List of rivers of Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Main European drainage divides (red lines) separating catchments (green regions)

This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.

Scope[edit]

The border of Europe and Asia is here defined as from the Kara Sea over the Ural Mountains and Ural River to the Caspian Sea. While the crest of the Caucasus Mountains is the geographical border with Asia in the south, Georgia, and to a lesser extended Armenia and Azerbaijan, are politically and culturally often associated with Europe; rivers in these countries are therefore included.

The list is at the outset limited to those rivers that are at least 250 km long from the most distant source, have a drainage basin (catchment area, watershed) of at least 10,000 km², or have a mean discharge (volume, flow) of at least 150 m3/s. Also included are a number of rivers (currently 47) that do not meet these criteria, but are very well-known and/or nearly make the mark. Examples of these are the Arno, Ruhr, Saar, and River Clyde. See the lists of rivers for individual countries linked to at the bottom of the page for smaller rivers.

The rivers are ordered from those flowing to the extreme northeast into the Arctic Ocean, following the coastline anticlockwise all the way to the southeastern coast of the Black Sea. Iceland and the British Islands are included via virtual connections with northern Norway and across the Strait of Dover and the North Channel, respectively. Finally, rivers draining into the Caspian Sea are listed from Azerbaijan to the Ural River.

The table can be sorted over each column. The first three columns give a ranking for (maximum) length, area and volume of those rivers flowing into the sea or an endorheic lake down to the cut-off values. No ranking of tributaries is attempted, as the concept is too contentious; for example, hydrologically the middle and upper Volga could be considered a tributary of the Kama, in which case it would be the fifth or sixth longest river in Europe. Instead it doesn’t appear in the table at all.

Caveats[edit]

The provided measurements are drawn from sources deemed most reliable, but still are often uncertain, especially when other sources disagree wildly. For example, the Siret in Romania and Ukraine is 726 km with a basin of 44,000 km2 according to the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 647 km (44,811 km2) according to a Romanian management plan for the Siret basin [1] and 559 km (47,610 km2) according to the extensive transboundary rivers study by the Economic Commission for Europe.[2]

Length estimates for rivers depend on a number of variables. 1) The estimate will be larger when the river’s curves are traced at a smaller scale. 2) The choice of the source obviously has an impact. Here we attempt to list the most distant source. When that involves a tributary nearer the mouth of the river, the length of the nominal river is listed as well, if it meets the above criteria. 3) Rivers flowing into estuaries have an arbitrary end. Its channel through an estuary is usually included in the length when it is exposed at low tide. 4) The length of a watercourse through a reservoir or lake is open for interpretation. For this table, when a source for the total length of a river system involving lakes is lacking, the shortest courses through the lakes is used. 5) Over time, a river’s length can change (usually decrease) through canalization, the creation of reservoirs, and natural changes in the water course.

The catchment areas are more consistent between sources. However, in low relief the watershed is less obvious, while underground connections (especially in karst systems) further complicate area measurements. Unless excellent sources are available, the areas below 70° latitude are taken from the HydroBASINS project.[3] The River Networks and Ramsar Sites Information Service websites provide convenient interfaces to assess the accuracy of many of the basins. Areas for rivers above 70° are warned and found to be less reliable.

The listed multiyear mean discharges are even less reliable than the lengths. Underestimates are most common, as the gauging stations are often far above the mouth, so that only a fraction of the drainage basin is represented. On the other hand, the highest volume of a river may not be at the mouth due to water loss by human usage, diversion (e.g. through distributaries), evaporation, or underground drainage.

Rivers of Europe[edit]

Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean North Sea Baltic Sea Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Caspian Sea
Europe's largest rivers ( over 100 km long, > 10,000 km² watershed, or > 150 m3/s mean discharge)
º
Rank (of fleuves) River or river system Length
(km)
Basin
(km²)
Flow
(m³/s)
River mouth Countries
[note 1]
Notes Refs
Length Area Flow
94 82 + Kara ← Bolshoy Kara 289 13400 ? Kara Sea near Ust-Karsk Russia [note 2] [4]
86 86 + Korotaikha (de; it; ru) ← Syadej-Yu 310 12700 ? Pechora Sea Russia [note 3] [5]
6 6 3 Pechora 1809 322000 4380 Pechora Sea near Naryan-Mar Russia [6][7]
* * * - Sula 353 10400 92 Pechora Russia [8]
* * * - Shapkina (de; ru)Lekeyyu (ru) 506 6570 582 Pechora Russia [9]
* * * - Tsilma 374 21500 228 Pechora Russia [10]
* * * - Pizhma 389 5470 55 Pechora Russia [11]
* * * - Izhma 531 31000 317 Pechora near Ust-Izhma Russia [12][13]
* * * - Laya (de; no; ru) 332 9530 50 Pechora Russia [14]
* * * - Usa 565 93600 1310 Pechora near Usinsk Russia [15]
* * * - - Kolva 546 18100 165 Usa near Usinsk Russia [16]
* * * - - Adzva 334 10600 110 Usa Russia [17]
* * * - - Kosyu (de; nl; ru) 259 14800 122 Usa Russia [18]
* * * - - Bolshaya Rogovaya (de; no; ru) 311 7290 ? Usa Russia [19]
* * * - Shchugor 300 9660 252 Pechora Russia [20]
* * * - Ilych 411 16000 177 Pechora Russia [21]
18 20 12 Mezen 966 78000 890 White Sea (Mezen Bay) near Mezen Russia [22][23]
* * * - Pyoza 363 15100 123 Mezen Russia [24][25]
* * * - Vashka 605 20500 184 Mezen Russia [26]
78 60 + Kuloy ← Sotka 350 19000 17 White Sea near Dolgoshchelye Russia [note 4] [27]
7 5 4 Northern DvinaVychegda 1803 357052 3330 Dvina Bay in Severodvinsk Russia [note 5] [28][23]
. . . Northern DvinaSukhonaLake KubenskoyeKubena 1685 357052 3330 Dvina Bay in Severodvinsk Russia [note 6] [28][23]
* * * - Pinega 779 42600 430 Northern Dvina in Ust-Pinega Russia [29]
* * * - - Yula 250 5290 49 Pinega Russia [30]
* * * - YemtsaMekhrenga 299 14100 70 Northern Dvina near Bolshaya Gora Russia [note 7] [31]
* * * - VagaUstya 736 44800 384 Northern Dvina near Bereznik Russia [note 8] [32]
. . . - Vaga 575 44800 384 Northern Dvina near Bereznik Russia [33]
* * * - - Ustya 477 17500 92 Vaga Russia [34]
* * * - - - Kokshenga 251 5670 36 Ustya Russia [35]
* * * - Vychegda 1130 121000 1160 Northern Dvina in Kotlas Russia [36]
* * * - - Viled 321 5610 43 Vychegda near Koryazhma Russia [37]
* * * - - Yarenga 281 5140 49 Vychegda Russia [38]
* * * - - Vym 499 25600 260 Vychegda near Ust-Vym Russia [39]
* * * - - - Yolva (de) 255 3440 31 Vym Russia [40][41]
* * * - - Sysola 487 17200 105 Vychegda in Syktyvkar Russia [42][43]
* * * - - Lokchim (de; ru) 272 6600 52 Vychegda Russia [44]
* * * - - Vishera 247 8780 79 Vychegda Russia [45]
* * * - - Nem (de; ru) 260 4230 37 Vychegda Russia [46]
* * * - Lower YugLuza 609 35600 290 Northern Dvina in Veliki Ustyug Russia [note 9] [47]
. . . - Yug 574 35600 290 Northern Dvina in Veliki Ustyug Russia [48][49]
* * * - - Luza 574 18300 132 Yug Russia [50]
* * * - SukhonaLake KubenskoyeKubena 941 50300 438 Northern Dvina in Veliki Ustyug Russia [note 10] [51]
33 28 28 OnegaLake LachaSvidLake VozheVozhega 680 56900 492 Onega Bay at Onega town Russia [note 11] [52][53]
. . . Onega 416 56900 492 Onega Bay at Onega town Russia [54]
* * * - Voloshka 260 7100 72 Onega Russia [55]
55 45 58 Lower VygLake VygozeroSegezha (de; ru)-system 436 27100 267 White Sea near Belomorsk Russia [note 12] [56][57]
. . . VygUmba (ru) 315 27100 267 White Sea near Belomorsk Russia [note 13] [58]
* * * - Segezha (de; ru)Lake SegozeroVuoloma (de; ru)Talviesdegi (ru) 329 9140 74 Lake Vygozero near Segezha Russia [note 14] [59]
59 44 55 KemČirka-Kem (de; ru) 422 27700 279 White Sea near Kem Russia [note 15] [60]
. . . KemKuyto LakesPista/Pistojoki (de; fi; ru) 399 27700 279 White Sea near Kem Russia Finland [note 16] [61]
82 49 56 KovdaLake TopozeroKarango (ru) 325 26100 276 Kandalaksha Gulf Russia Finland [note 17] [62][63]
+ 85 83 Niva 36 12830 164 Kandalaksha Gulf near Kandalaksha Russia [note 18] [64]
104 + + Varzuga 254 9840 79 White Sea Russia [65]
58 74 81 Ponoy 426 15500 167 White Sea Russia [66][67]
105 98 + VoronyaLake LovozeroKurga River (ru) 251 9940 114 Barents Sea Russia [note 19] [68]
84 58 61 TulomaLake NotozeroLutto 320 21140 241 Barents Sea near Murmansk Russia Finland [note 20] [69][2]
73 62 86 PaatsjokiLake InariIvalo 360 18403 157 Barents Sea near Kirkenes Norway Russia Finland [70][23]
70 72 73 Tana/DeatnuKarasjohka 366 16386 197 Barents Sea near Tana Bru Norway Finland [note 21] [2]
+ + 74 Jökulsá á Fjöllum 206 7750 183 Arctic Ocean Iceland [71]
+ + 32 ÖlfusáHvítá 185 6100 440 Atlantic Ocean near Selfoss Iceland [71][23]
+ + 39 Þjórsá 230 7530 390 Atlantic Ocean Iceland [71][23]
+ + 65 Kúðafljót 115 2400 230 Atlantic Ocean Iceland [71]
+ + 71 Jökulsá á Dal 150 3700 205 Atlantic Ocean Iceland [note 22] [71]
+ + + Altaelva 240 8693 101 Norwegian Sea in Alta Norway
+ + 78 Målselva ← Rostaelva 145 6144 171 Norwegian Sea in Målselv Norway
+ + 70 Vefsna 161 4122 207 Norwegian Sea in Mosjøen Norway
+ + 53 Namsen 229 6298 285 Norwegian Sea in Namsos Norway
+ + 90 Otra 245 3740 150 North Sea in Kristiansand Norway
99 93 59 SkienNorsjø ← Saua ← HeddalsvatnetTinne - etc. system 273 10815 263 Skagerrak near Porsgrunn Norway
76 + + Numedalslågen 356 5554 111 Skagerrak in Larvik Norway
89 66 49 DrammenselvaTyrifjorden ← Storelva-Ådalselva-Sperillen ← BegnaOtrøelva 310 17113 314 Skagerrak in Drammen Norway
38 37 15 Glomma/Glama 619 42441 709 Skagerrak in Fredrikstad Norway [2][23]
* * * - VormaMjøsaGudbrandsdalslågen 358 17412 330 Glomma at Årnes Norway
29 34 24 Göta älvVänernKlarälven system 756 50229 554 Kattegat in Gothenburg Sweden Norway [72][23]
* * * - Klarälven ← Trysilelva ← Femundelva ← Rogen 460 11820 165 Vänern near Karlstad Sweden Norway [note 4]
+ + + Ätran 243 3342 53 Kattegat in Falkenberg Sweden
+ + + Lagan 232 6452 82 Kattegat near Laholm Sweden
96 75 + Motala strömVätternHuskvarnaån system 285 15481 100 Baltic Sea in Norrköping Sweden [72]
91 54 82 NorrströmMälarenKolbäcksån system 307 22650 166 Baltic Sea in Stockholm Sweden [72]
43 43 47 DalälvenÖsterdalälven 542 28954 353 Bothnian Sea near Gävle Sweden Norway [73][23]
* * * - Västerdalälven ← Fulan 315 8642 124 Dalälven in Djurås Sweden [73]
52 59 66 Ljusnan 443 19828 226 Bothnian Sea in Söderhamn Sweden [73]
64 84 + Ljungan 399 12851 135 Bothnian Sea near Sundsvall Sweden [73]
57 48 30 Indalsälven 430 26726 448 Bothnian Sea near Sundsvall Sweden [73][23]
48 42 29 Ångerman 463 31864 481 Bothnian Sea near Kramfors Sweden [73][23]
* * * - Faxälven 399 9037 152 Ångerman near Sollefteå Sweden [73]
* * * - Fjällsjöälven (de; sv; uk) 263 8432 139 Ångerman near Näsåker Sweden [73]
47 47 33 Umeälven 467 26815 435 Bothnian Sea in Umeå Sweden [73][23]
* * * - Vindelälven 453 12654 188 Umeälven near Umeå Sweden [73]
53 89 86 Skellefteälven 440 11731 157 Bothnian Bay in Skellefteå Sweden [73]
63 92 89 Piteälven 402 11285 156 Bothnian Bay in Piteå Sweden [73]
49 50 26 Luleälven 461 25240 500 Bothnian Bay in Luleå Sweden [73][23]
* * * - Lesser Lule 238 9678 180 Luleälven near Vuollerim Sweden [73]
49 63 52 Kalixälven 461 18130 289 Bothnian Bay in Kalix Sweden [73]
40 38 34 TorneTorneträskAbiskojokk ← Válfojohka 565 40157 430 Bothnian Bay in Tornio Sweden Finland Norway [note 23] [73][2][2]
* * * - MuonioKönkämäenoKilpisjärvi 350 14430 162 Torne near Pajala Sweden Finland Norway [note 24] [73]
* * * - Lainioälven ← Rostoeatnu ← Rostojávri ← Ohmátjohka 290 6002 70 Torne near Junosuando Sweden Norway [note 25] [73]
42 33 25 Kemijoki 552 51127 553 Bothnian Bay in Kemi Finland [2][23]
* * * - Ounasjoki 300 13968 140 Kemijoki in Rovaniemi Finland [74]
* * * - Kitinen 278 11214 ? Kemijoki near Pelkosenniemi Finland
86 78 76 Iijoki 310 14191 174 Bothnian Bay in Ii Finland [note 26]
60 53 60 OulujokiOulujärvi ← Hyrynsalmi system 420 22841 262 Bothnian Bay in Oulu Finland [note 27] [2]
+ 46 63 Kokemäenjoki 150 27046 238 Bothnian Sea in Pori Finland [note 28]
41 39 54 KymiLake Päijänne ←←← Koivujärvi sources 554 37159 282 Gulf of Finland in Kotka Finland [note 29]
15 7 5 NevaLake LadogaVolkhov-system 1010 281000 2490 Gulf of Finland in Saint Petersburg Russia [note 30] [75][23]
. . . Neva 74 281000 2490 Gulf of Finland in Saint Petersburg Russia [75][23]
* * * - VuoksiSaimaaPielisjoki-system 806 68501 584 Lake Ladoga at Solovyovo and at Priozersk Russia Finland [note 31] [76][2]
* * * - - PielisjokiPielinenLieksanjoki ←← Murdoyoki (ru) 390 20000 240 Lake Saimaa in Joensuu Finland Russia [note 32]
* * * - SvirLake OnegaVodla-system 678 88200 790 Lake Ladoga near Lodeynoye Pole Russia [note 33] [77]
* * * - - Oyat 266 5220 52 Svir near Lodeynoye Pole Russia [78]
* * * - - Shuya 194 10100 130 Lake Onega near Petrozavodsk Russia [79]
* * * - - Suna 280 7670 66 Lake Onega near Kondopoga Russia [80]
* * * - - VodlaLake VodlozeroIleksaOlova (ru) 358 13700 130 Lake Onega near Pudozh Russia [note 34] [81]
* * * - Syas 260 7330 53 Lake Ladoga in Syasstroy Russia [82]
* * * - VolkhovLake IlmenMsta-system 844 80200 580 Lake Ladoga near Volkhov Russia [note 35] [83]
* * * - - MstaLake MstinoTsna 620 23300 202 Lake Ilmen near Velikiy Novgorod Russia [note 36] [84]
* * * - - Pola 267 7420 63 Lake Ilmen near Staraya Russa Russia [85]
* * * - - Lovat 530 21900 105 Lake Ilmen near Staraya Russa Russia Belarus [86]
* * * - - Shelon 248 9710 44 Lake Ilmen near Shimsk Russia [87]
67 83 + LugaOredezh 383 13364 93 Gulf of Finland in Ust-Luga Russia [note 37] [88]
. . . Luga 353 13364 93 Gulf of Finland in Ust-Luga Russia [89]
35 29 37 NarvaLake PeipusVelikaya 647 56229 400 Gulf of Finland near Narva Estonia Russia [2]
. . . Narva 77 56229 400 Gulf of Finland near Narva Estonia Russia [2]
* * * - Plyussa 281 6963 50 Narva near Narva Russia [90]
* * * - Velikaya 430 25153 134 Lake Peipus near Pskov Russia [91]
* * * - EmajõgiVõrtsjärvVäike Emajõgi 218 10039 70 Lake Peipus Estonia [note 38] [92]
+ + + Pärnu 144 6887 64 Gulf of Riga in Pärnu Estonia [93]
51 + + Gauja 452 9161 71 Gulf of Riga near Riga Latvia Estonia [2]
14 18 19 Daugava/Western Dvina 1020 85613 640 Gulf of Riga near Riga Latvia Belarus Russia [23]
* * * - AiviekstePededze 254 9135 57 Daugava near Pļaviņas Latvia Estonia [note 39] [94]
* * * - Mezha 259 9525 61 Daugava near Doroshkino Russia
86 65 + LielupeMēmele/Nemunelis 310 17504 106 Gulf of Riga near Jūrmala Latvia Lithuania [2]
79 87 + Venta 346 11843 98 Baltic Sea in Ventspils Latvia Lithuania [2]
22 17 20 Neman 914 92523 634 Baltic Sea near Šilutė Lithuania Russia Belarus [2]
* * * - Šešupė 298 6194 34 Neman near Neman Lithuania Russia Poland
* * * - Nevėžis 209 5947 33 Neman near Raudondvaris Lithuania
* * * - Neris/Viliya 510 25254 182 Neman in Kaunas Lithuania Belarus
* * * - - Šventoji 246 6804 56 Neris in Jonava Lithuania
* * * - Shchara River 325 6724 31 Neman Belarus
80 79 + PregolyaLava/Łyna 336 14117 90 Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad Russia Poland [note 40] [95]
. . . PregolyaAngrapaGołdapa 310 14117 90 Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad Russia Poland [note 41] [96]
* * * - Łyna/Alna/Lava 264 7020 40 Pregolya in Znamensk Russia Poland [note 42] [97][98]
12 9 10 VistulaBugonarewWestern Bug 1211 192632 1080 Baltic Sea near Gdańsk Poland Belarus Ukraine [note 43] [99][2][23]
. . . Vistula 1047 192632 1080 Baltic Sea near Gdańsk Poland [note 44] [99][2][23]
* * * - BugonarewWestern Bug 810 74714 328 Vistula in Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki Poland Belarus Ukraine [note 45]
* * * - - Wkra 249 5322 20 Bugonarew near Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki Poland [100]
