List of roof shapes

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Roof shapes include flat (or shed), gabled, hipped, arched, domed, and a wide variety of other configurations detailed below.[1]

Roof angles are an integral component of roof shape, and vary from almost flat to steeply pitched.

Roof shapes differ greatly from region to region, depending on the climate, materials available, customs, and many other considerations.

Roof terminology is not rigidly defined. Usages vary from region to region, nation to nation, and from one builder or architect to another.

Roof shapes[edit]

Towers, especially church towers, frequently feature special roof shapes
  • Flat: These are found in traditional buildings in regions with a low precipitation. Modern materials which are highly impermeable to water make possible the low-pitch roofs found on large commercial buildings. Although referred to as flat they are generally gently pitched.
  • Single-pitched roof
    • Shed roof (lean-to, pent roof,[2] skirt roof, outshot, skillion, mono-roof[3]): A roof with one slope, historically attached to a taller wall.
    • Saw-tooth: Multiple single-pitched roofs arrayed in a row, sometimes seen on factories.[4]
  • Multi-pitched roof:
    • Gable (ridged, dual-pitched, peaked, saddle, pack-saddle, saddleback,[5] span roof[6]): A simple roof design shaped like an inverted V.
      • Cross gabled: The result of joining two or more gabled roof sections together, forming a T or L shape for the simplest forms, or any number of more complex shapes.
      • See also roof pitch, crow-stepped, corbie stepped, stepped gable: A gable roof with its end parapet walls below extended slightly upwards and shaped to resemble steps.
    • A-frame
    • Half-hipped (clipped gable, jerkinhead[7]): A combination of a gable and a hip roof (pitched roof without changes to the walls) with the hipped part at the top and the gable section lower down.
    • Dutch gable, gablet: A hybrid of hipped and gable with the gable (wall) at the top and hipped lower down; i.e. the opposite arrangement to the half-hipped roof. Overhanging eaves forming shelter around the building are a consequence where the gable wall is in line with the other walls of the buildings; i.e., unless the upper gable is recessed.
    • Saltbox, catslide: A gable roof with one side longer than the other, and thus closer to the ground unless the pitch on one side is altered.
    • Bonnet roof: A reversed gambrel or Mansard roof with the lower portion at a lower pitch than the upper portion.
    • Monitor roof: A roof with a monitor; 'a raised structure running part or all of the way along the ridge of a double-pitched roof, with its own roof running parallel with the main roof.'
    • Butterfly roof (V-roof,[8] London roof[9]): A V-shaped roof resembling an open book. A kink separates the roof into two parts running towards each other at an obtuse angle.
    • Karahafu: A type of gable found in some traditional Japanese buildings.
    • Hidden roof: A type of Japanese roof construction.
    • Hip, hipped: A hipped roof is sloped in two pairs of directions (e.g. N–S and E–W) compared to the one pair of direction (e.g. N–S or E–W) for a gable roof.
    • Cross hipped: The result of joining two or more hip roof sections together, forming a T or L shape for the simplest forms, or any number of more complex shapes.
    • Satari: A Swedish variant on the monitor roof; a double hip roof with a short vertical wall usually with small windows, popular from the 17th century on formal buildings.[citation needed] (Säteritak in Swedish.)
    • Mansard (French roof): A roof with the pitch divided into a shallow slope above a steeper slope. The steep slope may be curved. An element of the Second Empire architectural style (Mansard style) in the U.S.
    • Gambrel, curb, kerb: A roof similar to a mansard but sloped in one direction rather than both.
    • Bell-cast (sprocketed, flared): A roof with the shallow slope below the steeper slope at the eaves. Compare with bell roof.
    • East Asian hip-and-gable roof
    • Mokoshi: A Japanese decorative pent roof
    • Pavilion roof : A low-pitched roof hipped equally on all sides and centered over a square or regular polygonal floor plan.[10] The sloping sides rise to a peak. For steep tower roof variants use Pyramid roof.
    • Pyramid roof: A steep hip roof on a square building.
    • Pyatthat: A multi-tiered and spired roof commonly found in Burmese royal and Buddhist architecture.
    • Tented: A type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak
    • Helm roof, Rhenish helm: A pyramidal roof with gable ends; often found on church towers.
    • Spiral, a steeply pitched spire which twists as it goes up.
    • Barrel, barrel-arched (cradle, wagon): A round roof like a barrel (tunnel) vault.
    • Catenary: An arched roof in the form of a catenary curve.
    • Arched roof, bow roof,[11] Gothic, Gothic arch, and ship's bottom roof. Historically also called a compass roof.[12]
  • Circular
  • Hyperbolic

