loco Moco Loco Moco.jpg Hawaii, United States A bowl of rice topped with a meat patty and gravy, and with a sunny side up egg on top.
Locrio Locrio de Pollo (Dominicano).jpg Dominican Republic Rice, meat (Chicken, sausage, fish, etc.), tomato sauce, caramelized sugar.
Lokri Saint Martin Rice, bite-size pieces of chicken, mixed vegetables, spices (also called locreo or locrio).
Loobia polo Loobia Polo.jpg Central Iran Green beans rice with tomato paste, meat and other spices, cooked in.
Lor Mai Ka China Glutinous rice
Lugaw 9779Cuisine of the Philippines Landmarks 06.jpg Philippines Rice congee
Lumpia Fresh lumpia.jpg Indonesia and Philippines Spring rolls wrapper made from rice flour.
Madumongso Madu Mongso.JPG Indonesia Snack made from black sticky rice as a basic ingredient. The taste is mixed with sweet because the black rice is previously processed before it becomes tapai
Maifun RiceVermicelli cooked.jpg Asia This is a category which includes both dry and in-broth rice vermicelli noodle dishes. The specific dish is usually named after its non-vermicelli ingredients or its preparation. E.g. "Cao mai fun" = panfried maifun and will usually have a protein such as pork or chicken, and seasonings (usually green onion).
Mandi Mandi.PNG Yemen Rice cooked with meat (lamb or chicken), and a mixture of spices.
Mansaf Mansaf1 cropped.jpg Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Syria Rice is cooked separately, lamb meat is cooked in a sauce of fermented dried yogurt and served with rice or bulgur.
Maqluba Makluba.JPG Middle-East Consisting of rice and eggplant or cauliflower casserole that is then turned upside down when served. The dish can include fried tomatoes, carrots, potatoes, cauliflower, eggplant and chicken or lamb. When the casserole is inverted, the top is bright red from the tomatoes that now form the top layer and cover the golden eggplant.
Masi Masi (glutinous rice balls) with peanut butter filling (Philippines).jpg Cebu, Philippines Glutinous rice balls with a peanut and muscovado filling
Moa Joynagar Moa - Howrah 2016-01-26 9258.JPG West Bengal,


Moa is a small sweet and crispy ball made of puffed rice and jaggery. It originated from South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal.
Moa'amar Egypt Rice with milk and chicken soup. A sort of rice made by adding milk and chicken soup to the rice and letting it into the oven. Eaten instead of white rice. Very popular in Egypt.
Mochi Mochi 002.jpg Japan Mochi is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice, and sometimes other ingredients such as water, sugar, and cornstarch. The rice is pounded into paste and molded into the desired shape.
Mochi ice cream Mochi Ice Cream.jpg Japan, United States Mochi ice cream is a small, round confection consisting of a soft, pounded sticky rice dumpling (mochi) formed around an ice cream filling.
Moffle Moffle.JPG Japan A waffle prepared using mochi
Mont di Rakhinemontdi.JPG Myanmar A thin rice noodle dish, a semi staple dish of Rakhine State. Rakhine Mont de is either a salad with dry roasted conger eel and chili or as a soup. Mandalay mont de is with larger rice noodles, with meat based sauce.
Mont lin maya Myanmar A fritter made with rice flour, where two halves (thus 'Couple') are fried with quail eggs, steamed garden beans, spring onions. The halves are then connected and sprinkled with salted roasted sesame.
Mosaranna Home platter.JPG India Curd rice, considered a staple food of brahmins of the Karnataka state of South India. In this dish, curd is added to cooked rice and eaten straight away. Sometimes mustard seeds, red chillies, curry leaves and lentils are fried in oil and added to the dish. To add more flavour, ginger-garlic paste and finely chopped red onions are also added to the yogurt and rice mixture. Fresh, finely chopped cilantro is used as garnish.
Mujaddara Mujaddara.jpg Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria Fried rice with lentil, served with yogurt and salad.
Muri A closeup of puffed rice.JPG India,


A very common snack from Indian subcontinent.It is a traditional puffed rice made by heating parboiled rice (i.e. steamed then dried) in a karahi or wok filled with hot salt or sand, a technique known as hot salt frying.