* * * - - Narew 446 28645 146 Bugonarew near Serock Poland [note 46] [101]
* * * - - Western Bug 772 38676 158 Bugonarew near Serock Poland Belarus Ukraine [102]
* * * - Pilica 319 9138 46 Vistula near Warka Poland [103]
* * * - Wieprz 303 10256 43 Vistula in Dęblin Poland [104]
* * * - San 443 16769 126 Vistula near Sandomierz Poland Ukraine [105]
* * * - Dunajec 247 6802 85 Vistula in Opatowiec Poland Slovakia [106][2]
13 13 22 OderWarta 1045 118791 574 Baltic Sea in Świnoujście Germany Poland [note 47] [107][2]
. . . Oder 854 118791 574 Baltic Sea in Świnoujście Germany Poland Czech Republic [note 48] [2][23]
* * * - Warta 808 55538 195 Oder in Kostrzyn nad Odrą Poland [107]
* * * - - Noteć 388 17159 76 Warta in Santok Poland [108]
* * * - Lusatian Neisse 255 4403 31 Oder in Neißemünde Germany Poland Czech Republic [109]
* * * - Bóbr 272 5943 39 Oder in Krosno Odrzańskie Poland Czech Republic [110]
10 12 14 ElbeVltava 1245 148268 860 Wadden Sea near Cuxhaven Germany Czech Republic [note 49] [111][2]
. . . Elbe 1094 148268 860 Wadden Sea near Cuxhaven Germany Czech Republic [note 50] [112][2]
* * * - HavelSpree 560 24096 103 Elbe near Havelberg Germany [note 51] [112]
. . . - Havel 334 24096 103 Elbe near Havelberg Germany [112]
* * * - - Spree 382 10110 35 Havel in Berlin-Spandau Germany [112]
* * * - Saale 413 24167 117 Elbe in Barby Germany [112]
* * * - - White Elster 257 5154 26 Saale near Halle (Saale) Germany Czech Republic [112]
* * * - MuldeZwickau Mulde 290 7400 75 Elbe in Dessau Germany [note 52] [112]
* * * - Ohře / Eger 316 5588 38 Elbe in Litoměřice Czech Republic Germany [112]
* * * - Vltava - Teplá Vltava 431 28101 154 Elbe in Mělník Czech Republic [note 53] [112]
30 35 44 WeserWerra 751 46259 365 Wadden Sea near Bremerhaven Germany [note 54] [113][114]
* * * - AllerLeine 346 15721 120 Weser near Verden Germany [note 55] [113]
. . . - Aller 260 15721 120 Weser near Verden Germany 211? [113]
* * * - - Leine 278 6517 62 Aller near Schwarmstedt Germany [113]
* * * - Fulda 220 6947 67 Weser in Hannoversch Münden Germany [113]
* * * - Werra 300 5497 50 Weser in Hannoversch Münden Germany [113]
69 64 + Ems 371 17802 89 Wadden Sea near Delfzijl Germany Netherlands [note 56] [114][2]
+ + + Zwarte WaterVecht/Vechte 201 5741 50 IJsselmeer near Genemuiden Netherlands Germany [note 57] [115]
+ + 41 IJsselOude IJssel 188 4533 380 IJsselmeer near Kampen Netherlands Germany [note 58] [116][117]
11 11 6 Rhine 1233 185263 2315 North Sea at Hoek van Holland Netherlands Germany France
Switzerland Austria Liechtenstein
[note 59]
* * * - Waal 82 ? 1500 Rhine delta in Gorinchem Netherlands [note 60]
* * * - Lek 62 ? 429 Rhine delta at Kinderdijk Netherlands [note 60]
* * * - LippeAlme 268 4882 46 Rhine in Wesel Germany [note 61] [115]
* * * - RuhrNegerRenau 227 4485 82 Rhine in Duisburg Germany [note 62] [115]
* * * - MoselleMoselotte 549 28153 320 Rhine in Koblenz Germany Luxembourg France [note 63] [118][2]
* * * - - Saar 235 7431 78 Moselle near Konz Germany France [118]
* * * - - Sauer 173 4259 41 Moselle in Wasserbillig Luxembourg Germany Belgium [118]
* * * - LahnOhmFelda 251 5925 51 Rhine in Lahnstein Germany [note 64] [115]
* * * - MainRegnitz system 583 27208 211 Rhine in Mainz Germany [note 65] [119]
. . . - Main 525 27208 211 Rhine in Mainz Germany [note 66] [119]
* * * - - RegnitzPegnitzFichtenohe 191 7521 57 Main in Bamberg Germany [note 67] [119]
* * * - NeckarEschach 380 13934 136 Rhine in Mannheim Germany [120]
* * * - Ill 217 4760 54 Rhine near Strasbourg France [121]
* * * - Aare 288 17684 559 Rhine in Koblenz Switzerland [122]
* * * - - LimmatLake ZurichLinth 140 2417 101 Aare in Brugg Switzerland [122]
* * * - - Reuss 164 3443 140 Aare in Brugg Switzerland [122]
20 40 46 Meuse/Maas 950 34364 357 North Sea near Hellevoetsluis Netherlands Belgium France [note 68] [123][2]
* * * - Ourthe 181 3624 55 Meuse in Liège Belgium
* * * - Sambre 193 2856 29 Meuse in Namur Belgium France
73 56 + Scheldt 360 21683 129 North Sea near Flushing Netherlands Belgium France [note 69] [124][125][114]
* * * - Leie/Lys 202 4305 28 Scheldt in Ghent Belgium France [124]
73 77 + ThamesChurn 360 14292 66 North Sea near Southend-on-Sea United Kingdom [note 70] [126]
+ + + Great Ouse 230 8172 39 North Sea in King's Lynn United Kingdom [127]
92 96 + Trent 298 10435 100 Humber Estuary near Scunthorpe United Kingdom [note 71] [128]
+ 94 + OuseUre 208 10704 145 Humber Estuary near Scunthorpe United Kingdom [note 72] [129]
+ + + Tyne ← North Tyne 118 2936 45 North Sea at South Shields United Kingdom
+ + + Tweed 156 4988 90 North Sea in Berwick-upon-Tweed United Kingdom [130][131]
+ + 67 Tay 193 6019 220 North Sea near Dundee United Kingdom [note 73] [132]
+ + + Spey 173 2944 66 North Sea near Elgin United Kingdom [133]
+ + + Clyde 176 3045 83 North Channel near Glasgow United Kingdom [134]
+ + + Lower BannLough NeaghUlster Blackwater 186 5775 92 North Channel in Coleraine United Kingdom Republic of Ireland [114]
101 88 69 Shannon 258 11773 208 Shannon Estuary near Limerick Republic of Ireland [note 74] [114]
+ + 86 The Three Sisters 192 9207 157 Celtic Sea near Waterford Republic of Ireland [note 75] [135][114]
+ + + MerseyTame 160 4312 66 Irish Sea near Liverpool United Kingdom [note 76] [136]
+ + + Wye 215 4136 80 Bristol Channel near Chepstow United Kingdom [137]
77 91 + Severn 354 11420 120 Bristol Channel near Severn Beach United Kingdom [138]
+ + + Somme 245 6548 37 English Channel near Abbeville France [114][124]
26 21 23 SeineMarne 875 75374 560 English Channel in Le Havre France [note 77] [139]
. . . Seine 777 75374 560 English Channel in Le Havre France [note 78]} [139]
* * * - Eure 229 6017 26 Seine in Pont-de-l'Arche France [140]
* * * - OiseAisneAire 454 16783 110 Seine in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine France [note 79]
. . . - Oise 341 16783 110 Seine in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine France Belgium [141]
* * * - - Aisne 356 7939 65 Oise in Compiègne France [142]
* * * - Marne 514 12783 110 Seine in Ivry-sur-Seine France [143]
* * * - Yonne 292 10836 93 Seine in Montereau-Fault-Yonne France [144]
* * * - Aube 249 4595 41 Seine near Romilly-sur-Seine France [145]
+ 95 + Vilaine 218 10459 72 Bay of Biscay in Pénestin France [146]
17 14 13 Loire 1006 117356 889 Bay of Biscay in Saint-Nazaire France [147][148]
* * * - MaineSartheLoir 338 22240 127 Loire near Angers France [note 80] [149]
* * * - - Mayenne 202 5844 50 Maine near Angers France [150]
* * * - - Sarthe 314 16250 82 Maine near Angers France [151]
* * * - - - Loir 317 8294 32 Sarthe near Angers France [152]
* * * - Vienne 363 21161 210 Loire in Candes-Saint-Martin France [153]
* * * - - Creuse 264 10279 85 Vienne near Châtellerault France [154]
* * * - Indre 279 3428 19 Loire near Candes-Saint-Martin France [155]
* * * - Cher 368 13718 96 Loire in Villandry France [156]
* * * - Allier 421 14350 144 Loire near Nevers France [157][158]
68 99 + Charente 381 9855 49 Bay of Biscay near Rochefort France [159]
46 52 41 Dordogne 483 23957 380 Gironde estuary near Bordeaux France [160]
* * * - Isle 255 7558 63 Dordogne in Libourne France [161]
* * * - Vézère 211 3715 58 Dordogne near Le Bugue France [162]
39 30 17 GaronneTarn 610 55846 650 Gironde estuary near Bordeaux France [note 81] [163]
. . . Garonne 575 55846 650 Gironde estuary near Bordeaux France Spain [note 82] [163]
* * * - Lot 485 11538 155 Garonne near Aiguillon France [164]
* * * - Tarn 380 15586 233 Garonne near Castelsarrasin France [165]
* * * - - Aveyron 291 5176 57 Tarn near Montauban France [166]
* * * - Ariège 163 4135 76 Garonne in Toulouse France [167]
89 67 45 Adour 308 16912 360 Bay of Biscay in Bayonne France [168][23]
* * * - Gaves réunisGave de Pau 193 5464 82 Adour near Peyrehorade France [169]
71 70 48 MinhoSil 361 16651 340 Atlantic Ocean near Caminha Portugal Spain [note 83] [2]
. . . Minho 309 16651 340 Atlantic Ocean near Caminha Portugal Spain [2]
* * * - Sil 226 7969 100 Minho near Ourense Spain
25 16 17 Douro 897 97290 650 Atlantic Ocean in Porto Portugal Spain [2][23]
* * * - Tormes 247 7054 42 Douro near Bemposta (de; pt) / Villarino Spain
* * * - Esla 275 16018 182 Douro near Muelas del Pan Spain
* * * - Pisuerga 276 15665 82 Douro near Valladolid Spain
+ + + Mondego 234 6656 108 Atlantic Ocean in Figueira da Foz Portugal
16 24 26 Tagus 1007 70756 500 Atlantic Ocean near Lisbon Portugal Spain [note 84] [170][2][23]
* * * - Jarama 194 11532 32 Tagus in Aranjuez Spain
+ + + Sado 180 6186 40 Atlantic Ocean in Setúbal Portugal
21 25 + Guadiana (← Cigüela) ← Záncara 922 67027 79 Gulf of Cadiz near Ayamonte Portugal Spain [note 85] [171][2]
. . . GuadianaGuadiana Alto (es). 852 67027 79 Gulf of Cadiz near Ayamonte Portugal Spain [note 86] [171][2]
31 27 83 GuadalquivirGuadiana Menor (es; fr)Guardal (es; fr) 722 57053 164 Gulf of Cadiz in Sanlúcar de Barrameda Spain [note 87] [172]
* * * - Genil 358 8257 9.3 Guadalquivir in Palma del Río Spain
82 71 + Segura 325 16599 26 Mediterranean Sea in Guardamar del Segura Spain
45 57 + Júcar 498 21430 49 Balearic Sea in Cullera Spain
98 + + Turia 280 6674 14 Balearic Sea in Valencia Spain
23 19 21 Ebro 910 84763 577 Balearic Sea near Tortosa Spain [23]
* * * - Segre 265 22719 100 Ebro in Mequinenza Spain
* * * - - Cinca 170 9720 82 Segre near Mequinenza Spain
* * * - JalónJiloca 224 9658 21 Ebro near Torres de Berrellén Spain
* * * - Aragón 195 8529 41 Ebro near Tudela Spain
+ + + Llobregat 170 4948 21 Balearic Sea near Barcelona Spain
+ + + Aude 224 5327 44 Gulf of Lion near Narbonne France [173]
19 15 7 RhôneSaôneDoubs 957 98131 1900 Gulf of Lion in Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône France Switzerland [note 88] [174][23]
. . . Rhône 812 98131 1900 Gulf of Lion in Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône France Switzerland [175][23]
* * * - Durance 323 14342 180 Rhône in Avignon France [176]
* * * - Isère 286 11890 333 Rhône near Valence France [177]
* * * - Saône 480 29321 473 Rhône in Lyon France [178]
* * * - - Doubs 453 7874 176 Saône in Verdun-sur-le-Doubs France Switzerland [179]
* * * - Ain 190 3765 123 Rhône near Pont-de-Chéruy France [180]
+ + + Arno 241 8852 110 Ligurian Sea near Pisa Italy [note 89]
62 69 62 Tiber 405 16668 239 Tyrrhenian Sea in Ostia Italy
* * * - Nera 116 4163 168 Tiber near Orte Italy
+ + + GariglianoLiri 158 4059 120 Tyrrhenian Sea near Minturno Italy
+ + + Volturno 175 5784 82 Tyrrhenian Sea in Castel Volturno Italy
+ + + Reno 212 5615 95 Adriatic Sea near Comacchio Italy
32 22 9 PoTanaro 702 73746 1460 Adriatic Sea near Porto Tolle Italy [note 90] [23]
. . . Po 652 73746 1460 Adriatic Sea near Porto Tolle Italy [181][23]
* * * - MincioLake GardaSarca 203 2977 60 Po near Mantua Italy
* * * - Oglio 280 6598 130 Po near Mantua Italy
* * * - AddaLake Como ← Adda 313 7842 187 Po in Cremona Italy
* * * - TicinoLake Maggiore ← Ticino 248 8061 348 Po in Pavia Italy Switzerland
* * * - TanaroNegrone (it) 285 8182 116 Po near Alessandria Italy [note 91]
* * * - Dora Baltea 168 3921 96 Po in Crescentino Italy
+ + 68 Tartaro-Canalbianco-Po di Levante 147 2885 218 Adriatic Sea near Porto Viro Italy
55 76 64 AdigeEisackRienzAhr 436 14543 235 Adriatic Sea near Chioggia Italy [note 92] [182]
. . . Adige ← Etsch ← Karlinbach 421 14543 235 Adriatic Sea near Chioggia Italy [note 93] [182]
+ + + Brenta 174 4811 93 Adriatic Sea near Chioggia Italy
+ + + Piave 231 4420 137 Adriatic Sea near Venice Italy
+ + + Tagliamento 170 2939 92 Adriatic Sea near Lignano Italy
+ + 77 Isonzo/Soča 138 3327 173 Adriatic Sea near Monfalcone Italy Slovenia [2]