Illustrations[edit]

Flat roof Shed roof Gable roof Catslide
Flat roof Single-pitched (shed, skillion) roof Gable roof Gable roof with catslide
M type roof Gambrel roof Clerestory roof Saw-tooth roof
Ridged, multi-gable or
m-type roof
Gambrel roof Clerestory roof Saw-tooth roof
Hip roof Half-hip roof Tented roof Gablet roof
Hip roof Half-hip roof Tented or pavilion roof Gablet roof or Dutch gable
example with recessed (upper)
gable and eaves
Rhombic roof Arched roof Barrel roof Bow roof
Rhombic roof/Rhenish helm Arched roof Barrel roof Bow roof
Conical roof Spire Onion dome Welsh spire
Conical roof Spire Onion dome Welsh spire
Gable roof with eaves T-Gable house roof Hip and pent hip roof Butterfly roof
Gable roof with eaves Cross-gabled building with
squatter projecting wing
and T-shaped plan
Hip and pent hip roof
(Brit: hipped)
Butterfly roof
or trough roof (rare)
Prow or "flying" Gable roof Monitor roof Compluvium roof Displuvium roof
Prow or "flying" Gable roof Monitor roof Compluvium roof Displuvium roof (rare)
Hemisperical dome Sail vault Compound dome Cloister vault
Hemisperical dome (on a wall) Sail vault Compound dome Cloister vault

Selection criteria[edit]

  • Climate
  • Location
  • Material availability
  • Material cost
  • Installation cost
  • Neighbouring buildings
  • Building geometry
  • Aesthetics
  • Engineering concerns
  • Functionality
  • Local customs
  • restrictive covenants
  • Building codes

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Long, George. "Roof". The Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London: Charles Knight, 18331843. 143. Print.
  2. ^ Harris, Cyril M.. "Pent roof". Harris dictionary of architecture & construction. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Print.
  3. ^ Cowan, Henry J., and Peter R. Smith. "Shed roof" Dictionary of architectural and building technology. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers; 1986. 272. Print.
  4. ^ "The Machine Shop and the Works. Modern Principles of Design", The Times: Engineering Supplement, London, November 13, 1912, p.25.
  5. ^ Fleming, Honour, & Pevsner, A Dictionary of Architecture
  6. ^ Passmore, Augustine C. (1904). "Span Roof". Handbook of technical terms used in architecture and building and their allied trades and subjects. London: Scott, Greenwood, and Co. 325. Print.
  7. ^ https://www.roofingcompare.com/styles/jerkinhead.html
  8. ^ Passmore, Augustine C. "V Roof". Handbook of technical terms used in architecture and building and their allied trades and subjects. London: Scott, Greenwood, and Co.;, 1904. 362. Print.
  9. ^ Coutts, John. Loft Conversions. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 2012. Print.
  10. ^ Pavilion roof, polygonal roof, see builder bill glossary
  11. ^ Davies, Nikolas, and Erkki Jokiniemi. Dictionary of architecture and building construction. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Architectural Press, 2008.304
  12. ^ "Rainbow roof | Article about rainbow roof by The Free Dictionary". encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2018-10-26.

External links[edit]