List of rulers of Baden

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Monarchy of Baden
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Grossherzogtum Baden.png
Frederick II
Style His Royal Highness
First monarch Berthold I (as Count)
Last monarch Frederick II (as Grand Duke)
Formation 962
Abolition 22 November 1918
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Maximilian (as Margrave)

Baden was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and later one of the German states along the frontier with France primarily consisting of territory along the right bank of the Rhine opposite Alsace and the Palatinate.

The territory evolved out of the Breisgau, an early medieval county in the Duchy of Swabia. A continuous sequence of counts is known since 962; the counts belong to the House of Zähringen. In 1061, the counts first acquired the additional title of margraves of Verona. Even though they lost the March of Verona soon thereafter, they kept the title of margrave. In 1112, the title of Margrave of Baden was first used.

For most of the early modern period, the Margraviate of Baden was divided into two parts, one ruled by the Catholic Margraves of Baden-Baden, and the other by the Protestant Margraves of Baden-Durlach. In 1771, the main Baden-Baden line became extinct, and all of the Baden lands came under the rule of Baden-Durlach. The reunited margraviate existed until 1803.

During the Napoleonic era, in the imperial reorganisation of 1803, Baden gained a great deal of additional territory, and its rulers were made one of the few prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. However, this pre-eminent dignity lasted only for three years, until the end of the Empire in August 1806, eight months after the crushing Battle of Austerlitz, when the Electorate of Baden ceased to exist. Consequently, in that year, the Margraves took on the title of Grand Duke of Baden, and gained additional territory. The Grand Duchy of Baden, within approximately the borders of 1806, continued to exist until the fall of the German monarchies in 1918, when it became a republic.

Counts in Breisgau[edit]

Margraves of Verona and Counts in the Breisgau[edit]

Margraves of Baden[1][edit]

Baden divided, 1190–1771[edit]

Margraves of Baden-Baden, 1190–1348[edit]

  • Hermann V, Margrave 1190–1243 (d. 1243), elder son of Hermann IV
    • Hermann VI, Margrave 1243–1250 (ca. 1225–1250)
      • Frederick I, Margrave 1250–1268 with his uncle Rudolf I (1249–1268)
    • Rudolf I, Margrave 1250–1288 initially with his nephew Frederick I (ca. 1230–1288)
      • Hermann VII, Margrave 1288–1291 (ca. 1266–1291) with his brothers
      • Rudolf II, Margrave 1288–1295 (d. 1295) with his brothers
      • Rudolf III, Margrave 1288–1332 (d. 1332) with his brothers, then his nephew Rudolf Hesso
      • Hesso, Margrave 1288–1297 (ca. 1268–1297) with his brothers
        • Rudolf Hesso, Margrave 1297–1335 (ca. 1290–1335) initially with his uncle Rudolf III
With no male heirs, Baden-Baden was inherited after his death by his cousin, Rudolf IV, Margrave of Baden-Pforzheim (son of Hermann VII above).
  • Rudolf IV, Margrave of Baden-Baden 1335–1348

Margraves of Baden-Hachberg, 1190–1415[2][edit]

  • Heinrich I, Margrave 1190–1231 (d. 1231), son of Hermann IV, Margrave of Baden-Baden
    • Heinrich II, Margrave 1231–c.1297/1298 (d. ca. 1297/1298)
      • Heinrich III, Margrave 1297/1298–1330
        • Heinrich IV, Margrave 1330–1369
          • Otto I, Margrave 1369–1386 (d. 1386)
          • Johann, Margrave 1386–1409 with his brother Hesso
          • Hesso I, Margrave 1386-1410 (d. 1410) initially with his brother Johann
            • Otto II, Margrave 1410–1415 (d. 1418), sold Hachberg in 1415 to Bernhard I, Margrave of Baden-Baden

Margraves of Baden-Sausenberg, 1290–1503[edit]

  • Rudolf I, Margrave 1290–1313/1314 (d. 1313/1314), second son of Heinrich of Baden-Hachberg
    • Heinrich, Margrave 1313/1314–c.1318 (d. ca. 1318) with his brother Rudolf II
    • Otto I, Margrave c.1318–1384 (d. 1384) with his brother Rudolf II, then his nephew Rudolf III
    • Rudolf II, Margrave 1313/1314–1353 (d. 1353) initially with his brother Heinrich, then with his brother Otto I
      • Rudolf III, Margrave 1353–1428 (1343–1428) initially with his uncle Otto I
        • Wilhelm, Margrave 1428–1441 (1406–1482), abdicated 1441
          • Hugo, Margrave 1441–1444 (d. 1444) with his brother Rudolf IV
          • Rudolf IV, Margrave 1441–1487 (1427–1487) initially with his brother Hugo
            • Philipp, Margrave 1487–1503 (1454–1503)
Male line extinct at Philipp's death, territories in dispute until 1584, went to Baden-Durlach.

Margraves of Baden-Eberstein, 1291–1353[edit]

  • Friedrich II, Margrave 1291–1333 (d. 1333), son of Hermann VII of Baden-Baden
Male line extinct at Hermann IX's death 1353.