+ 97 43 Neretva 240 10380 378 Adriatic Sea near Ploče Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina [2][23]
* * * - Trebišnjica 187 4926 114 Neretva in Neum Bosnia and Herzegovina [note 94]
66 61 16 Bojana/BunaDrin 384 18620 672 Adriatic Sea near Ulcinj Albania Montenegro Kosovo
Republic of Macedonia
[note 95] [183]
* * * - DrinBlack DrinSateska 343 14351 352 Bojana near Lezhë Albania Republic of Macedonia [note 96] [2]
* * * - - White Drin 136 5005 66 Drin in Kukës Albania Kosovo [2]
* * * - Morača 100 2820 156 Lake Skadar (Bojana) near Žabljak Crnojevića Montenegro [184]
+ + + Shkumbin 181 2922 62 Adriatic Sea near Lushnjë Albania [183]
97 + + SemanDevoll 281 6124 96 Adriatic Sea near Fier Albania [183]
100 + 72 Aoös/Vjosë 272 6777 204 Adriatic Sea near Vlorë Albania Greece [2]
+ + + Achelous 220 5662 137 Ionian Sea near Astakos Greece
+ + + Pineios (Thessaly) 216 9301 81 Aegean Sea near Larissa Greece
93 + + Haliacmon 297 8664 80 Aegean Sea near Thessaloniki Greece
65 51 79 Vardar/AxiosTreska 393 24503 170 Aegean Sea near Thessaloniki Greece Republic of Macedonia [note 97] [2]
. . . Vardar/Axios 388 24503 170 Aegean Sea near Thessaloniki Greece Republic of Macedonia [2]
61 68 + Struma/Strymon 415 16801 76 Thracian Sea in Amphipolis Greece Bulgaria [2]
+ + + Nestos/Mesta 243 5864 45 Thracian Sea near Thasos Greece Bulgaria [2]
44 31 40 Maritsa/Meriç/Evros 515 53475 383 Thracian Sea near Alexandroupoli Greece Turkey Bulgaria [2]
* * * - Ergene 281 11016 28 Maritsa near İpsala Turkey [note 98] [2][185][186]
* * * - Tundzha 380 8583 32 Maritsa in Edirne Turkey Bulgaria
* * * - Arda 290 5623 77 Maritsa near Edirne Greece Bulgaria
+ + + Veleka 147 995 9.4 Black Sea near Sinemorets Bulgaria Turkey
104 + + KamchiyaLuda Kamchiya 254 5373 26 Black Sea near Varna Bulgaria [187]
2 2 2 Danube 2857 801463 6450 Black Sea near Sulina Romania Ukraine Moldova
Bulgaria Serbia Croatia
Hungary Slovakia Austria
Germany
[note 99] [2][23]
* * * - Prut 953 27820 105 Danube at Giurgiulești Moldova Romania Ukraine [note 100] [188][2]
* * * - - Jijia 275 5757 14 Prut near Huși Romania Ukraine
* * * - Siret 559 45857 240 Danube in Galați Romania Ukraine [note 101] [2]
* * * - - Buzău 325 5537 29 Siret near Galați Romania
* * * - - Bistrița 283 7018 66 Siret near Bacău Romania
* * * - Ialomița 417 11116 40 Danube near Hârșova Romania
* * * - Argeș 350 12652 73 Danube in Oltenița Romania
* * * - - Dâmbovița 245 2837 26 Argeș near Budești Romania [note 102] [189]
* * * - Yantra 285 7897 47 Danube near Svishtov Bulgaria
* * * - Osam 314 2866 16 Danube near Nikopol Bulgaria
* * * - Olt 615 24130 174 Danube near Turnu Măgurele Romania
* * * - Iskar 368 8511 54 Danube near Gigen Bulgaria
* * * - Jiu 339 10157 86 Danube near Bechet Romania
* * * - Great MoravaWest MoravaIbar 550 37709 232 Danube near Smederevo Serbia [note 103] [190][2]
* * * - - South Morava 295 15550 100 Great Morava near Kruševac Serbia Kosovo
* * * - - West Morava 308 15710 120 Great Morava near Kruševac Serbia
* * * - - - Ibar 276 7914 60 West Morava in Kraljevo Serbia Kosovo Montenegro
* * * - Timiš/Tamis 359 10495 47 Danube in Pančevo Serbia Romania
* * * - SavaSava Dolinka 945 94613 1609 Danube in Belgrade Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia
Slovenia
[note 104] [2][191][192]
* * * - - DrinaTara 486 19650 370 Sava near Bijeljina Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia Montenegro [note 105] [193][192]
* * * - - - Lim 220 6797 96 Drina near Višegrad Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia Montenegro [194]
* * * - - Bosna 271 10490 174 Sava in Bosanski Šamac Bosnia and Herzegovina [2][193]
* * * - - Vrbas 235 6501 132 Sava in Srbac Bosnia and Herzegovina [193]
* * * - - Una 214 9657 220 Sava in Jasenovac Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia [note 106] [2][192]
* * * - - Kupa/Kolpa 297 10194 201 Sava in Sisak Croatia Slovenia [2]
* * * - TiszaSomeş 1111 154073 863 Danube near Titel Serbia Hungary Romania [note 107] [2]
. . . - Tisza 966 154073 863 Danube near Titel Serbia Hungary Romania
Ukraine
[note 108] [2]
* * * - - Bega 256 6250 13 Tisza near Titel Serbia Romania
* * * - - Mureș/Maros 789 30190 190 Tisza in Szeged Hungary Romania [note 109] [2]
* * * - - - TârnavaTârnava Mare 249 6236 15 Mureș near Teiuș Romania
* * * - - KörösCrişul Alb 365 27123 100 Tisza near Csongrád Hungary Romania
* * * - - Sajó / SlanáHornád 314 12870 70 Tisza in Tiszaújváros Hungary Slovakia [note 110]
* * * - - - Hernád / Hornád 286 5414 31 Sajó near Miskolc Hungary Slovakia
* * * - - BodrogLatorica 255 13579 115 Tisza in Tokaj Hungary Slovakia Ukraine [note 111] [2]
* * * - - Szamos / Someş 415 16046 132 Tisza near Vásárosnamény Hungary Romania [2]
* * * - Drava/DrauIsel (de)Schwarzach (de; it) 728 40154 577 Danube near Osijek Croatia Hungary Slovenia
Austria
[note 112] [195]
* * * - - Mur 453 14108 166 Drava near Legrad Croatia Hungary Slovenia
Austria
[195][196][192]
* * * - SióLake BalatonZala system 330 14890 39 Danube near Szekszárd Hungary [note 113]
* * * - Hron 298 5441 54 Danube near Esztergom Slovakia
* * * - Váh 398 19484 194 Danube in Komárno Slovakia [2]
* * * - Rába/Raab 311 10401 80 Danube near Győr Hungary Austria [196][2]
* * * - LeithaSchwarza 258 2138 8.2 Danube near Mosonmagyaróvár Hungary Austria [note 114] [196]
* * * - MoravaThayaAustrian Thaya 402 26734 110 Danube in Bratislava-Devin Austria Slovakia Czech Republic [note 115] [196][2]
. . . - Morava 352 26734 110 Danube in Bratislava-Devin Austria Slovakia Czech Republic [196][2]
* * * - - ThayaAustrian Thaya 311 13419 44 Morava near Hohenau Austria Czech Republic [note 116] [196]
* * * - Enns 254 6084 200 Danube in Enns Austria [196]
* * * - Traun 153 4277 150 Danube in Linz Austria [196]
* * * - Inn ← Aua da Fedoz 522 26053 735 Danube in Passau Germany Austria Switzerland [197][2]
* * * - - SalzachKrimmler Ache 232 6829 252 Inn in Haiming Germany Austria [119]
* * * - IsarLeutascher Ache 295 8962 175 Danube near Deggendorf Germany Austria [note 117] [119]
* * * - Lech 264 4125 115 Danube near Donauwörth Germany Austria [119][2]
* * * - IllerBreitach ← Turabach 170 2147 70 Danube in Ulm Germany Austria [note 118] [119]
+ + + Cogîlnic 243 5388 6.5 Black Sea near Tatarbunary Ukraine Moldova [2]
9 23 50 Dniester/Nistru 1362 73158 313 Black Sea near Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Moldova Ukraine [198][2]
* * * - Răut 286 7761 5.7 Dniester near Dubăsari Moldova
* * * - Zbruch 247 3365 7 Dniester near Khotyn Ukraine
27 26 85 Southern Bug 806 63569 160 Dnieper-Bug Estuary near Mykolaiv Ukraine [note 119] [199]
* * * - Inhul 354 9773 8.8 Southern Buh in Mykolayiv Ukraine [200]
* * * - Synyukha (de)Hnylyi TikychHirsky Tikych 283 16640 29 Southern Buh in Pervomaisk Ukraine [201][202]
4 3 8 Dnieper 2201 509824 1700 Dnieper-Bug Estuary near Kherson Ukraine Belarus Russia [2][23]
* * * - Inhulets 549 14487 0.3? Dnieper near Kropyvnytskyi Ukraine [203]
* * * - SamaraVovcha 421 22734 20 Dnieper near Dnipro Ukraine [note 120]
. . . - Samara 320 22734 20 Dnieper near Dnipro Ukraine [204]
* * * - - Vovcha 323 13035 5.3 Samara near Pavlohrad Ukraine [205]
* * * - Oril 346 10093 13 Dnieper near Dnipro Ukraine
* * * - Vorskla 452 14511 36 Dnieper near Verkhn'odniprovs'k Ukraine Russia [206]
* * * - Psel 717 22782 55 Dnieper in Kremenchuk Ukraine Russia [207]
* * * - - Khorol 308 4039 3.6 Psel Ukraine [208]
* * * - SulaUdai 447 19218 29 Dnieper near Kremenchuk Ukraine [note 121] [209][210]
. . . - Sula 363 19218 29 Dnieper near Kremenchuk Ukraine [209]
* * * - - Udai 327 6995 9.4 Sula near Lubny Ukraine [210]
* * * - Ros 346 12581 27 Dnieper near Kaniv Ukraine [211]
* * * - Desna 1130 88490 360 Dnieper in Kiev Ukraine Russia [212]
* * * - - Snov 253 8265 24 Desna Ukraine Russia [213]
* * * - - Seim 748 27895 100 Desna in Sosnytsia Ukraine Russia [214]
* * * - Teteriv 385 15213 18 Dnieper near Chernobyl Ukraine [215]
* * * - PrypiatHoryn 1052 119911 460 Dnieper near Chernobyl Ukraine Belarus [note 122] [2]
. . . - Prypiat 761 119911 460 Dnieper near Chernobyl Ukraine Belarus [216][2]
* * * - - Uzh 256 8129 25 Prypiat near Chernobyl Ukraine [217]
* * * - - Ptsich 421 9516 48 Prypiat near Mazyr Belarus [218]
* * * - - Ubort 292 5504 23 Prypiat near Pietrykaŭ Belarus Ukraine [219]
* * * - - Horyn 659 27065 90 Prypiat near Davyd-Haradok Belarus Ukraine [220]
* * * - - - Southern Sluch 451 13675 45 Horyn near Novohrad-Volynskyi Ukraine [221]
* * * - - Styr 494 12999 45 Prypiat near Pinsk Belarus Ukraine [222]
* * * - Sozh 648 42199 207 Dnieper in Loev Belarus Ukraine Russia [223]
* * * - - Iput 437 10789 83 Sozh near Gomel Belarus Russia [224]
* * * - - Besed 261 5537 28 Sozh Belarus Russia [225]
* * * - - Ostyor 274 3382 21 Sozh near Krychaw Belarus Russia [226]
* * * - Berezina 613 24895 145 Dnieper near Rechytsa Belarus [227]
* * * - - Svislach 327 5190 30 Berezina near Asipovichy Belarus
* * * - Drut 295 4952 30 Dnieper in Rahachou Belarus [228]
101 + + Mius 258 7059 12 Sea of Azov near Taganrog Russia Ukraine [2]
5 4 11 DonVoronezh ← Polnoy Voronezh 1923 437308 890 Sea of Azov near Azov Russia [note 123] [229][23]
. . . Don 1870 437308 890 Sea of Azov near Azov Russia [229][23]
* * * - ManychKalaus ← Bolshoy Yankul 863 49977 16 Don near Rostov-on-Don Russia [note 124] [230]
* * * - - Yegorlyk 448 14972 38 Manych near Salsk Russia [231]
* * * - Sal 798 20932 15 Don in Semikarakorsk Russia [232]
* * * - Donets 1053 98720 159 Don near Semikarakorsk Ukraine Russia [233][2]
* * * - - Kalitva (de; ru) 308 10543 ? Donets in Belaya Kalitva Russia [234]
* * * - - Aidar 264 7390 15 Donets near Shchastya Ukraine Russia [235]
* * * - - Oskil/Oskol 472 14818 44 Donets near Izium Ukraine Russia [236][2]
* * * - Chir 317 10580 13 Don Russia [237]
* * * - Ilovlya 358 9377 9.8 Don Russia [238]
* * * - Medveditsa ← Malaya Medveditsa 748 34914 69 Don near Serafimovitch Russia [239]
* * * - - Tersa (de; ru)Yelan (ru) 326 8807 5.6 Medveditsa Russia [note 125] [240]
* * * - KhopyorSerdoba (ru) 1011 61052 150 Don near Bukanovskaya Russia [note 126] [241]
* * * - - Buzuluk 314 9465 13 Khopyor Russia [242]
* * * - - Savala 285 7585 20 Khopyor near Novokhopyorsk Russia [243]
* * * - - VoronaChembar (ru) 511 13229 42 Khopyor near Borisoglebsk Russia [note 127] [244]
* * * - Bityug 379 8818 18 Don near Pavlovsk Russia [245]
* * * - Voronezh ← Polnoy Voronezh 520 21286 71 Don near Voronezh Russia [note 128] [246]
* * * - Bystraya Sosna 296 13012 74 Don near Yelets Russia [247]
85 + + Yeya 313 9191 2.5 Sea of Azov near Yeysk Russia
95 + + Chelbas (es; ru) 288 4911 2.4 Sea of Azov near Primorsko-Akhtarsk Russia
24 32 34 Kuban 906 52399 430 Sea of Azov near Temryuk Russia [note 129] [248][23]
* * * - Pshish ← Bolshoy Pshish 270 1927 25 Kuban near Ryazanskaya Russia [note 130] [249]
* * * - Belaya 265 6054 ? Kuban Russia [250]
* * * - LabaBolshaya Laba 347 12664 96 Kuban in Ust-Labinsk Russia
+ + + Kodori 105 2087 144 Black Sea near Adzyubzha Georgia (country) [note 131]
+ + 79 Enguri 213 4052 170 Black Sea in Anaklia Georgia (country) [note 132] [248]
81 81 36 Rioni 327 13511 424 Black Sea near Poti Georgia (country) [note 133] [248][23]
54 55 56 Chorokhi/Çoruh 438 22011 278 Black Sea near Batumi Georgia (country) Turkey [248][2]
8 10 30 Kur/Kura/Mtkvari 1364 188378 448 Caspian Sea near Neftçala Azerbaijan Georgia (country) Turkey [note 134] [251][2]
* * * - Aras/Araks 1072 102000 141 Kura near Sabirabad Azerbaijan Iran Armenia
Turkey
[note 135] [251][2]
* * * - Alazani 391 11717 110 Mingachevir reservoir Azerbaijan Georgia (country) [252][253][2]
* * * - - Iori 320 4897 15 Mingachevir reservoir near Burunqovaq Azerbaijan Georgia (country) [note 136] [253][2]