Nasi ambeng Nasi ambeng.jpg Indonesia A fragrant rice dish that consists of – but is not limited to – steamed white rice, chicken curry or chicken stewed in soy sauce, beef or chicken rendang, sambal goreng (lit. fried sambal; a mildly spicy stir-fried stew commonly made with firm tofu, tempeh, and long beans) urap, bergedel, and serunding.
Nasi bakar Nasi Bakar Ayam.JPG Indonesia Indonesian for "burned rice" or "grilled rice". Nasi bakar refer to steamed rice seasoned with spices and ingredients and wrapped in banana leaf secured with lidi semat (small needle made of central rib of coconut leaf) and later grilled upon charcoal fire.
Nasi bogana Nasibogana.JPG Indonesia An-Indonesian style rice dish, originally from Tegal, Central Java. It is usually wrapped in banana leaves and served with side dishes
Nasi campur Nasi campur sop saudara warung Pangkep.JPG Indonesia Literally "mixed rice" in Indonesian; in addition also called nasi rames in Indonesia. Nasi campur refers to a dish of rice topped with various meat and vegetable dishes, peanuts, eggs and fried-shrimp krupuk.
Nasi dagang Mak ngah nasi dagang.jpg Malaysia Rice steamed in coconut milk, fish curry and extra ingredients such as fried shaved coconut, hard-boiled eggs and vegetable pickles.
Nasi goreng Nasi Goreng Pete Kambing.JPG Indonesia This is type of fried rice usually cooked with shrimp paste, chicken, meat, salted fish or/and vegetables.
Nasi gurih Indonesia Nasi gurih is made by cooking mixture of rice and sticky rice soaked in coconut milk instead of water, along with salt, lemongrass, Indian bay leaf, and pandan leaves to add aroma.
Nasi jinggo Nasi Jinggo.jpg Indonesia Nasi jinggo is a Balinese typical fast food that is packaged with small portions of banana leaves.
Nasi kandar NasiKandar.jpg Malaysia Famously served by local Indian Muslims, and very popular in Penang.
Nasi kapau Nasi Kapau.JPG Indonesia Nasi kapau is a Minang steamed rice topped with various choices of dishes originated from Nagari Kapau, Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Nasi kebuli Nasi Kebuli Jakarta.JPG Indonesia An Indonesian variant of pilaf. It consists of rice cooked in goat meat broth, goat milk, and clarified butter (most often ghee)
Nasi kerabu Nasi kerabu.jpg Malaysia Dish from Kelantan, consisting of rice with various wild herbs and spices, grated coconut and dried shrimp or fish
Nasi kucing Nasi kucing langgi.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian rice dish that originated from Yogyakarta, Semarang, and Surakarta but has since spread. It consists of a small portion of rice with toppings, usually sambal, dried fish, and tempeh, wrapped in banana leaves.
Nasi kuning Nasi Kuning.jpg Indonesia (Indonesian for: "yellow rice"), or sometimes called nasi kunyit (Indonesian for: "turmeric rice"), is an Indonesian rice dish cooked with coconut milk and turmeric,[23][24]
Nasi lemak Nasi Lemak, Mamak, Sydney.jpg Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore Coconut steamed rice
Nasi liwet Nasi Liwet Solo.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian dish rice dish cooked in coconut milk, chicken broth and spices
Nasi padang Nasi padang.jpg Indonesia Steamed rice served with various choices of pre-cooked dishes, it is a miniature banquet of meats, fish, vegetables, and spicy sambals eaten with plain white rice, it is Sumatra's most famous export and the Minangkabau's great contribution to Indonesian cuisine.[25]
Nasi tim Nasi Tim Ayam in Jakarta.jpg Indonesia In Indonesian language nasi means (cooked) rice and tim means steam. The ingredients are chicken, mushroom and hard boiled egg. These are seasoned in soy sauce and garlic, and then placed at the bottom of a tin bowl. This tin bowl is then filled with rice and steamed until cooked. This dish is usually served with light chicken broth and chopped leeks.
