List of rulers of Lithuania

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The following is a list of rulers of Lithuania over historical Lithuanian territory. The timeline includes Lithuania as a sovereign entity or legitimately part of a greater sovereign entity, as well as Lithuania under control or occupation of an outside authority (i.e. Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic). The incumbents and office-holders are listed by names most commonly used in English language.The state of Lithuania was formed in the 1230s when threatened by the Livonian Order in the north and the Teutonic Knights in the west, the Baltic tribes united under the leadership of Mindaugas. He became the only crowned King of Lithuania while his state became known as the Kingdom of Lithuania. After Grand Duke Jogaila became also King of Poland in 1386, the two states became more closely connected, and from 1440 both were ruled by a common ruler. In 1569, the Union of Lublin was signed and a new entity—the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—emerged. The commonwealth was partitioned in 1795: Lithuania proper became part of the Russian Empire while Sudovia became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Lithuania declared its independence on 16 February 1918. The interwar Republic of Lithuania existed until 1940, when it was occupied by the Soviet Union. During the Soviet-German War, Lithuania was occupied by Nazi Germany. In 1944, as Germany was losing the war, Soviet Russia re-occupied Lithuania and re-established the Lithuanian SSR. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to restore independence. The restored Republic of Lithuania is a democratic republic, a member of both the European Union and NATO. Currently, the head of state is the President of Lithuania.

Kingdom of Lithuania (1251–1263)[edit]

Title: King of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos karalius). Dates are approximate because of scant written sources.

House of Mindaugas (1253–1263)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
King
Mindaugas
1236–1253
(as Grand Duke)

1253–1263
(as King)
Mendog 1578.png c. 1203
Son of mythological Ringaudas
NN, sister of Morta
Morta
1263
Aglona
Assassinated by Treniota
and Daumantas
Aged about 60

Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1263–1569)[edit]

Title: Grand Duke (Lithuanian: didysis kunigaikštis; Belarusian: vialiki kniaź; Polish: wielki książę). Dates are approximate because of scant written sources.

House of Mindaugas (1263–1267)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Grand Duke
Treniota
1263–1264
Treniota.jpg Unknown Unknown 1264
Murdered by servants
loyal to Mindaugas' son Vaišvilkas
Grand Duke
Vaišvilkas
1264–1267
Vojshalk.png Unknown
Son of Mindaugas
and Morta
Unknown 1268
Was murdered
by Leo I of Galicia

House of Monomakh (1267–1269)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Grand Duke
Shvarn
Lithuanian: Švarnas
1267–1269
Unknown NN, daughter of Mindaugas c. 1271−1279

House of Mindaugas (1269–1285)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Grand Duke
Traidenis
1270–1282
Lithuanian Grand Duke Traidenis.JPG Unknown Ona of Masovia c. 1282
Grand Duke
Daumantas
1282–1285
Unknown Unknown 3 March 1285
Died in a battle by Tver