+ + + Samur 213 6777 75 Caspian Sea near Derbent Azerbaijan Russia
71 80 75 SulakAndi Koysu ← Tushetis Alazani 361 14085 176 Caspian Sea near Makhachkala Russia Georgia (country) [note 137] [254][2]
37 36 51 Terek 623 42927 305 Caspian Sea near Kizlyar Russia Georgia (country) [255][2]
* * * - Sunzha 278 12153 85 Terek near Gudermes Russia [256]
* * * - Malka 210 10163 98 Terek near Prokhladny Russia [257]
28 41 + Kuma 802 33500 11 Caspian Sea near Lagan Russia [258]
1 1 1 VolgaOkaUpa ← Uperta 3790 1432506 8087 Caspian Sea near Astrakhan Russia [note 138] [259][260][23]
. . . VolgaKuybyshev ReservoirKama 3771 1432506 8087 Caspian Sea near Astrakhan Russia [note 139] [259][262]
. . . Volga 3530 1432506 8087 Caspian Sea near Astrakhan Russia [259]
* * * - Akhtuba 537 ? 153 Volga Delta near Astrakhan Russia [note 140] [263]
* * * - Yeruslan 278 6196 ? Volgograd Reservoir near Kamyshin Russia [note 141] [264]
* * * - Tereshka 273 9864 18 Volga near Saratov Russia [265]
* * * - Bolshoy Irgiz ← Bolshaya Glushitsa 679 24010 23 Volga near Volsk Russia [note 142] [266]
* * * - Maly Irgiz ← Chernava 262 3916 6.4 Volga Russia [note 143] [267]
* * * - Chapayevka/Mocha 298 5126 2.5 Volga near Novokuybyshevsk Russia [268]
* * * - Samara 594 46454 46 Volga in Samara Russia [269]
* * * - - Bolshoy Kinel 436 14929 34 Samara in Kinel Russia [note 144] [270]
* * * - - Tok (de) - Bitkul 312 5897 13 Samara near Buzuluk Russia [note 145] [271]
* * * - Sok 363 11455 33 Volga near Samara Russia [272]
* * * - - Kondurcha 294 4327 9.4 Sok Russia [273]
* * * - Great Cheremshan 336 11806 35 Kuybyshev Reservoir near Dimitrovgrad Russia [note 146] [274]
* * * - Kama 1967 523324 3800 Kuybyshev Reservoir south of Kazan Russia [note 147] [262]
* * * - - Sheshma ← Lesnaya Sheshma 268 6196 11 Kama near Starosheshminsk Russia [note 148] [275]
* * * - - Vyatka ← Belaya 1318 128713 890 Kama near Nizhnekamsk Russia [note 149] [276]
* * * - - - KilmezUt (ru) 295 17160 85 Vyatka near Ust-Kilmez Russia [note 150] [277]
* * * - - - Pizhma 305 14981 90 Vyatka near Sovetsk Russia [278]
* * * - - - Moloma ← Palomka 435 12399 48 Vyatka near Kotelnich Russia [note 151] [279]
* * * - - - Cheptsa ← Loza 526 20230 130 Vyatka in Kirovo-Chepetsk Russia [note 152] [280]
* * * - - - Letka 260 3633 21 Vyatka Russia [281]
* * * - - - Kobra (de) 324 7824 55 Vyatka near Nagorsk Russia [282]
* * * - - Ik 571 17934 46 Kama near Menzelinsk Russia [283]
* * * - - Izh 259 8469 34 Kama Russia [284]
* * * - - Belaya 1430 141609 858 Kama near Neftekamsk Russia [285]
* * * - - - Bystry Tanyp 345 7700 45 Belaya Russia [286]
* * * - - - Dyoma ← Tyatep 556 13022 35 Belaya in Ufa Russia [note 153] [287]
* * * - - - UfaAy 931 52747 388 Belaya in Ufa Russia [note 154] [288]
* * * - - - Ufa 918 52747 388 Belaya in Ufa Russia [289]
* * * - - - - Yuryuzan 404 7850 55 Ufa near Karaidel Russia [290]
* * * - - - - Ay 549 14825 84 Ufa near Krasnoufimsk Russia [291]
* * * - - - SimInzer (de; ru) 313 11629 110 Belaya Russia [note 155] [292]
* * * - - Chusovaya 592 46812 222 Kama Reservoir near Perm Russia [note 156] [293]
* * * - - - Sylva 493 22188 139 Chusovaya near Perm Russia [294]
* * * - - - Usva 266 6125 31 Chusovaya in Chusovoy Russia [295]
* * * - - Kosva ← Typyl 298 7322 90 Kama Reservoir near Perermskoye Russia [note 157] [296]
* * * - - Inva 257 6304 29 Kama Reservoir near Maykor Russia [note 158] [297]
* * * - - Yayva River 304 6530 88 Kama Reservoir near Berezniki Russia [note 158] [298]
* * * - - VisheraKolva 494 31286 457 Kama near Solikamsk Russia [note 159] [299][300]
. . . - - Vishera 415 31286 457 Kama near Solikamsk Russia [299]
* * * - - - Kolva 460 13311 200 Vishera at Cherdyn, Perm Krai Russia [note 160] [301]
* * * - - - YazvaGlukhaya Vilva 272 5855 70 Vishera near Cherdyn Russia [note 161] [302]
* * * - - Kosa 267 9851 40 Kama near Ust-Kosa Russia [303]
* * * - - Veslyana 266 7253 68 Kama near Ust-Veslyana Russia [304]
* * * - Sviyaga ← Malaya Sviyaga 379 16944 57 Kuybyshev Reservoir west of Kazan Russia [note 162] [305]
* * * - Greater Kokshaga 297 6481 40 Volga near Kokshaisk Russia [306]
* * * - VetlugaVokhma (de; ru) 901 39438 255 Volga near Kozmodemyansk Russia [note 163] [307]
* * * - - Usta 253 6019 28 Vetluga near Voskresenskoye Russia [308]
* * * - SuraKadada (ru) 867 67240 260 Volga in Vasilsursk Russia [note 164] [309]
* * * - - Pyana ← Cheka 453 7991 25 Sura near Sergach Russia [note 165] [310]
* * * - - Alatyr 304 11171 43 Sura at Alatyr Russia [note 166] [311]
* * * - Kerzhenets 290 6207 20 Volga near Lyskovo Russia [312]
* * * - OkaUpa ← Uperta 1559 244308 1258 Volga in Nizhny Novgorod Russia [note 167] [260][313]
. . . - Oka 1504 244308 1258 Volga in Nizhny Novgorod Russia [260]
* * * - - Klyazma 686 42421 147 Oka in Gorbatov Russia [314]
* * * - - - Nerl 284 6766 26 Klyazma near Bogolyubovo Russia [315]
* * * - - Tyosha 311 7781 4 Oka near Murom Russia [316]
* * * - - Moksha ← Azyas 660 50379 95 Oka near Yelatma Russia [note 168] [317]
* * * - - - Tsna ← Osinovka 457 21437 46 Moksha near Sasovo Russia [note 169] [318]
* * * - - Pronya 336 10180 50 Oka near Spassk-Ryazansky Russia [319]
* * * - - MoskvaRuza 487 17618 150 Oka in Kolomna Russia [note 170] [320]
* * * - - Protva 282 4602 25 Oka near Serpukhov Russia [321]
* * * - - UgraDemina (ru) 436 15699 90 Oka near Kaluga Russia [note 171] [322]
* * * - - UpaUperta (ru) 356 9529 40 Oka near Suvorov Russia [note 172] [313]
* * * - UnzhaKema (ru) 531 29156 158 Volga near Yuryevets Russia [note 173] [323]
* * * - - Neya 253 6286 46 Unzha near Makaryev Russia [324]
* * * - Kostroma 354 19838 85 Gorky Reservoir in Kostroma Russia [note 158] [325]
* * * - SheksnaLake BeloyeKema 441 21419 172 Rybinsk Reservoir near Rybinsk Russia [note 174] [326]
* * * - - SudaNoshema (ru) 261 13469 134 Rybinsk Reservoir near Cherepovets Russia [note 175] [327]
* * * - Mologa 456 30074 172 Rybinsk Reservoir near Rybinsk Russia [note 176] [328]
* * * - - ChagodoshchaLid (ru) 286 9333 58 Mologa near Ustyuzhna Russia [note 177] [329]
* * * - Medveditsa 259 6384 41 Volga near Sknyatino Russia [330]
36 90 + Maly Uzen 638 11600 8 Kamysh-Samarskiye Lakes Kazakhstan Russia [note 178] [2]
34 73 + Bolshoy Uzen 650 15795 11 Kamysh-Samarskiye Lakes Kazakhstan Russia [2]
3 8 37 Ural 2428 210581 400 Caspian Sea in Atyrau Kazakhstan Russia [331][2]
* * * - Chagan 264 7530 7.7 Ural in Oral Kazakhstan Russia [332]
* * * - Utva 290 6952 3.8 Ural Kazakhstan
* * * - Ilek 623 41875 40 Ural near Ilek Russia Kazakhstan [333]
* * * - - Bolshaya Chobda (de) - Karachobda 363 14666 14 Ilek Russia Kazakhstan [note 179] [334]
* * * - Sakmara 798 31040 144 Ural in Orenburg Russia [335]
* * * - - Bolshoy Ik 341 7651 61 Sakmara near Saraktash (de; ru) Russia [336]
* * * - Or 332 18533 21 Ural near Orsk Russia Kazakhstan [337]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Countries through which the river flows, like the tributaries ordered from mouth to source. The river's basin may cover more countries.
  2. ^ The 32 km Bolhshaya Kara is the longer of the two source rivers of the 257 km Kara proper
  3. ^ The 111 km Syadey-Yu is the longest source river of the 199 km Korotaikha.
  4. ^ a b A single river with different names along its stretch.
  5. ^ The 1130 km long Vychegda joins the Northern Dvina 673 km from its mouth in the White Sea.
  6. ^ The Northern Dvina (744 km) originates at the confluence of the Sukhona (558 km) and the Yug (574 km). The Sukhona starts at the small lake Kubenskoye (a ~15 km course), which is fed by the 368 km Kubena.
  7. ^ The 231 km long Mekhrenga joins the 188 km Yemtsa, 68 km before it reaches the Dvina.
  8. ^ The 477 km Ustya joins the 575 km Vaga 259 km before the Vaga flows into the Dvina.
  9. ^ The 574 km long Luza joins the Yug 35 km before the Yug merges with the Sukhona to form the Northern Dvina.
  10. ^ The name of this river changes from Kubena (368 km) to Sukhona (558 km) after the relatively small Lake Kubenskoye (a ~15 km crossing).
  11. ^ Vozhega (140 km) runs into Lake Vozhe (<30 km straight crossing inflow to outflow), which is drained by the Svid (64 km), which flows into Lake Lacha (33 km long), where 416 km Onega originates.
  12. ^ The Segezha, 329 km from its most distant source, flows into Lake Vygozero 18 km away from where the Lower Vyg (88 km) drains it.
  13. ^ The 33 km long Umba flows in the 135 km Upper Vyg, 112 km before that flows into Lake Vegozero. This 80 km long lake is drained by the 88 km long Lower Vyg.
  14. ^ Talgiesdegi (48 km) joins Voloma (138 km) 113 km before that flows into Lake Segozero (mean flow 20 m3/s). This lake, crossed in a straigt line in 35 km, is drained by the Segezha (59 km), which flows into Lake Vygozero (mean flow 74 m3/s).
  15. ^ Kem (18 km) and Čirka (16 km) form the headwaters of 220 km Čirka-Kem, which, confusingly, joins another much larger river named Kem 7 km below its origin from Kuyto Lake and 184 km before it streams into the White Sea.
  16. ^ Pistojoki (Pista in Russian; 110 km) feeds the ca. 98 km Kuyto Lakes chain, which, on the other side, is drained by the Kem (191 km).
  17. ^ River Kovda, flowing through many large lakes, has a given length of 233 km.[62] Kovda drains Lake Topozero from the northwest; at the very southeast of the lake, 76 and 79 km via a straight course, the small rivers Karango (16 km) and Kondoya (13 km) run in the lake and form the most distant sources of the river Kovda.
  18. ^ Niva drains Lake Imandra, the longest distance over the complex network of lakes and rivers above it is unclear, though it is over 200 km.
  19. ^ Voronya (155 km) drains Lake Lovozero, which is fed by the Kurga (81 km) 15 km across. The systems starting with Mar'yok (ru)-Afanasiya (ru) (62 km, with a 30 km crossing) and Tsaga River (ru) (45 km, with a 48 km crossing) are nearly the same length.
  20. ^ The Lutto (Lotta in Russian; 190 km) flows into Lake Onozero, which, after a 66 km minimal crossing, is drained by Tuloma (64 km).
  21. ^ Karashoka (166 km) and Inarijoki (153 km) join to form the 200 km long Tana River.
  22. ^ Discharge reduced to 95 m3/s since sthe building of a reservoir
  23. ^ Abiskojokk (40 km) feeds lake Torneträsk, which is drained after a 55 km crossing by the Torne (470 km).
  24. ^ Lake Kilpisjärvi is drained, about 30 km from its headwater's most distant source, by Könkämäeno. Possibly the Gobmeatnu tributary joining just below the lake has a slighlty more distant source. Könkämäeno (90 km) and Lätäseno (60 km) join to form Muonio (230 km).
  25. ^ The southeastern end of the lake Rostojávri, some 26 km from its most distant source is drained by the 266 km long Rostoeatnu- Lainio river.
  26. ^ Peranganjoki (sv)Alajoki (sv) (together well over 80 km) → Lake Kiantajärvi (50 km crossing) → Emäjoki (fi; sv)IijärviKiehimänjoki (these three 103 km together) → Oulujärvi (75 km course) → Oulujoki (107 km). The entire system above the lake Oulujärvi is also referred to as Hyrynsalmi.
  27. ^ The length of this system is a rough estimate. The Peranganjoki-Alajoki system (>> 80 km) feeds Kiantajärvi. After a 50 km course, this lake is drained by the 105 km long Emäjoki-Kiehimäjnoki watercourse, which feeds Oulujärvi. The entire system above this lake is also referred to as Hyrynsalmi. After a 75 km course through Oulujärvi, Oulujoki (107 km) takes the water to the Bothnian Bay.
  28. ^ Kokemäenjoki drains Kulovesi, the last of a large chain of lakes. The system starting with Keurusselkä , via Kuorevesi, Ruovesi, Palovesi, Näsijärvi, Tammerkoski, Pyhäjärvi (Tampere region)|Pyhäjärvi]], and Nokianvirta to Kulovesi is the central course, but its total length is tricky to define.