Nasi timbel Sundanese Dinner in Jakarta.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian hot dish, consisting of steamed rice wrapped inside a banana leaf
Nasi tutug oncom Makanan Khas Sunda.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian style rice dish, made of rice mixed with oncom fermented beans
Nasi tumpang Malaysia Rice with different layer of dishes wrapped in a cone shape with banana leaf packed
Nasi uduk Nasi uduk netherlands.jpg Indonesia[26] Steamed rice cooked in coconut milk
Nasi ulam Nasi Ulam Betawi.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian steamed rice dish mixed with various herbs, especially the leaves of Asiatic pennywort (Centella asiatica) or often replaced with kemangi (lemon basil), vegetables, spices and accompanied with various side dishes
Nurungji Nurungji3.jpg Korea A traditional Korean food made of scorched rice. After boiling and serving rice, a thin crust of scorched rice will usually be left in the bottom of the cooking pot. This yellowed scorched state is described as 'nureun' (눌은) in Korean and nurungji derives from this adjective.[27]
Ogokbab Korea A traditional Korean food cooked with five grains. One of the Daeboreum foods for the Lunar New Year, rice is cooked by mixing glutinous rice, red bean, glutinous millet, black beans, sticky sorghum etc.[28]
Okowa Okowa Bento by Yonehachi, Takashimaya Singapore.jpg Japan Sticky glutinous rice mixed with various vegetables or meat and steamed
Omurice Omurice by Taimeiken.jpg Japan An omelette made with fried rice and thin, fried scrambled eggs, usually topped with ketchup
Onigiri Onigiri 002.jpg Japan Short grained rice formed into balls with or without savory fillings, a popular snack.
Orez Shu'it Orez Shu'it rice and beans.jpg Israel Consists of white beans cooked in a tomato paste and served on white rice.
Pabellón criollo Pabellón Criollo.jpg Venezuela Rice, shredded beef and stewed black beans.
Paella 9paella.jpg Spain (Valencia) A rice dish that takes its name from the wide, shallow traditional pan used to cook the dish on an open fire. It can contain a variety of meats, beans, and vegetables, and is usually colored yellow by the inclusion of saffron.
Pancit bihon Pancit.JPG Philippines Noodles made from rice flour, also refers to the cooked dish made with rice noodles with slivers of meat, seafood and vegetables such as onions, carrots, beans, cabbage, seasoned with soy sauce and calamansi
Pakhala Pakhala lunch.jpg Odisha A type of Fermented Rice, typically served with Curd, fish, badi, spinach etc. Mainly

Consumed in the Indian state of Odisha

Panta bhat Panta Ilish.jpg West Bengal,


A lightly fermented rice-based dish consumed in eastern Indian states of West Bengal and Assam and in neighbouring Bangladesh.
Perde pilavı Perde pilav.jpg Turkey A special pilav with chicken meat, all wrapped inside yufka, thin Turkish dough, and cooked in an oven
Phở Chicken-pho-vietnamese-soup.JPG Vietnam Rice noodle soup
Pilaf (or Pilau) Kashmiri Pulao (fragment).JPG Indian subcontinent[29][30] Rice cooked in a seasoned broth.[31] In some cases, the rice may also attain its brown color by being stirred with bits of cooked onion, as well as a large mix of spices. Depending on the local cuisine, it may also contain meat, fish, vegetables, and (dried) fruits.
Pitha বাংলার চিতুই পিঠে.jpg West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Tripura, Bangladesh Pithas are primarily made from a dough or batter of rice flour or wheat flour, which is shaped and optionally filled with sweet or savory ingredients called "Pur" which consists grated coconut stirred in syrup or baked or fried vegetable. There is also many other types of Pithas that doesn't contains "Pur" and can simply be made by frying rice flower batter in vegetable oil like a pancake.
Moros y Cristianos Cuban cuisine.jpg Cuba White rice and black beans cooked together with spices.
Plov Plov122.jpg Central Asia Medium grain rice with carrots, onions, spices, lamb, and cottonseed oil
Poha Poha, a snack made of flattened rice.jpg India Poha is a popular Indian snack prepared by frying water soaked flattened rice in ghee or vegetable oil with chilies, onions, cumin seeds, mustard seeds, peanuts, boiled potatoes and curry leaves (called Kadi-patta).