House of Gediminas (1285–1440)[edit]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death
Grand Duke
Butigeidis
1285–1291
None known Unknown Unknown 1291
Grand Duke
Butvydas
1291–1295
None known Unknown Unknown c. 1294–1295
Grand Duke
Vytenis
1295–1316
Witenes.PNG None known 1260
Son of Butvydas
Vikinda 1316
Aged 56
Grand Duke
Gediminas
1316–1341
Giedymin.PNG None known c. 1275
Son of Butvydas
Jaunė c. 1341
Raudonė
Aged about 66
Grand Duke
Jaunutis
1341–1345
Jaŭnut. Яўнут (A. Tarasievič, 1675).jpg None known c. 1306−1309
Son of Gediminas
and Jaunė
Unknown c. 1366
Aged 57−60
Grand Duke
(Diarchy with Kęstutis)
Algirdas
1345–1377
Algirdas kunigaikštis.jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1296
Son of Gediminas
and Jaunė
Maria of Vitebsk
Uliana of Tver
c. 1377
Maišiagala
Aged about 81
Grand Duke
(Diarchy with Kęstutis)
Jogaila Algirdaitis
1377–1381
Žygimont Aŭgust-Jagajła. Жыгімонт Аўгуст-Ягайла (K. Aleksandrovič, 1790).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg c. 1352−1362
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
Jadwiga of Poland
Anna of Cilli
Elizabeth Granowska
Sophia of Halshany
1 June 1434
Gródek Jagielloński
Aged 72−82
Grand Duke
Kęstutis
1381–1382
Kiejstut.JPG COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1297
Son of Gediminas
and Jaunė
Birutė 1382
Kreva
Murdered by the order of
Jogaila while imprisoned
Aged 84–85
Grand Duke
Jogaila Algirdaitis
1382–1434
Žygimont Aŭgust-Jagajła. Жыгімонт Аўгуст-Ягайла (K. Aleksandrovič, 1790).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg c. 1352−1362
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
Jadwiga of Poland
Anna of Cilli
Elizabeth Granowska
Sophia of Halshany
1 June 1434
Gródek Jagielloński
Aged 72−82
Act of Kreva signed in 1385 — Poland and Lithuania de jure are ruled by one monarch.
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Jogaila Algirdaitis
1382–1434
Žygimont Aŭgust-Jagajła. Жыгімонт Аўгуст-Ягайла (K. Aleksandrovič, 1790).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg c. 1352−1362
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
Jadwiga of Poland
Anna of Cilli
Elizabeth Granowska
Sophia of Halshany
1 June 1434
Gródek Jagielloński
Aged 72−82
From 1392 to 1440, all Grand Dukes of Lithuania de jure acted as regents of the King of Poland.
Grand Duke
King-elect of Lithuania
Vytautas the Great
1392–1430
Vitaŭt Vialiki. Вітаўт Вялікі (XVIII).jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1350
Son of Kęstutis
and Birutė
Anna
Uliana Olshanska
27 October 1430
Trakai
Aged about 80
Grand Duke
Švitrigaila
1430–1432
Lithuanian Grand Duke Švitrigaila.jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg Before 1370
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
Anna of Tver 10 February 1452
Lutsk
Aged about 82
Grand Duke
Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Kęstutaitis
1432–1440
Žygimont Kiejstutavič. Жыгімонт Кейстутавіч (XIX).jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg 1365
Son of Kęstutis
and Birutė
Unknown 20 March 1440
Trakai
Murdered by supporters
of Švitrigaila
Aged 75

House of Jagiellon (1440–1569)[edit]

The act of personal union with Poland was signed as early as 1385; however, the continuous line of common rulers of the two countries started only with Casimir IV (even then, Polish and Lithuanians twice selected different rulers following the death of an earlier common monarch, but the Lithuanian one always eventually assumed the Polish throne). The monarchs retained separate titles for both parts of the state, and their numbering was kept separate. The Jagiellon dynasty was a direct continuation of the Gediminids.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Casimir IV Jagiellon
Lithuanian: Kazimieras Jogailaitis
1440–1492
Kazimier Jagajłavič. Казімер Ягайлавіч (1645).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 30 November 1427
Son of Jogaila Algirdaitis
and Sophia of Halshany
Elisabeth of Austria 7 June 1492
Old Grodno Castle
Aged 64
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Alexander Jagiellon
Lithuanian: Aleksandras Jogailaitis
1492–1506
Aleksander Jagiellonczyk.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 5 August 1461
Son of Kazimieras Jogailaitis
and Elisabeth of Austria
Helena of Moscow 19 August 1506
Vilnius
Aged 45
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Sigismund I the Old
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Senasis
1506–1548
Kulmbach Sigismund I the Old.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 1 January 1467
Son of Kazimieras Jogailaitis
and Elisabeth of Austria
Barbara Zápolya
Bona Sforza
1 April 1548
Kraków
Aged 81
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Sigismund II Augustus
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Augustas
1548–1572
Cranach the Younger Sigismund II Augustus.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 1 August 1520
Son of Žygimantas the Old
and Bona Sforza
Elisabeth of Austria
Barbara Radziwiłł
Catherine of Austria
7 July 1572
Knyszyn
Aged 51

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)[edit]

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in 1569. The elected King of Poland was automatically a Grand Duke of Lithuania (until then the Lithuanian dukedom was hereditary). The first common ruler of both countries was Sigismund II Augustus.