  29. ^ The 204 km Kymi river drains Lake Päljänne, which 120 km further north near Jyväskylä is fed from a network of lakes further north. The sources that feed the lake Koivujärvi are the most distant for Kymi. From there, the shortest route over the so called Rautalammin route (fi) (including lakes Pielavesi, Nilakka, Iisvesi, Kiesimä, Konnevesi, Kynsivesi, and Kuusvesi) and via Saraavesi and Leppävesi to Päljänne is 230 km.
  30. ^ The 844 km Volkhov system flows into Lake Ladoga ~92 km (shortest course) from where the Neva (74 km) drains it.
  31. ^ The 806 km long Pielisjoki system flows into the northeastern end of lake Saimaa. A ~260 km course through this complex lake leads to the 156 km Vuoksi exit.
  32. ^ Murdoyoki (ru) (41 km) → Roukkulanjärvi (fi; ru) (27 km) → Omelianjoki (ru) (7 km) → Torosozero (ru)-Leksozero (44 km) → Sula River (ru) (21 km) → Sula lake (7 km) → Lieksanjoki (132 km) → Pielinen Lake (44 km) → Pielisjoki (67 km) → Saimaa. The watershed area is a rough guess.
  33. ^ The 358 km-long Vodla system feeds into Lake Onega. After a 96 km crossing, 224 km-long Svir drains this lake into Lake Ladoga.
  34. ^ Olova (42 km) joins Ileksa (155 km) 135 km before that flows into Lake Vodlozero. After a 32 km direct crossing, this lake is drained by the Vodla (149 km).
  35. ^ The Volkov river (224 km) drains Lake Ilmen from the delta of the 620-km Msta-Tsna system.
  36. ^ Tsna (160 km) flows into Lake Mstino, which after 15 km is drained by 445 km Msta.
  37. ^ The 192 km Oredezh joins the Luga 191 km upstream from the sea
  38. ^ Väike Emajõgi (82 km) feeds the lake Võrtsjärv. After a 35 km crossing , Võrtsjärv is drained by Suur Emajõgi (101 km)
  39. ^ The Pededze (159 km) flows into the Alviekste 22 km below Alviekste's source in Lake Lubāns and 95 km before it drains into the Daugava.
  40. ^ The 264 km long Lyna/Lava joins the Pregolya 72 km before it reaches the sea
  41. ^ The Angrapa (ca 170 km) is the longest source river of the Pregolya (123 km). The 89 km Gołdapa joins the Angrapa ca 100 km before the formation of Pregolya.
  42. ^ HydroBasins data support the 264 km estimate by the Polish over the 289 km estimate by the Russian source.
  43. ^ The 772 km long Western Bug merges with the Narew and after a further 38 km flows into the Vistula 401 km above that river's discharge in the Baltic Sea. Though shorter, the Vistula has twice as high a volume at the meeting point.
  44. ^ The commonly quoted 194,424 km2 catchment area probably includes coastal waters.
  45. ^ The 772 km Bug joins the Narew 38 km before its confluence with the Vistula. The 38 km joined stretch used to be and locally still is known as Bugo-Narew.
  46. ^ Hydrologically and historically, the Narew is a tributary of the Bug, but by a decree of the Polish regime in 1962 the roles were reversed.
  47. ^ The 808 km Warta joins the 854 km Oder 237 km above the Oder's mouth.
  48. ^ Canalization reduced the length of the Oder from ca 1040 km to the current 854 km.
  49. ^ The Vltava (431 km) joins the Elbe 833 km above its mouth in the North Sea. The length and catchment area of the river include the estuary until Cuxhaven, where the estuary is 15 km wide, but the nautical channel only 400 m.
  50. ^ The length and catchment area of the Elbe includes the estuary until Cuxhaven, where the estuary is 15 km wide, but the nautical channel only 400 m.
  51. ^ The Spree (382 km) joins the Havel (334 km) 178 km before that reaches the Elbe.
  52. ^ The "Vereinigte Mulde" (124 km) originates from the confluence of the Zwickau Mulde (166 km) and Freiberger Mulde (124 km).
  53. ^ The Vltava proper (377 km) is formed by the confluence of the Studená (Cold) Vltava (8.3 km) and the Warm Vltava (54.3 km)
  54. ^ The 451 km Weser originates at the confluence of the 300 km Werra and the 220 km Fulda. The Weser and Werra originally had the same name (Wesera). The length and basin area include the innere Außenweser, a channel through the estuary which is dry at low tide.
  55. ^ The Leine (281 km) joins the Aller (260 km) 52 km before that reaches the Weser.
  56. ^ The length and catchment area include the river channel through the Dollard and Ems estuary, both mostly dry at low tide, up to Eemshaven.
  57. ^ With Zwarte Meer and Ramsgeul, which lead to the Ketelmeer, the length would be 214 km and the basin 5,867 km2
  58. ^ The Oude IJssel (82 km, same length when starting from the larger Bocholter Aa or smaller Issel source rivers) flows into the 125-km IJssel 19 km below it branches from the Nederrijn and 106 km before its mouth in the Ketelmeer, which via the IJsselmeer and Wadden Sea is connected to the North Sea. The upper IJssel was formed between the 7th to 9th century as a distributary of the Rhine and provides 75% of the volume.
  59. ^ Basin area excludes the Meuse basin, which could be considered a tributary of the Rhine. The discharge is that for the Rhine just across the border in the Netherlands before it breaks up in its distributaries. The total discharge to the North Sea is considerably higher.
  60. ^ a b Distributary branch of the Rhine
  61. ^ The Alme (59 km) flows into the 220 km long Lippe 11 km below Lippe's source.
  62. ^ The Neger (20.5 km from both its Renau and Namenlose tributaries) flows into the Ruhr (219.3 km) 202.5 km before it runs into the Rhine.
  63. ^ 48 km Moselotte flows into the 544 km Moselle 43 km below Moselle's source.
  64. ^ The 63.1 km long Ohm, measured from the source of the Felda tributary, joins the 245.6 km long Lahn 58.7 km below the source of the Lahn
  65. ^ Regnitz (191.1 km from its most distant source) flows into the Main, 133.2 km below its most distant source, and 391.8 km before its mouth.
  66. ^ The White Main (51.7 km) and the longer but smaller Red Main (71.8 km) are the headwaters of the Main (473.2 km). This course has the highest volume at each junction.
  67. ^ The Pegnitz, for the first 15 km known as Fichtenhohe, joins after 127.3 km with the Rednitz, itself 123.7 km long from its most distant source, to form the Regnitz. After a further 63.7 km the Regnitz flows into the Main.
  68. ^ Until 1904, when the Bergse Maas was created, the Meuse was a tributary of the Rhine. Because of further canalization in 1970 the Meuse could be considered a tributary of the Rhine again. The catchment area and length includes the Haringvliet and Hollands Diep estuaries, which are riverine at low tide.
  69. ^ The length of the Scheldt traditionally includes the Westerschelde estuary, which is riverine at low tide [1]. The catchment area includes the complete delta (i.e. including the Oosterschelde), while the discharge is for that near Antwerp. Without the Westerschelde the length would be about 295 km. The source of the Leie may be a few km further upstream than the source of the Scheldt itself.
  70. ^ The traditional length of the Thames is 346 km measured from Thames Head to the very end of the Thames estuary at Foulness Point, past the Medway. The traditional catchment area of 12,935 km2 however is for a region above Gravesend and the Medway catchment area is not considered part of the Thames watershed. As a compromise, the given catchment area and length ends at the Medway (338 from Thames Head). The 25 km Churn joins the newborn Thames 3 km below its source to make the total length 360 km.
  71. ^ The catchment area and length exclude the Humber estuary and the River Don basin (1857 km2), which in 1628 was articially diverted to Rivers Aire (and eventually Ouse) via the Dutch River, but in 1802 was reonnected to the Trent via the Stainforth and Keadby Canal. Discharge is 89.5 m3/s for 80% of the catchment area.
  72. ^ The catchment area and length exclude the Humber estuary, but the catchment area includes the River Don basin (1857 km2) (see River Trent).
  73. ^ Catchment area and discharge include that of River Earn but exclude the Firth of Tay. It's unclear if the Firth is included in the length.
  74. ^ Length and catchment area excludes the 102 km long estuary; the estuary has a basin of 15,700-16,800 km2.
  75. ^ The Three Sisters are the rivers Suir (184 km), Barrow (192 km) and Nore (140 km). Nore flows into Barrow, which 20 km later joins the Suir to form the estuary named Waterford Harbour
  76. ^ Length and catchment area include the Mersey estuary, which constricts to 1 km width before entering the Irish Sea. River Mersey originates at the confluence of the 30 mile (ca 48 km) River Tame and River Goyt
  77. ^ The 516 km long Marne flows into the larger Seine 361 km before it drains in the English channel
  78. ^ Seine's catchment area (75,374 km2 )[139] excludes the Crique de Rouen estuary; this would add another ~2800 km2, including the Risle river basin
  79. ^ The Aire (125 km) flows into the larger Aisne (356 km) 121 km below its source. The Aisne joins the smaller Oise about 94 km before it drains in the Saine.
  80. ^ The Loir (317.4 km) flows in the Sarthe (314 km). 9.2 km later the Sarthe joins the Mayenne to form the short Maine river, which flows into the Loire after just 11.5 km.
  81. ^ The 380 km Tarn flows into the Garonne about 230 km before it meets the ocean. As both its volume and catchment area are larger, the Tarn is hydrologically the upper part of the Garonne river.
  82. ^ Starting from the Ruda-Garona, the longest headwater of the Garonne. Length (54 km in Spain, 521 km in France) and catchment area excludes the Gironde estuary.
  83. ^ The 226 km Sil flows into the Minho about 135 km above the Minho reaches the ocean.
  84. ^ The commonly given 80,000+ km2 for the drainage area includes the 7740 km2 basin of the Sorraia, here treated as a primary river.
  85. ^ The 167 km Záncara joins the 155 km Cigüela (or Gigüela) and the 76 km Guadiana Alto in a trifurcation some 755 km before the Guadiana reaches the ocean. On some maps, the following 77 km are still called Cigüela. See the Spanish Guadiana article on the confusion in this river system.
  86. ^ The Guadiana Alto/Viejo source river is 76 km long.
  87. ^ Hydrologically the Guardiana Menor and its longest source river the Guardal (a.k.a. Barbata) form the true upper course of the Guadalquivir, which has a nominal length of 657 km. Barbata/Guardal - Guardiana Menor (206 km) meets the nominal Guadalquivir 138 km below its source.
  88. ^ The 453 km long Doubs joins the upper Saône to form the 171 km long Grand Saône, which flows into the Rhône 333 km above its mouth in the Mediterranean.
  89. ^ The furthest headstream of the Arno could be considered the 19th-century, 62 km Canale Maestro della Chiana (fr; it) that drains part of Valdichiana into the Arno about 30 km below its source for a total length of over 270 km. 306 km2 has been subtracted from the HydroBasins area for the endorheic Lake Trasimeno.
  90. ^ The Tanaro (285 km including its Negrone source river) joins the Po 234 km below its source. A competing longest stretch is 691 km starting from the Maira. (see it:Po for references and discussion)
  91. ^ The 9 km Negrino is the longer source stream of the 276 km Tanaro.
  92. ^ Hydrologically, this is one river with the upper courses of the Rienz, Eisack and Adige/Etsch as tributaries, as it forms the longest course and has the largest discharge at each junction. The ca 130 km long Ahr->Rienz->Eisack originating under the Dreiherrnspitze joins the 409 km long Adige/Etch 103 km below the latter's nominal source.
  93. ^ The 17 km long Karlinbach, originating under the Weißkugel, flows into the Reschensee, about 5 km below the official source under the Reschen Pass of the 409 km long Adige/Etsch.
