List of rivers of Pakistan

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Major rivers and lakes of Pakistan
Rivers of Punjab.

The Indus River is the lifeline of Pakistan. Without the Indus and its tributaries, the land would have turned into a barren desert long ago. The Indus originates in Tibet from the glacial streams of the Himalayas and enters Pakistan in the northeast. It runs generally southwestward the entire length of Pakistan, about 2,900 km (1,800 mi), and empties into the Arabian Sea. The Indus and its tributaries provide water to two-thirds of Pakistan. The principal tributaries of the Indus are the Sutlej, Beas, Chenab, Ravi, and Jhelum rivers. In southwestern Punjab Province these rivers merge to form the Panjnad (“Five Rivers”), which then merges with the Indus to form a mighty river. As the Indus approaches the Arabian Sea, it spreads out to form a delta. Much of the delta is marshy and swampy. It includes 225,000 hectares (556,000 acres) of mangrove forests and swamps. To the west of the delta is the seaport of Karāchi; to the east the delta fans into the salt marshes known as the Rann of Kutch.

This is a list of rivers wholly or partly in Pakistan, organised geographically by river basin, from west to east. Tributaries are listed from the mouth to the source.

The longest and the largest river in Pakistan is the Indus River. Around two-thirds of water supplied for irrigation and in homes come from the Indus and its associated rivers.[1]

Flowing into the Arabian Sea (flowing only in rainy season during smaller part of year may or may not reach sea)[edit]

Indus River Basin[edit]

Flowing into endorheic basins[edit]

Hamun-i-Mashkel[edit]

Sistan Basin[edit]

  • Helmand River (Iran/Afghanistan)
    • Arghandab River (Afghanistan)

Indus Plains[edit]

  • Nari River
    • Mula River
    • Bolan River
    • Beji River
      • Anambar River
        • Loralai River
    • Loe Manda River

Thar Desert[edit]

Tarim Basin[edit]

Ancient rivers[edit]

  • Ghaggar-Hakra River: An intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season. While it is often identified with the Sarasvati River,[2] this is not a consensus view.[3] The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river in Pakistan that is the continuation of the Ghaggar River in India. Several times, but not continuously, it carried the water of the Sutlej during the Bronze Age period [4] Many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found along the Ghaggar and Hakra rivers.
  • Saraswati River: Also known as Sarasvati River. This river was one of the major rivers of Ancient India which no longer exists.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wildlife of Pakistan website
  2. ^ Oldham, R. D. (1893). "The Saraswati and the Lost River of the Indian Desert". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 49–76. 
  3. ^ Agarwal, Vishal (2003). "A Reply to Michael Witzel's ‘Ein Fremdling im Rgveda’" (PDF). Journal of Indo-European Studies 31 (1–2): 107–185. It may be noted that the Nara is still called the Sarasvati by rural Sindhis and its dried up delta in Kutch is still regarded as that of Sarasvati by the locals. 
  4. ^ Mughal 1997[citation needed]

External links[edit]