During the Deluge of the Second Northern War, Lithuania signed the Union of Kėdainiai with the Swedish Empire in 1655, thus de jure ending its union with Poland. However, due to Sweden's losses, the agreement soon fell out of favor and was not properly enforced, leading to the further continuation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Following the partitions in 1772, 1793, and 1795, the commonwealth ceased to exist and Lithuania proper became part of the Russian Empire for 123 years. There are some gaps in the timeline as it took a while to elect a new king. The first Grand Duke elected after the Gediminid line became extinct and after the Valois fled back to France was Stephen Báthory, who had made an effort to be recognized as Grand Duke of Lithuania by establishing Vilnius University.

Title: King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

Lithuanian: Lenkijos karalius ir Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis

Polish: Król Polski, wielki książę litewski

Latin: Rex Poloniae et Magnus Dux Lituaniae

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim House
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Sigismund II Augustus
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Augustas

1 July 1569

7 July 1572
(24 years, 98 days)
Cranach the Younger Sigismund II Augustus.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 1 August 1520
Kraków
Son of Žygimantas the Old
and Bona Sforza
(3) Elisabeth of Austria
Barbara Radziwiłł
Catherine of Austria
7 July 1572
Knyszyn
Aged 51
Heredetary
First monarch to
introduce elective
monarchy
Jagiellon
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Henry
Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua
16 May 1573

12 May 1575
(1 year, 362 days)
Henri III - portrait after Jean Decourt - Musée Condé.jpg Coat of Arms of Henri de Valois as lifelong king of Poland.svg 19 September 1551
Fontainebleau
Son of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici
(1) Louise of Lorraine, no children 2 August 1589
Saint-Cloud
Aged 37
Elected
Left Poland in June 1574 to succeed his brother in France
Interregnum until 1575
Valois
Queen of Poland
and Grand Dutchess
Anna
Lithuanian: Ona Jogailaitė
15 December 1575

19 August 1587
(de facto)
(11 years, 248 days)

9 September 1596
(de jure)
(20 years, 270 days)
Kober Anna Jagiellon as a widow.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 18 October 1523
Kraków
Daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
(1) Stephen Báthory, no children 9 September 1596
Warsaw
Aged 72
Elected co-monarch with Stephen Báthory
Sole ruler until Báthory's arrival and coronation in May 1576
Ruled after husband's death until her nephew was elected
Jagiellon
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Stephen Báthory
Lithuanian: Steponas Batoras
1 May 1576

12 December 1586
(10 years, 226 days)
Riehl Portrait of Stephen Bathory.jpg Bathory coat of arms.svg 27 September 1533
Szilágysomlyó (Șimleu Silvaniei)
Son of Stephen Báthory of Somlyó and Catherine Telegdi
(1) Anna Jagiellon, no children 12 December 1586
Grodno
Aged 53
Elected as co-monarch with Anna Jagiellon
Previously Prince of Transylvania
Báthory
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Sigismund III
Lithuanian: Zigmantas Vaza
19 August 1587

30 April 1632
(44 years, 256 days)
Rubens Sigismund III Vasa.jpg Coats of Arms of Sigismond III.svg 20 June 1566
Gripsholm
Son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagiellon
(1) Anne of Austria
(2) Constance of Austria
30 April 1632
Warsaw
Aged 65
Elected, nephew of Anna Jagiellon
Transferred capital from Kraków to Warsaw
Hereditary King of Sweden until deposition in 1599
Vasa
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Władysław IV
also Ladislaus IV
Lithuanian: Vladislovas Vaza
8 November 1632