  94. ^ The Trebišnjica enters the Hutovo Blato marshland in Bosnia through a complex underground karst system. From here a portion of its waters continues the 9 km long Krupa to join the Neretva. Other portions appear as outlets on the coast, e.g. in Neum in Bosnia, in Slano and most significantly near Dubrovnik in Croatia as the 30 m short Ombla river into the Rijeka Dubrovačka ria.
  95. ^ The Drin (343 km from its most distant source) drains partly in the Adriatic, but the main channel, called Drinasa, joins the 44 km Bojana 3 km after that emerges from Lake Skadar.
  96. ^ The Sateska (38 km) flows into the Black Drin (149 km) less than 4 km after Black Drin's emergence from Lake Ohrid. Black Drin meets White Drin 145 km later to form the Drin proper (160 km). The drainage area (but not the length) includes the 1394 km2 Lake Prespa basin, which drains underground through very porous karst mountains into Lake Ohrid.
  97. ^ The 132 km long Treska flows into the Vardar about 261 km above its mouth in the Aegean Sea.
  98. ^ The often-mentioned 17,323 km2 drainage area is much too large, as the total area drained by the Meriç (including Ergene) in Turkey is only 14,560 km2.
  99. ^ Including the 46 km Breg headstream
  100. ^ The most distant source for the Prut may be via the 167 km Cheremosh tributary.
  101. ^ Siret length estimates range from 559 km to 726 km. The shorter length is supported by HydroBasins data.
  102. ^ The 237 km-long Dâmbovița forms at the confluence of 8 km Valea Vladului and 6.5 km Valea Otic .
  103. ^ Hydrologically, this is a single river, as it follows at both junctions the river with the greatest length, drainage area and average discharge. The Great Morava (185 km) is formed by the merger of the West and South Morava. The 276 km Ibar joins the West Morava 89 km before it becomes the Great Morava.
  104. ^ Drainage area is hard to estimate due to the connectivity of the karst system. The most detailed level of HydroBasins data gives a lower drainage area (87197 km2) as it excludes local basins connected as such.
  105. ^ The 140 km Tara is the larger and longer of the two source rivers of the 346 km Drina. The most detailed level of HydroBasins data gives a lower drainage area (18820 km2) as it excludes local basins connected underground via the karst system.
  106. ^ Drainage area is hard to estimate due to the connectivity of the karst system. The most detailed level of HydroBasins data gives a lower drainage area (8076 km2) as it excludes local basins connected underground as such.
  107. ^ The 415 km Someș joins the Tisza 696 km before its mouth in the Danube.[2] Average discharge measured at Szeged, which is higher than at places downstream.
  108. ^ The Tisza used to be 1,419 km long, but through canalization was reduced to its current length of 966 km between 1846 and 1880. The average discharge is for that at Szeged, where it is higher than at places downstream.
  109. ^ Average discharge as measured at Arad, where it is higher than at places downstream.
  110. ^ The 286 km Hornád river joins the 229 km Sajó 32 km before the latter streams into the Tisza.
  111. ^ Latorica (188 km) and Ondava (147 km) join to form the Bodrog (67 km)
  112. ^ At the junction 47 km from its nominal source, the upper Drau is in every hydrological aspect a tributary of the Isel. The longer Isel, 65 km from the Schwarzach source under the Rötspitze, continues straight, is on average almost 3x larger in volume, and drains twice as large a basin. Below the junction the Drau/Drava is 663 km long.
  113. ^ Zala (139 km) is the longest and primary inflow of Lake Balaton. 70 km across, Balaton is drained the 121 km Sió, a water course created in the 3rd century.
  114. ^ The 78 km Schwarza is the longest source river of the 180 km Leitha.
  115. ^ The 311 km Thaya flows into the Morava 91 km before it joins the Danube
  116. ^ The Austrian a.k.a. German Thaya (76 km) joins the Moravian Thaya (68 km) to form Thaya proper (235 km). The catchment area of 12,772 km2[196] accidentally excludes the Kyjovka tributary.
  117. ^ Leutascher Ache (30 km) joins the Isar (291.5 km) 26.1 km below its source.
  118. ^ The Breitach (24.3 km from Turabach source) joins with the Trettach (15.6 km) to form the Iller (146 km).
  119. ^ The Southern Bug is 857 km long when including the liman; the given drainage area does include the Inhul, which empties in the liman.
  120. ^ Vovcha (323 km) joins the Samara 222 km below its source and 98 km before their discharge in the Dnieper.
  121. ^ 327 km Uday flows into the Sula (363 km) about 120 km above Sula merges into the Dnieper.
  122. ^ The 659 km Horyn joins the Prypiat 395 km above its confluence with the Dnieper
  123. ^ The 520 km Voronezh (starting from the Polnoy Voronezh source) flows into the Don 1403 above its mouth in the Sea of Azov
  124. ^ Kalaus (436 km) is the upstream section of Manych (nominally 420 km); Kalaus used to split up into thet (West) Manych and East Kanych, but the east branch has been dammed off. The 78 km long Yankul joins the Kalaus 365 km before it changes its name to Manych.
  125. ^ The 218 km long Yelan joins the 249 km Tersa 108 km before Tersa flows into the Medveditsa
  126. ^ The Serdoba (160 km) joins the Khopyor (979 km) 128 km after Khoyor's source
  127. ^ The Chembar (119 km including the upper Chembar) joins the Vorona (454 km) 392 km before the Vorona flows into the Khopyor.
  128. ^ The 178 km Polnoy Voronezh joins the 164 km Lesnoy Voronezh to form the 342 km Voronezh proper
  129. ^ Length includes the Ullukam source river, which at its confluence with Uchkulan forms the Kuban.
  130. ^ The 22 km Bolshoy Pshish is the longer source river of the 258 km Psish proper
  131. ^ 132 m3/s discharge according to source
  132. ^ The discharge below the reservoir is reduced to 40 m3/s
  133. ^ Discharge is that for the north delta and south arm combined
  134. ^ Many other sources, e.g. [2], give a 1515 km length, but this is not supported by the HydroBasins data.
  135. ^ Many other sources, e.g. [3], give a 1264 km length, but this is not supported by the HydroBasins data. The combined length of the Araks-lower Kura system is nearly as long as the Kura itself.
  136. ^ The discharge is for the middle part of the river; at the mouth it is only 9.8 m3/s due to agricultural use and divergence of water towards the Tbilisi reservoir. Before the completion of the Mingachevir reservoir it was a tributary of the Alazani.
  137. ^ In Georgia, the Pirikiti Alazani (44 km) and Tushetis Alazani (48 km) form the Andi Koysu, which 144 km later joins the Avar Koysu (178 km) to form the 169 km long Sulak River.
  138. ^ The Oka River, 1559 km starting from the Uperta source river, joins the Volga 1299 km below its source and 2231 km before its discharge in the Caspian Sea.
  139. ^ The 1967 km Kama (1805 km river and 162 km fairway through a full Kuybyshev Reservoir) joins the Volga 1804 km above the mouth. The Kama has a nearly identical mean discharge and length as the Volga (it may have been significantly longer before the reservoirs were created),[261] while unlike the Volga it doesn't change direction at the meeting point, so that hydrologically the Volga could be considered a tributary of the Kama.
  140. ^ Akhtuba is a distributary of Volga that flows parallel to it, joining at multiple places.
  141. ^ Before the filling of the Volgograd Reservoir in 1961, Yeruslan River was at least 400 km long and had a catchment area of more than 12,000 km2.
  142. ^ Bolshaya Glushitsa (65 km) joins Bolshoy Irgiz (675 km) 61 km below its source
  143. ^ Chernava (75 km) joins Maly Irgiz (235 km) 48km below its source.
  144. ^ Includes the 14 km Su-Elga source stream
  145. ^ Bitkul (34 km) joins Tok (306 km) 28 km below its source.
  146. ^ Before the filling of the Kuybyshev Reservoir in 1957, Cheremshan River was at least 440 km long and had a catchment area of more than 15,300 km2.
  147. ^ The catchment area and length include the Kama-derived part of the Kuybyshev Reservoir. At full capacity, the reservoir extends to the junction with the Vyatka, shortening Kama as a river to 1805 km. Before the creation of the four large reservoirs in its course, the Kama River was 2030 km long up to the junction with the Volga.[261]
  148. ^ 56 km Lesnaya Sheshma joins 259 km Sheshma proper 47 km below Sheshma's source
  149. ^ The 96 km Belaya source river joins the 1314 km Vyatka 92 km below Vyatka's source.
  150. ^ 107 km Ut joins the 270 km Kilmez 188 km before Kilmez flows into Vyatka
  151. ^ Palomka (44 km) joins the Moloma (419 km) 28 km below Moloma's source
  152. ^ 127 km Loza joins the 501 km Cheptsa 102 km below Cheptsa's source
  153. ^ The 91 km Tyatep joins the 535 km Dyoma 70 km below Dyoma's source.
  154. ^ The 549 km long Ay joins the Ufa 382 km before that flows in to the Belaya.
  155. ^ The 307 km Inzer joins the 239 km Sim just 6 km before that flows into the Belaya. Before their junction, Sim's discharge is >48 m3/s and Inzer's is 51 to 67 m3/s, but the 6 km joined stretch is named Sim.
  156. ^ Includes the catchment area of the Sylva tributary. Since the building of the Kama Hydroelectric Station both rivers now feed into an arm of the Kama Reservoir.
  157. ^ Typyl (68 km) joins Kosva (238 km), 53 km below the source of the Kosva.
  158. ^ a b c Drainage area but not the length includes the reservoir arm derived from the river.
  159. ^ Kolva (460 km) joins the Vishera (415 km) just 34 km before the Vishera streams into the Kama.
  160. ^ Discharge unknown; calculated from the fraction of the Vishera basin comprised by the Kolva basin.
  161. ^ The 234 km Glukhaya Vilva joins the 176 km Yazva 38 km before that flows into the Vishera.
  162. ^ The 41 km Malaya Sviyaga joins the 375 km Sviyaga 37 km after the latter's source.
  163. ^ The 219 km Vokhma joins the 889 km Vetluga, 207 km below Veluga's source
  164. ^ The Kadada (153 km from its Tahtala source) joins the 841 km Sura 137 km below the source of the Sura itself.
  165. ^ The 70 km Cheka joins the 436 km Pyana 53 km below its source.
  166. ^ The 168 km Cheka joins the 296 km Alatyr 160 km below the source of the Alatyr itself.
  167. ^ The 63 km long Uperta joins the 345 km Upa 52 km below it source. Upa then flows into the 1504 km-long Oka 1203 km before the Oka joins the Volga.
  168. ^ Azyas (40 km) joins Moksha (656 km) 36 km below Moksha's source
  169. ^ Osinovka (37 km) joins Tsna (451 km) 31 km below Tsna's source.
  170. ^ The 145 km Ruza joins the 473 km long Moskva 342 km before the Moskva flows into the Oka. Before canalization, the Moskva itself was 502 km long
  171. ^ The 64 km Demina joins the 399 km Ugra 27 km below its source.
  172. ^ The 63 km Uperta joins the 345 km Upa 293 km before that joins the Oka.
  173. ^ The 426 km long Unzha originates at the confluence of the 105 km long Kema and 89 km long Lyndonga rivers.
  174. ^ The Sheksna was about 700 km long and had a catchment area of ca 39,000 km2 before the creation of the Rybinsk Reservoir in 1947.
  175. ^ The 184 km long Suda originates from the confluence of the Noshema (77 km) and the Koloshma (68 km)
  176. ^ The Mologa was about 700 km long and had a catchment area of over 37,000 km2 before the creation of the Rybinsk Reservoir in 1947 .
  177. ^ The 146 km long Lid joins the 242 km Chagodoshcha 140 km before it flows into the Mologa.
  178. ^ The average discharge is measured at stations in the upper part of the river.
  179. ^ Discharge unknown; calculated from the fraction of the Ilek basin comprised by the Chobda basin.