Pongal Sweetpongal.jpg India Sakkara pongal : A sweet rice dish, cooked with rice, moong dhal, jaggery and milk, flavoured with cardamom and garnished with cashew and raisins.

Ven / Katte pongal: rice, moong dhal, milk, salt, pepper corns, ginger, cummin seeds and curry leaves.

Poule au riz France Consists of a poached or braised chicken served with rice cooked in the chicken's cooking liquid.
Puffed rice cakes Puffed Rice Cakes.jpg Indian subcontinent Commonly used in breakfast cereal or snack foods, and served as a popular street food.
Pulihora PULIHORA.JPG India Pulihora is rice seasoned with tamarind.[citation needed]
Puso Puso of cooked rice.JPG Cebu, Philippines Rice filled inside a pouch made with woven strips of coconut frond then boiled.
Puto Puto in banana leaf.jpg Philippines A pudding made from stone-ground soaked rice, sugar and often with coconut milk then steamed. Various toppings such as cheese, salted egg, or minced meat may be added.
Puttu Puttu (Rice Flour steamed cake).jpg India Steamed rice cake.
Red beans & rice Red Beans and Rice.jpg New Orleans, United States Staple made with kidney beans, ham bones, pickled pork, andouille, onion, celery, bell pepper and seasonings.
Rice and curry SL-rice and curry.jpg Indian subcontinent A meal of plain, spiced, or fried rice which is served together with several other dishes, of which at least one is a curry, on one plate, but sometimes with the other dishes on the side.
Rice and gravy Smothered pork roast rice and gravy HRoe 2012.jpg United States A staple of Creole and Cajun cuisine
Rice and peas Basmati Johns (peas and basmati rice).jpg Caribbean Rice with kidney beans, black-eyed peas or pigeon peas
Rice bath India A seasoned rice with vegetables (Such as egg-plant, peas, tomato), a breakfast dish from Karnataka, India
Rice bread Japanese Rice Bread.JPG Bread made from rice flour.
Rice cakes Korean culture-Doljanchi-01.jpg Asia A rice cake may be any kind of food item made from rice that has been shaped, condensed, or otherwise combined into a single object.
Rice krispies Bowl of Rice Krispies.jpg United States A breakfast cereal made of crisped rice. Rice Krispies are also used to make Rice Krispies treats by combining the cereal with melted marshmallows.
Rice noodle roll GD Rice Product 1.JPG China A thin roll made from a wide strip of shahe fen, filled with shrimp, beef, and vegetables.
Rice pudding Risalamande.jpg Worldwide Sweet dish of rice cooked in milk, coconut milk or other thickening liquid. Eaten with various spices, fruits, condiments, etc. in different regions.
Risotto Risotto.jpg Italy Rice dish made by first frying in butter after which broth is added.
Riz gras Plat de riz au gras plus viande.jpg Burkino Faso A dish with meat and vegetables atop rice.
Sandige Aralu Sandige.jpg India Deep fried meal accompaniment made with rice, sago and ash gourd
San Pyote Myanmar Burmese rice congree with either duck or fish
Sarma Food from Turkey (sarma).jpg Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia Grape or cabbage leaves stuffed (rolled with) rice, various herbs and spices.
Şehriyeli pilav, pilaf with orzo Turkish pilav.jpg Turkey Dish consisting of rice, with orzo.
Sel roti Sel Roti.jpg Nepal Ring shaped bread made from rice flour and eaten during Hindu festivals, especially Tihar.
Serabi Serabi-01.jpg Indonesia An Indonesian pancake that is made from rice flour with coconut milk or just plain shredded coconut as an emulsifier. Each province in Indonesia has various serabi recipes corresponding to local tastes.[32][33]
Shirin polo Shirin polo.jpg Cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews A traditional Persian Jewish rice dish that is commonly served to mark special occasions such as weddings, Purim, Pesach, Rosh Hashanah and the high holidays.
