List of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu

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This is the list of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu dynasty ("The Horde of the White Sheep"). The 1st Chief of the confederation was Tur Ali bin Pehlwan (1340 - 1360 C.E.) followed by his son Qutlugh bin Tur Ali (1360 - 1378/79 C.E.) who formed the Aq Qoyunlu Turkmen Principality. He in turn was followed by his son Qara Yoluq Osman, the founder of Aq Qoyunlu Beylik or State. The dynasty originated around Diyarbakır and ruled the territory now part of present-day Turkey, Iraq and Iran. Their capital was the city of Tabriz after 1471-1472. They gained international significance under Uzun Hasan who became their greatest leader. He conquered the Qara Qoyunlu and defeated the Timurid Empire thus adding significant portions of Iran to his kingdom but eventually losing to the Ottoman Empire weakening his kingdom which eventually was absorbed into Safavid Iran.

Aq Qoyunlu rulers[edit]

  • In letters from the Ottoman Sultans, when addressing the kings of Aq Qoyunlu, such titles as Arabic: ملك الملوك الأيرانية‎‎ "Iranian King of Kings", Arabic: سلطان السلاطين الإيرانية‎‎ "Iranian Sultan of Sultans", Persian: شاهنشاه ایران خدیو عجم‎‎ Shåhanshåh Irån Khadiv Ajam "Shahanshah of Iran and Ruler of Persia", Jamshid shawkat va Fereydun råyat va Dårå deråyat "Powerful like Jamshid, flag of Fereydun and wise like Darius" have been used.[1] Uzun Hassan also held the title Padishah-i Iran "Padishah of Iran",[2] which was re-adopted again in the Safavid times through his grandson Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty.
Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Bey
بیگ
Tur Ali Pehlwan
طور علی پہلوان
1340 - 1360 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Fakhr-al-Din
فخر الدین
Qutlugh bin Tur Ali
قتلغ بن طور علی
1360 - 1378/79 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Ahmed bin Qutlugh
احمد بن قتلغ
Nominally Under Qara Yoluq Osman from 1396 - 1403 C.E.
1389 - 1403 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Baha-al-Din
بھا الدین
Qara Yoluq Osman
قرا یولک عثمان
1403 - 1435 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Jalal-al-Din
جلال الدین
Ali bin Qara Yoluq Osman
علی بن قرا یولک عثمان
1435 - 1438 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Nur-al-Din
نور الدین
Hamza bin Qara Yoluq Osman
حمزہ بن قرا یولک عثمان
1438 - 1444 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Mu'izz-al-Din
معز الدین
Jahangir bin Ali
جهانگیر بن علی
1444 - 1451/52 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Qilich Arslan bin Ahmed
قلچ ارسلان بن احمد
1451/52 - 1457
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Nasr
ابو النصر
Uzun Hasan bin Ali
اوزون حسن بن علی
1457 - 1478 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Fath
ابو الفتح
Sultan Khalil bin Uzun Hasan
سلطان خلیل بن اوزون حسن
1478 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Muzaffar
ابو المظفر
Yaqub bin Uzun Hasan
یعقوب بن اوزون حسن
1478 - 1490 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Fath
ابو الفتح
Baysonqor bin Yaqub
بایسنقر بن یعقوب
1490 - 1491 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Muzaffar
ابو المظفر
Rustam bin Maqsud bin Uzun Hasan
رستم بن مقصود بن اوزون حسن
1493 - 1497 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Nasr
ابو النصر
Ahmed Gövde bin Ughurlu Muhammad bin Uzun Hasan
احمد گوده بن اغورلو محمد بن اوزون حسن
1497 C.E.
Division of Aq Qoyunlu Beylik.
  • Yellow Shaded rows signify Progenitors of Aq Qoyunlu dynasty.
    • Blue Shaded row signifies Nominal rule.
Diyarbakır Azerbaijan Iraq Isfahan, Fars & Kerman
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Muzaffar
ابو المظفر
Alwand bin Yusuf bin Uzun Hasan
الوند بن یوسف بن اوزون حسن
1497 - 1502 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Mukarram
ابو المکرم
Muhammad bin Yusuf bin Uzun Hasan
محمد بن یوسف بن اوزون حسن
1497 - 1500 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Zayn-al-Aibidin bin Ahmed bin Ughurlu Muhammad
زین العابدین بن احمد بن اغورلو محمد
1504 - 1508 C.E.
Shāh Ismāʿil
شاہ اسماعیل
After invading Azerbaijan and taking Baku, Shah Ismail I besieged the fort at Gulistan when news arrived that Alwand bin Yusuf bin Uzun Hasan had reached Nakhchivan with an army. Ismail broke off the siege and went rapidly to combat the Aq Qoyunlu. He sent his commander Piri Beg who defeated the Aq Qoyunlu commander Amir Uthman at the Battle of Shurur near Nakhchivan thus leaving the Aq Qoyunlu to rapidly collapse as a kingdom.
1502 C.E.
Bey
بیگ
Abul-Muzaffar
ابو المظفر
Sultan Murad bin Yaqub bin Uzun Hasan
سلطان مراد بن یعقوب بن اوزون حسن
1500 - 1508 C.E.
Dissolution of Aq Qoyunlu in 1508. Absorbed into the Safavid Empire of Iran.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muʾayyid S̲ābitī, ʻAlī (1967). Asnad va Namahha-yi Tarikhi (Historical documents and letters from early Islamic period towards the end of Shah Ismaʻil Safavi's reign.). Iranian culture & literature. Kitābkhānah-ʾi Ṭahūrī. , pp. 193, 274, 315, 330, 332, 422 and 430. See also: Abdul Hussein Navai, Asnaad o Mokatebaat Tarikhi Iran (Historical sources and letters of Iran), Tehran, Bongaah Tarjomeh and Nashr-e-Ketab, 2536, pages 578,657, 701-702 and 707
  2. ^ H.R. Roemer, "The Safavid Period", in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. VI, Cambridge University Press 1986, p. 339: "Further evidence of a desire to follow in the line of Turkmen rulers is Ismail's assumption of the title 'Padishah-i-Iran', previously held by Uzun Hasan."