References[edit]

SWRR = State Water Register of Russia; GSE = Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969–1978 edition; IEU = Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine.

  1. ^ Planul de management al spațiului hidrografic Siret, Administrația Națională Apele Române
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Our Waters: Joining Hands Across Borders : First Assessment of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters, United Nations Publications, 2007] and "ECE Second Assessment" (PDF). Economic Commission for Europe.  (note: large pdf file)
  3. ^ HydroBASINS at the HydroSHEDs website
  4. ^ "Kara". SWRR. 
  5. ^ "Korotaikha". SWRR. 
  6. ^ "Pechora". SWRR. 
  7. ^ "Pechora At Oksino". R-ArcticNet. 
  8. ^ "Sula (Pechora)". SWRR. 
  9. ^ "Shapkina". SWRR. 
  10. ^ "Tsilma". SWRR. 
  11. ^ "Pizhma (Komi Republic)". SWRR. 
  12. ^ "Izhma". SWRR. 
  13. ^ "Izhma At Izhma". R-ArcticNet. 
  14. ^ "Laya". SWRR. 
  15. ^ "Usa (Komi Republic)". SWRR. 
  16. ^ "Kolva (Usa)". SWRR. 
  17. ^ "Adzva". SWRR. 
  18. ^ "Kosyu". SWRR. 
  19. ^ "Bolshaya Rogovaya". SWRR. 
  20. ^ "Shchugor". SWRR. 
  21. ^ "Ilych". SWRR. 
  22. ^ "Mezen". SWRR. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Nilsson, Reidy, Dynesius and Revenga (2005). "Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of the World's Large River Systems" (PDF). Science. 308: 405–408.  Provides the "Virgin mean annual discharge[, which] refers to the most water-rich river channel section, in most cases close to the estuary, before any significant direct human manipulation" for a number of primary rivers.
  24. ^ "Pyoza". SWRR. 
  25. ^ "Peza At Igumnovo". R-ArcticNet.  (at 80% of drainage area)
  26. ^ "Vashka". SWRR. 
  27. ^ "Kuloy (White Sea)". SWRR. 
  28. ^ a b "Northern Dvina". SWRR. 
  29. ^ "Pinega". SWRR. 
  30. ^ "Yula". SWRR. 
  31. ^ "Yemtsa". SWRR. 
  32. ^ "Vaga".  and "Ustya". SWRR. 
  33. ^ "Vaga". SWRR. 
  34. ^ "Ustya". SWRR. 
  35. ^ "Kokshenga". SWRR. 
  36. ^ "Vychegda". SWRR. 
  37. ^ "Viled". SWRR. 
  38. ^ "Yarenga". SWRR. 
  39. ^ "Vym". SWRR. 
  40. ^ "Yolva". SWRR. 
  41. ^ "Yelva At Meshura". R-ArcticNet. 
  42. ^ "Sysola". SWRR. 
  43. ^ "Susola At Pervomaisky". R-ArcticNet. 
  44. ^ "Lokchim". SWRR. 
  45. ^ "Vishera (Komi Republic)". SWRR. 
  46. ^ "Nem". SWRR. 
  47. ^ "Yug".  and "Luza". SWRR. 
  48. ^ "Yug". SWRR. 
  49. ^ "Yug At Gavrino". R-ArcticNet. 
  50. ^ "Luza". SWRR. 
  51. ^ "Sukhona". SWRR. 
  52. ^ "Onega". , "Svid".  and "Vozhega". SWRR. 
  53. ^ "Onega At Porog". R-ArcticNet. 
  54. ^ "Onega". SWRR. 
  55. ^ "Voloshka". SWRR. 
  56. ^ "Lower Vyg". 
  57. ^ "Nyzhny Vig (Soroka) At Vigostrov". R-ArcticNet. 
  58. ^ "Lower Vyg".  and "Upper Vyg". SWRR. 
  59. ^ "Segezha".  and "Voloma". SWRR. 
  60. ^ "Kem".  and "Čirka-Kem". SWRR. 
  61. ^ "Kem".  and "Pista". SWRR. 
  62. ^ a b "Kovda". SWRR. 
  63. ^ "Valasreka". SWRR. 
  64. ^ "Niva". SWRR. 
  65. ^ "Varzuga". SWRR. 
  66. ^ "Ponoy". SWRR. 
  67. ^ "Ponoy At Ponoy". R-ArcticNet. 
  68. ^ "Voronya". , "Lake Lovozero".  and "Kurga". SWRR. 
  69. ^ "Tuloma". SWRR. 
  70. ^ "Patso-Yoky At GES Rayakosky". R-ArcticNet. 
  71. ^ a b c d e "Icelandic Statistics". National Land Survey of Iceland. 
  72. ^ a b c "Län och huvudavrinnings- områden i Sverige" (PDF). Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut. 
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Statistik om älvar". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. 
  74. ^ "Hydropower Hotspots in the Baltic Sea Catchment Area" (PDF). Coalition Clean Baltic. March 2006. 
  75. ^ a b "Neva". SWRR. 
  76. ^ "Vuoksi". SWRR. 
  77. ^ "Svir". 
  78. ^ "Oyat". SWRR. 
  79. ^ "Shuya (Karelia)". SWRR. 
  80. ^ "Suna". SWRR. 
  81. ^ "Vodla". , "Ileksa". SWRR.  and "Олова". SWRR. 
  82. ^ "Syas". SWRR. 
  83. ^ "Volkhov". SWRR. 
  84. ^ "Msta".  and "Tsna". SWRR. 
  85. ^ "Pola". SWRR. 
  86. ^ "Lovat". SWRR. 
  87. ^ "Shelon". SWRR. 
  88. ^ "Luga".  and "Oredezh". SWRR. 
  89. ^ "Luga". SWRR. 
  90. ^ "Plyussa". SWRR. 
  91. ^ "Velikaya". SWRR. 
  92. ^ "Эмайыги". GSE. 
  93. ^ "River Pärnu, Estonia" (PDF). Partnership for European Environmental Research. 
  94. ^ Alviekste basin (in Latvian)
  95. ^ "Pregolya".  and "Lava". SWRR. 
  96. ^ "Pregolya".  and "Angrapa". SWRR. 
  97. ^ "Łyna". Rzeki Polski. 
  98. ^ "Laba". SWRR. 
  99. ^ a b "Vistula". Rzeki Polski. 
  100. ^ "Wkra". Rzeki Polski. 
  101. ^ "Narew". Rzeki Polski. 
  102. ^ "Western Bug". Rzeki Polski. 
  103. ^ "Pilica". Rzeki Polski. 
  104. ^ "Wieprz". Rzeki Polski.  & mean flow of Wieprz
  105. ^ "San". Rzeki Polski. 
  106. ^ "Dunajec". Rzeki Polski. 
  107. ^ a b Piotr Kowalczak (2006). "Flood Risk Management in the Odra Basin" (PDF). 
  108. ^ "Noteć". Rzeki Polski. 
  109. ^ "Transnational Pilot River Basin: Lusatian Neisse" (PDF). 
  110. ^ "Bóbr". Rzeki Polski. 
  111. ^ Jacobus Hofstede. "Elbe Estuary" (PDF). Eurosion. 
  112. ^ a b c d e f g h i Michael Bergemann (2015). "Gesamtliste der Fließgewässer im Elbeeinzugsgebiet" (PDF). Behörde für Umwelt und Energie.  (802 kb PDF)
  113. ^ a b c d e f "Flusssystem der Weser".  (German wikipedia article with many official sources)
  114. ^ a b c d e f g "Riverine Inputs and Direct Discharges to Convention Waters". , OSPAR Contracting Parties’ RID 2011 Data Report. Long-Term Average discharge (in 1000m3/day) and some catchment area data are in Annex 5, pp 68-76 (PDF file)
  115. ^ a b c d Basin area from Nordrhein-Westfalen Flussgebietsverzeichnis (MS Excel; 2,3 MB)
  116. ^ Hydrological trends IJsselmeer (in Dutch)
  117. ^ Beheersgebied Oude Ijssel (in Dutch)
  118. ^ a b c See the references in the German wikipedia article de:Flusssystem der Mosel
  119. ^ a b c d e f g "Bach- und Flussgebiete in Bayern". Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt. 
  120. ^ See the references in the German wikipedia article de:Flusssystem des Neckar
  121. ^ "Ill". Sandre. 
  122. ^ a b c "Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland - Characteristics of Basins". 1992. 
  123. ^ H.E.J. Berger, A.L. Mugie, Hydrologische systeembeschrijving Maas, Den Haag 1994
  124. ^ a b c "International Scheldt river basin district" (PDF). 
  125. ^ References in nl:Stroomgebied van de Schelde
  126. ^ Bailey, David (15 May 2012). "Could the River Thames be longer than the River Severn?". BBC News. 
  127. ^ Discharge extrapolated from Ely Ouse at Denver Complex gauging station.
  128. ^ Trent at North Muskham gaugin station
  129. ^ Discharge extrapolated from Aire at Beal Weir, Ouse at Skelton, Derwent at Stamford Bridge, and Wharfe at Tadcaster gauge stations
  130. ^ "Tweed Forum Catchment Facts". 
  131. ^ Discharge extrapolated from Tweed at Norham and Whiteadder Water at Hutton Castle gauging stations.
  132. ^ Discharge extrapolated from Tay at Ballathie, Earn at Forteviot Bridge, and Almond at Almondbank gauging stations.
  133. ^ Spey at Boat o Brig gauging station
  134. ^ Discharge extrapolated from Clyde at Daldowie, Kelvin at Killermont, White Cart Water at Hawkhead, and Black Cart Water at Milliken Park gauge stations
  135. ^ South Eastern River Basin District Management System Physical Description Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  136. ^ "The Mersey Gateway Project - Hydrodynamics and Estuarine Processes" (PDF). 
  137. ^ "Wye". UK Environmental Change Network. 
  138. ^ Discharge extrapolated from Severn at Haw Bridge, Leadon at Wedderburn Bridge, and Frome at Ebley Mill gauge stations
  139. ^ a b c "Seine". Sandre. 
  140. ^ "Eure". Sandre. 
  141. ^ "Oise". Sandre. 
  142. ^ "L'Aisne".  and "L'Aire". Sandre. 
  143. ^ "Marne". Sandre. 
  144. ^ "Yonne". Sandre. 
  145. ^ "Aube". Sandre. 
  146. ^ "Vilaine". Sandre. 
  147. ^ "Loire". Sandre. 
  148. ^ La Loire à Saint-Nazaire
  149. ^ "Maine". Sandre. 
  150. ^ "Mayenne". Sandre. 
  151. ^ "Sarthe". Sandre. 
  152. ^ "Loir". Sandre. 
  153. ^ "Vienne". Sandre. 
  154. ^ "Creuse". Sandre. 
  155. ^ "Indre". Sandre. 
  156. ^ "Cher". Sandre. 
  157. ^ "Allier". Sandre. 
  158. ^ "The river Allier and its catchment area". 
  159. ^ "Charente". Sandre. 
  160. ^ "Dordogne". Sandre. 
  161. ^ "Isle". Sandre. 
  162. ^ "Vézère". Sandre. 
  163. ^ a b "Garonne". Sandre. 
  164. ^ "Lot". Sandre. 
  165. ^ "Tarn". Sandre. 
  166. ^ "Aveyron". Sandre. 
  167. ^ "Ariège". Sandre. 
  168. ^ "Adour". Sandre. 
  169. ^ "Gave de Réunie". Sandre. 
  170. ^ "Tagus Watershed". Rivers Network. 
  171. ^ a b "Ríos y Arroyos importantes". Confederacion Hidrografica del Guadiana. 
  172. ^ Delgado, F., Raya, E. y Nania, L. (2015): Determinación del cauce principal de un río mediante herramientas SIG y análisis multicriterio: aplicación al río Guadalquivir. En Simposio del Agua en Andalucía (SIAGA). Málaga.
  173. ^ "Aude". Sandre. 
  174. ^ "Rhône Watershed". Rivers Network. 
  175. ^ "Rhône". Sandre. 
  176. ^ "Durance". Sandre. 
  177. ^ "sère". Sandre. 
  178. ^ "Saône". Sandre. 
  179. ^ "Doubs". Sandre. 
  180. ^ "Ain". Sandre. 
  181. ^ "Po Watershed". Rivers Network. 
  182. ^ a b "Zustand der Südtiroler Fließgewässer" (PDF). Südtiroler Landesverwaltung. 
  183. ^ a b c "The coastline of Albania : morphology, evolution and coastal management issues" (PDF). ciesm.org. p. 8. 
  184. ^ Georgi Zhelezov, Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe, Springer, 2015
  185. ^ "Maritsa Watershed". Rivers Network. 
  186. ^ "Ergene river basin protection plan" (PDF). Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. 
  187. ^ Biogeography and Ecology of Bulgaria. Springer Science & Business Media. 2007. 
  188. ^ "Prut". IEU. 
  189. ^ Ecological state assessment of the Upper Dambovita River basin
  190. ^ "Morava River". 
  191. ^ Danube Basin station Sremska Mitrovica
  192. ^ a b c d "Danube Watershed". Rivers Network. 
  193. ^ a b c "Sava River Basin Flood Study: HEC-HMS Technical Documentation Report" (PDF). 2017. 
  194. ^ "Serbian part of the Sava river basin" (PDF). 
  195. ^ a b Joint Drava River Corridor Analysis Report, 27 November 2014
  196. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Das Flächenverzeichnis - die Ordnung unserer Gewässer". Bundesministerium für Land - und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft. 
  197. ^ "Der Inn und sein Einzugsgebiet" (PDF). 
  198. ^ "Dniester". IEU. 
  199. ^ "Southern Bug". IEU. 
  200. ^ "Inhul". IEU. 
  201. ^ "Synyukha". IEU. 
  202. ^ "Synyukha". GSE. 
  203. ^ "Inhulets". GSE. 
  204. ^ "Samara". GSE. 
  205. ^ "Vovcha". GSE. 
  206. ^ "Vorskla". IEU. 
  207. ^ "Psel". IEU. 
  208. ^ "Khorol". IEU. 
  209. ^ a b "Sula". IEU.  & "Сула (река, приток Днепра)". GSE. 
  210. ^ a b "Udai". IEU.  & "Удай)". GSE. 
  211. ^ "Ros". IEU. 
  212. ^ "Desna". IEU. 
  213. ^ "Snov". GSE. 
  214. ^ "Seim". IEU. 
  215. ^ "Teteriv". IEU. 
  216. ^ "Prypiat". GSE. 
  217. ^ "Uzh". IEU. 
  218. ^ "Ptsich". GSE. 
  219. ^ "Ubort". GSE. 
  220. ^ "Horyn". IEU. 
  221. ^ "Southern Sluch". IEU. 
  222. ^ "Styr". GSE. 
  223. ^ "Sozh". GSE. 
  224. ^ "Iput". GSE. 
  225. ^ "Besed". GSE. 
  226. ^ "Ostyor". GSE. 
  227. ^ "Berezina". GSE. 
  228. ^ "Drut". GSE. 
  229. ^ a b "Don". SWRR. 
  230. ^ "Manych".  and "Kalaus". SWRR. 
  231. ^ "Yegorlyk". SWRR. 
  232. ^ "Sal (Russia)". SWRR. 
  233. ^ "Donets". SWRR. 
  234. ^ "Kalitva". SWRR. 
  235. ^ "Aidar". SWRR. 
  236. ^ "Oskol". SWRR. 
  237. ^ "Chir". SWRR. 
  238. ^ "Ilovlya". SWRR. 
  239. ^ "Medveditsa (Don basin)". SWRR. 
  240. ^ "Tersa (Medveditsa)". SWRR. 
  241. ^ "Khopyor".  and "Serdoba". SWRR. 
  242. ^ "Buzuluk (Volgograd Oblast)". SWRR. 
  243. ^ "Savala". SWRR. 
  244. ^ "Vorona (Russia)".  and "Chembar". SWRR. 
  245. ^ "Bityug". SWRR. 
  246. ^ "Voronezh". SWRR. 
  247. ^ "Bystraya Sosna". SWRR. 
  248. ^ a b c d Shalva Jaoshvili. "The rivers of the Black Sea" (PDF). European Environment Agency. 
  249. ^ "Pshish". SWRR. 
  250. ^ "Belaya (Kuban)". SWRR. 
  251. ^ a b "Water quality in the Kura-Ara basin". UNDP. 2006. 
  252. ^ "Alazani/Ganikh River Basin" (PDF). Swedish Royal Institute of Technology. 
  253. ^ a b Rapid Assessment of the Rioni and Alazani-Iori River Basins of Georgia, 2011
  254. ^ "Sulak". SWRR. 
  255. ^ "Terek". SWRR. 
  256. ^ "Sunzha". SWRR. 
  257. ^ "Malka". SWRR. 
  258. ^ "Kuma (Russia)". SWRR. 
  259. ^ a b c "Volga". SWRR. 
    Volgograd gauging station data
  260. ^ a b c "Oka". SWRR. 
  261. ^ a b Rivers of Europe, p. 61
  262. ^ a b "Kama". SWRR. 
  263. ^ "Akhtuba (river)". SWRR. 
  264. ^ "Yeruslan". SWRR. 
  265. ^ "Tereshka". SWRR. 
  266. ^ "Bolshoy Irgiz". SWRR. 
  267. ^ "Maly Irgiz".  and "ЧЕРНАВА". SWRR. 
  268. ^ "Chapayevka". SWRR. 
  269. ^ "Samara". SWRR. 
  270. ^ "Bolshoy Kinel". SWRR. 
  271. ^ "Tok".  and "Bitkul". SWRR. 
  272. ^ "Sok". SWRR. 
  273. ^ "Kondurcha". SWRR. 
  274. ^ "Bolshoy Cheremshan". SWRR. 
  275. ^ "Sheshma".  and "Lesnaya Sheshma". SWRR. 
  276. ^ "Vyatka". SWRR. 
  277. ^ "Kilmez".  and "Ut River". SWRR. 
  278. ^ "Pizhma (Vyatka basin)". SWRR. 
  279. ^ "Moloma". SWRR. 
  280. ^ "Чепца".  and "Лоза". SWRR. 
  281. ^ "Letka". SWRR. 
  282. ^ "Kobra (Viatka)". SWRR. 
  283. ^ "Ik". SWRR. 
  284. ^ "Izh". SWRR. 
  285. ^ "Belaya". SWRR. 
  286. ^ "Bystry Tanyp". SWRR. 
  287. ^ "Dyoma". SWRR. 
  288. ^ "Ufa".  and "Ay River". SWRR. 
  289. ^ "Ufa". SWRR. 
  290. ^ "Yuryuzan". SWRR. 
  291. ^ "Ay". SWRR. 
  292. ^ "Sim".  and "Inzer". SWRR. 
  293. ^ "Chusovaya". SWRR. 
  294. ^ "Sylva". SWRR. 
  295. ^ "Usva". SWRR. 
  296. ^ "Kosva".  and "Typyl". SWRR. 
  297. ^ "Inva". SWRR. 
  298. ^ "Yayva". SWRR. 
  299. ^ a b "Vishera (Perm Krai)". SWRR. 
  300. ^ "Kolva". SWRR. 
  301. ^ "Kolva (Perm Krai)". SWRR. 
  302. ^ "Yazva".  and "Glukhaya Vilva". SWRR. 
  303. ^ "Kosa". SWRR. 
  304. ^ "Veslyana". SWRR. 
  305. ^ "Sviyaga". SWRR. 
  306. ^ "Bolshaya Kokshaga". SWRR. 
  307. ^ "Vetluga". SWRR. 
  308. ^ "Usta (Russia)". SWRR. 
  309. ^ "Sura".  and "Kadada". SWRR. 
  310. ^ "Pyana".  and "Cheka". SWRR. 
  311. ^ "Alatyr". SWRR. 
  312. ^ "Kerzhenets". SWRR. 
  313. ^ a b "Upa". SWRR. 
  314. ^ "Klyazma". SWRR. 
  315. ^ "Nerl (Klyazma)". SWRR. 
  316. ^ "Tyosha". SWRR. 
  317. ^ "Moksha".  and "АЗЯСЬ". SWRR. 
  318. ^ "Tsna (Moksha basin)".  and "Osinovka". SWRR. 
  319. ^ "Pronya (Russia)". SWRR. 
  320. ^ "Moskva".  and "Ruza". SWRR. 
  321. ^ "Protva". SWRR. 
  322. ^ "Ugra (Oka)".  and "Demina". SWRR. 
  323. ^ "Unzha". SWRR. 
  324. ^ "Neya". SWRR.