Margraves of Baden-Pforzheim, 1291–1361[edit]

  • Hermann VII, Margrave of Baden-Baden
    • Herman VIII, Margrave 1291–1300 (d. 1300) with his brother Rudolf IV
    • Rudolf IV, Margrave 1291–1348 (d. 1348) initially with his brother Hermann VIII (inherited Baden-Baden 1335)
      • Rudolf V, Margrave 1348–1361 (d. 1361)
Male line extinct at Rudolf V's death 1361, returned to Baden-Baden.

Margraves of Baden-Baden, 1348–1588[3][edit]

  • Friedrich III, Margrave 1348–1353 (ca. 1327–1353), son of Rudolf IV of Baden-Pforzheim and Baden-Baden
    • Rudolf VI, Margrave 1353–1372 (d. 1372)
      • Rudolf VII, Margrave 1372–1391 (d. 1391) with his brother Bernhard I
      • Bernhard I, Margrave 1372–1431 (1364–1431) initially with his brother Rudolf VII
        • Jakob I, Margrave 1431–1453 (1407–1453)
          • Bernhard II, Margrave 1453–1458 (1428/1429–1458) with his brother Karl I
          • Karl I, Margrave 1453–1475 (d. 1475) initially with his brother Bernhard II

Margraves of Baden-Durlach, 1515–1771[edit]

Margrave of Baden-Sponheim, 1515–1533[edit]

  • Philipp I, Margrave 1515–1533 (1479–1533), fifth son of Christof I of Baden-Baden
Philipp I died with no surviving sons, his lands reverted to Baden-Baden.

Margraves of Baden-Rodemachern, 1536–1666[edit]

At Karl Wilhelm's death in 1666, Baden-Rodemachern reverted to Baden-Baden.

Margraves of Baden-Hachberg, 1577–1591[edit]

  • Jakob III, Margrave 1577–1590 (1562–1590), second son of Karl II of Baden-Durlach
At Ernst Jakob's death in 1591, Baden-Hachberg reverted to Jakob III's older brother Ernst Friedrich.

Margrave of Baden-Sausenberg, 1577–1604[edit]

  • Georg Friedrich, Margrave 1577–1604 (1573–1638), third son of Karl II of Baden-Durlach
At his brother Ernst Friedrich's death, Georg Friedrich inherited all of Baden-Durlach.

Margraves of Baden-Baden, 1588–1771[edit]

At August Georg's death in 1771, the Catholic Bernhardine line was extinct, and Baden-Baden was reunited with Baden-Durlach.

Margrave of Baden, 1771–1803[edit]

Margrave of Baden
Baden Dynasty
Image Name
Began Ended Notes
Karl Friedrich von Baden.jpg Charles Frederick
Karl Friedrich
21 October 1771 27 April 1803 Margrave of the whole (reunited) Baden. Became Elector of Baden.

Elector of Baden, 1803–1806[edit]

Elector of Baden
Baden Dynasty
Image Name
Began Ended Notes
Karl Friedrich von Baden.jpg Charles Frederick
Karl Friedrich
27 April 1803 25 July 1806 The first and only Elector of Baden. Became Grand Duke of Baden.

Grand Dukes of Baden, 1806–1918[4][edit]

Grand Dukes of Baden
Baden Dynasty
Image Name
Began Ended Notes
Karl Friedrich von Baden.jpg Charles Frederick
Karl Friedrich
25 July 1806 10 June 1811
Grossherzog Karl von Baden 1811.jpg Charles I
Karl I
10 June 1811 8 December 1818 Grandson of Charles Frederick.
Grossherzog Ludwig von Baden 1820.jpg Louis I
Ludwig I
8 December 1818 30 March 1830 Uncle of Charles.
Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden.PNG Leopold I
Leopold I
30 March 1830 24 April 1852 Half-brother of Louis I.
Ludwig II. Grand duke of Baden.png Louis II
Ludwig II
24 April 1852 22 January 1858 Son of Leopold I. Ruled under the regency of his brother Frederick.
Friedrich I of Baden.jpg Frederick I
Friedrich I
22 January 1858 28 September 1907 Brother of Louis II. Served as regent 1852–1858. Took the title of Grand Duke in 1856. Became a subordinate ruler in the German Empire after the Unification of Germany in 1871.
GrandDukeFriedrichII.jpg Frederick II
Friedrich II
28 September 1907 22 November 1918 Son of Frederick I. The last Grand Duke of Baden. Abdicated in the German Revolution of 1918–19.

Heads of the Grand Ducal House of Baden since 1918[edit]

  • Leopold I, Grand Duke (1790–1852)
    • Friedrich I, Grand Duke (1826–1907)
    • Prince William of Baden (1829–1897)
      • Maximilian, titular Grand Duke 1928–1929 (1867–1929)
        • Berthold, Margrave 1929–1963 (1906–1963)
          • Maximilian, Margrave 1963–present (born 1933)
            • Bernhard, Hereditary Prince of Baden (born 1970)
              • Prince Leopold (born 2002)
              • Prince Friedrich (born 2004)
              • Prince Karl-Wilhelm (born 2006)
            • Prince Leopold (born 1971)
            • Prince Michael (born 1976)
          • Prince Ludwig of Baden (born 1937)
            • Prince Berthold of Baden (born 1976)

Presidents of the Republic of Baden, 1918–1945[edit]

See also[edit]