Sholezard Iranian sholezard for Nowruz.jpg Iran This is a saffron rice dessert with nuts and rosewater
Shrimp Creole Shrimp creole.jpg Louisiana Creole cuisine Cooked shrimp in a mixture of whole or diced tomatoes, the Holy trinity of onion, celery and bell pepper, spiced with Tabasco sauce or another hot pepper sauce or cayenne-based seasoning, and served over steamed or boiled white rice.[34]
Shwe htamin Shwe Htamin.jpg Myanmar Burmese dessert dish, baked sweetened glutinous rice and jaggery
Shwe yin aye Shweyin-aye.JPG Myanmar Dessert dish consisting of glutinous rice, coconut milk and jelly
Sinangag Spam Meal.jpg Philippines Fried rice sauteed in garlic. A vital part of the "silog" meal ("Sinangag at Itlog"; trans: "fried rice and egg")
Siopao 4 siopaos.JPG China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Taiwan Steamed meat dumpling made with rice flour
Spanish rice Spanish rice.jpg Mexico Side dish made from white rice, tomatoes, garlic, onions, green and red bell peppers and other ingredients.
Steamed rice HK lunch 大家樂 Coral de Cafe 白飯 steamed rice June-2012.JPG East and Southeast Asia Cooked rice
Sticky rice HK 大快活 Cafe de Coral Tea time 糯米飯 Glutinous Mochi Rice Nuo Mi Fan with 蔥粒 Spring Onion Jan-2012.jpg China Rice dish commonly made from glutinous rice and can include soy sauce, oyster sauce, scallions, cilantro and other ingredients
Stir fry Phat naem sai khai.jpg China Pictured is Thai Phat naem sai khai, sausage of rice-fermented raw pork skin stir fried with egg.
Suman Cassava Suman.jpg Philippines Sticky rice cooked with coconut milk and sugar and wrapped in banana or coconut leaves.
Sushi Mrs Y's Sushi on platters.jpg Japan Sticky rice flavored with vinegar and sugar, with various fillings or toppings
Sweet saffron rice Basic saffron rice.JPG India Dish consisting of joha rice, sugar and saffron.
Szczecin paprikash Paprykarz szczeciński w puszce i na kromkach.jpg Poland A fish, rice, and tomato spread.
Taco rice Taco rice - Tokyo area - November 9 2016 - 002.jpg Japan (Okinawa) Taco-flavored ground beef served on a bed of rice, frequently served with shredded cheese, shredded lettuce, tomato, and salsa.
Tahdig Tahdig rice dish.jpg Iran A specialty of Iranian cuisine consisting of crisp, caramelized[35] rice taken from the bottom of the pot in which the rice (chelow) is cooked.[36]
Tangyuan Tangyuan-small.JPG China, Taiwan and Southeast Asia A traditional (at least from the Ming dynasty) food that is made from glutinous rice paste that has been rolled into small balls, boiled, then put into a soup base. These are traditionally white in color. Sometimes savory or sweet stuffings (such as red bean paste) are added.
Tapai Tapai Pulut.jpg Indonesia A traditional Indonesian fermented rice cakes which is made from sticky rice sugar and yeast. Tapai is wrapped with banana leaves. The taste is sweet and sour because of the fermentation. Tapai usually can be added to traditional beverage like Es Cendol or eaten by itself. The other version of tapai is Tapai Singkong (Tape Singkong). Tapai Singkong is fermented steamed cassava.
Teurgoule Teurgoule 2.jpg France Rice pudding that is a speciality of Normandy
Thai fried rice Thaifriedrice.jpg Thailand Fried jasmine rice, usually containing meat (chicken, shrimp, and crab are all common), egg, onions, garlic, and sometimes tomatoes.
Thalassery biryani Ready biriyaani.jpg India Also known as Malabar biryani, Thalassery biryani is a rice-based dish made with spices, rice (khyma rice, and not basmati rice) and chicken (specially dressed for biriyani). Variations upon the dish may use mutton, fish, eggs or vegetables.
Thingyan rice Thingyan Hta Min.jpg Myanmar Fully boiled rice in candle-smelt water served with pickled marian plums
Tinutuan Tinutuan bubur Manado.JPG Indonesia Tinutuan is a congee made from rice, pumpkin and sweet potato or cassava cooked up into a pulp.
Tube rice pudding 【新竹美食】第一碗滷肉飯 (32787778013).jpg Taiwan This is Taiwanese dish consisting of a stir-fried glutinous rice mixture that is seasoned with shiitake mushroom, minced pork, rousong, shallots and steamed in a bamboo tube.
Waakye Waakye Festival 05.jpg Ghana Rice and beans cooked with waakye leaves to give it a brownish colour. Eaten with shito and eggs, meat or fish.
Xôi Xôi ngũ sắc.JPG Vietnam Glutinous rice mixed with a variety of other ingredients, can be made savory or sweet.
Yabra' Dolma.JPG Middle East, Turkey Grape leaves stuffed with rice and cooked with vegetables. The dish name differs from one country to another.
Yakimochi Mochi 003.jpg Japan Literally grilled or broiled mochi or pounded rice cake. Traditionally, it is prepared using a small charcoal grill but in modern times a gas grill can be used. During the time of the Autumn Moon it is traditional to eat fresh yakimochi while sipping sake and enjoying the view of the full moon.
Yay Monte Myanmar Thin savory rice pancake with boiled garden peas, spring onions and salted sesame garnish
Yeung Chow fried rice Chinese fried rice by stu spivack in Cleveland, OH.jpg China A popular Chinese-style wok fried rice dish in many Chinese restaurants in China, the Americas, Australia, United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The ingredients vary, but there are staple items such as cooked rice (preferably day-old because freshly cooked rice is too sticky, barbecued pork, Cooked shrimp, scallions (spring onions or green onions), chopped, including green ends and egg yolks.
Yin yang fried rice Yuanyangchaofan.jpg Hong Kong Dish served with chicken in tomato sauce on one side, and shrimp and peas in an egg white sauce on the other, shaped into a yin yang symbol, with rice as base.
Zarda Coloured Zarda Chawal.JPG Indian subcontinent Sweet dish of rice cooked in clarified butter/ banaspati oil with a variety of dried fruits such as orange in color
Zeera rice/Jeera rice Jeera-rice.JPG India Steamed rice, Zeera (cumin), Zeera powder, ginger-garlic paste, salt, oil, chana dal and red chillies are cooked together to prepare this dish.
Zereshk polo Qazvin Province, Iran This is caramelized barberries sprinkled on plain buttery basmati rice and served usually with chicken.
Zongzi Mum's Rice Dumplings (2548145612).jpg China Glutinous rice, stuffed with various ingredients and wrapped in bamboo leaves
Uppudu pindi Broken rice upma & coconut chutney.jpg India A rice dish made from rice flour, made like upma, eaten in Telangana.
Zosui Kinoko Zosui, at Restaurant Gusto (2012.02.26).jpg Japan A rice soup made from pre-cooked rice and water. Leftover soup from nabe is often re-used for zosui.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "ProdSTAT". FAOSTAT. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  2. ^ a b Muffoletto, A. (1971). The art of Sicilian cooking. Doubleday. p. 52. ISBN 9780385038607. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  3. ^ Rivera, Oswald (2002). Puerto Rican Cuisine in America: Nuyorican and Bodega Recipes. 9781568582443. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-56858-244-3.
  4. ^ Elisabeth Lambert Ortiz (9 September 1998). Cocina latinoamericana. EDAF. p. 251. ISBN 978-84-414-0421-2. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  5. ^ Alice L. McLean (30 August 2006). Cooking in America, 1840–1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-313-33574-7. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  6. ^ Robert M. Weir; Karen Hess (March 1998). The Carolina Rice Kitchen: The African Connection. Univ of South Carolina Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-57003-208-0. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  7. ^ Kellie Jones; Amiri Baraka; Lisa Jones; Hettie Jones; Guthrie P. Ramsey (6 May 2011). EyeMinded: Living and Writing Contemporary Art. Duke University Press. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8223-4873-3. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  8. ^ D. H. Figueredo (16 July 2002). The complete idiot's guide to Latino history and culture. Penguin. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-02-864360-1. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  9. ^ a b Szabo, J. (2013). Pairing Food and Wine For Dummies. --For dummies. Wiley. p. 271. ISBN 978-1-118-39957-6. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  10. ^ Matthew Amster-Burton. "The saucy comforts of Taiwanese turkey rice". The Takeout. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  11. ^ Huang, Tzu-ti (25 December 2020). "Representative to US promotes Taiwanese cuisine in Christmas greetings". Taiwan News. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  12. ^ Thanh Nien Hot Spots 5 Jan 2012 "With your craftsmanship in hand, return to Saigon for a master class in clay-pot cooking, crafting cơm tấm (broken rice), caramelized pork belly,"
  13. ^ Meera Freeman The Flavours of Vietnam 2004 – Page 42 "Cơm tấm – broken rice. 3 cups broken rice water vegetable oil (optional) Rinse the rice in plenty of cold running water until the water is clear and the rice is free of impurities. Put the washed rice in a large saucepan ..."
  14. ^ "Traditional Way To Prepare Rice". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2018-08-16. Retrieved 2022-10-12.
  15. ^ a b Maangchi's Real Korean Cooking: Authentic Dishes for the Home Cook. HMH Books. 2015. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-544-46575-6. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  16. ^ Gutierrez, C.P. (2012). Cajun Foodways. University Press of Mississippi. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-60473-602-1. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  17. ^ Smith, A.F. (2013). Food and Drink in American History: A "Full Course" Encyclopedia [3 Volumes]: A "Full Course" Encyclopedia. EBSCO ebook academic collection. ABC-CLIO. p. 423. ISBN 978-1-61069-233-5. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Gumbo: a love story". The Economist. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  19. ^ "A Brief History of Hainanese Chicken Rice, Singapore's National Dish".
  20. ^ a b "Havij-Polo; A Delicious Combination of Rice, Carrot". Iran Front Page. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  21. ^ a b c Gyimah-Brempong, K.; Johnson, M.; Takeshima, H. (2016). The Nigerian Rice Economy: Policy Options for Transforming Production, Marketing, and Trade. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-8122-9375-3. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  22. ^ Vatandoust, S. (2015). Authentic Iran: Modern Presentation of Ancient Recipes. Xlibris US. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-4990-4061-6. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  23. ^ Helen Agostino, Kathy Kiting, Asia Education Foundation, Indonesia Kaleidoscop, Curriculum Corporation, 1999, 59p. ISBN 1-86366-383-5
  24. ^ Heinz Von Holzen, Wendy Hutton, Lother Arsana, The Food of Indonesia Tuttle Publishing, 1999, Page 62 ISBN 962-593-389-1
  25. ^ "Padang's Feast Fit for a King". Eating Asia. 2006-07-10. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
  26. ^ Betawi cuisine, a culinary journey through history | The Jakarta Post Archived 2015-09-14 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Kim (김열규), Yeolgyu (2004), The Fire of Koreans (한국인의 화) (in Korean), Seoul: Humanist (휴머니스트), p. 9, ISBN 89-89899-93-1
  28. ^ Gwon, Dae-Yeong; Yang, Hye-Jeong (2003). "전통밥의 연구 및 산업화 동향". Bulletin of Food Technology. 16 (2): 38–76. ISSN 1226-0452.
  29. ^ K. T. Achaya (1994). Indian food: a historical companion. Oxford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-562845-6.
  30. ^ Priti Narain (14 October 2000). The Essential Delhi Cookbook. Penguin Books Limited. p. 116. ISBN 978-93-5118-114-9.
  31. ^ "Rice Pilaf". 17 October 2012.
  32. ^ Owen, Sri (1999). Indonesian Regional Food and Cookery. Frances Lincoln. p. 200. ISBN 9780711212732.
  33. ^ Justine Vaisutis, Lonely Planet Publications (Firm) Indonesia Page 82
  34. ^ Irma Rombauer; Marion Rombauer Becker; Ethan Becker (1997). Joy of Cooking. p. 519. ISBN 0-684-81870-1.
  35. ^ "Tahdig". Retrieved 2020-01-28.
  36. ^ Louie, Elaine (9 January 2008). "From an Iranian Cook, the Taste of Memory". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 2008-12-28.