20 May 1648
(15 years, 195 days)
Rubens Władysław Vasa.jpg Coats of Arms of Sigismond III.svg 9 June 1595
Łobzów
Son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
(1) Cecilia Renata of Austria
(2) Marie Louise Gonzaga
20 May 1648
Merkinė
Aged 52
Elective succession
Also titular King of Sweden and elected Tsar of Russia (1610–1613) when the Polish army captured Moscow
Vasa
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
John II Casimir
Lithuanian: Jonas Kazimieras Vaza
20 November 1648

16 September 1668
(19 years, 302 days)
Schultz John II Casimir Vasa.jpg Coats of Arms of Sigismond III.svg 22 March 1609
Kraków
Son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
(1) Marie Louise Gonzaga
(2) Claudine Françoise Mignot (morganatic marriage)
16 December 1672
Nevers
Aged 63
Elective succession, succeeded half-brother
Previously a cardinal
Titular King of Sweden
Abdicated
Vasa
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Michael I
Lithuanian: Mykolas Kaributas Višnioveckis
19 June 1669

10 November 1673
(4 years, 145 days)
King Michael Korybut Wisniowiecki.jpg Coat of Arms of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland.svg 31 May 1640
Biały Kamień
Son of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
(1) Eleonora Maria of Austria, no children 10 November 1673
Lwów
Aged 33
Elected
Born into nobility of mixed heritage, the son of a military commander and governor
Wiśniowiecki
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
John III Sobieski
Lithuanian: Jonas Sobieskis
19 May 1674

17 June 1696
(22 years, 30 days)
Schultz John III Sobieski.jpg Coat of Arms of Jan Sobieski as king of Poland.svg 17 August 1629
Olesko
Son of Jakub Sobieski and Teofila Zofia
(1) Marie Casimire d'Arquien, 13 children 17 June 1696
Wilanów
Aged 66
Elected
Born into nobility
A successful military commander
Sobieski
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Augustus II
Lithuanian: Augustas II Stiprusis
15 September 1697

1706
(1st reign, 9 years)
August II the Strong.PNG Coat of Arms of Wettin kings of Poland.svg 12 May 1670
Dresden
Son of John George III and Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark
(1) Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 1 son by wife 1 February 1733
Warsaw
Aged 62
Elected
Previously Elector and ruler of Saxony
Dethroned by Stanislaus I in 1706 during the Great Northern War
Wettin
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Stanislaus I
Lithuanian: Stanislovas I Leščinskis
12 July 1704

8 July 1709
(1st reign, 4 years, 362 days)
Mányoki Stanislaus Leszczyński.png Coat of Arms of Stanislaus Leszczynski as king of Poland.svg 20 October 1677
Lwów
Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
(1) Catherine Opalińska, 2 children 23 February 1766
Lunéville
Aged 88
Usurped
Nominated as ruler in 1704, crowned in 1705 and deposed predecessor in 1706
Exiled in 1709
Leszczyński
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Augustus II
Lithuanian: Augustas II Stiprusis
8 July 1709

1 February 1733
(2nd reign, 23 years, 209 days)
August II (1670-1733).jpg Coat of Arms of Wettin kings of Poland.svg 12 May 1670
Dresden
Son of John George III and Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark
(1) Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 1 son by wife 1 February 1733
Warsaw
Aged 62
Restored Wettin
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Stanislaus I
Lithuanian: Stanislovas I Leščinskis
12 September 1733

26 January 1736
(2nd reign, 2 years, 137 days)
Portrait of Stanisław I Leszczyński.jpg Coat of Arms of Stanislaus Leszczynski as king of Poland.svg 20 October 1677
Lwów
Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
(1) Catherine Opalińska, 2 children 23 February 1766
Lunéville
Aged 88
Elected
His election sparked the War of the Polish Succession
Deposed by Augustus III in 1736
Leszczyński
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Augustus III
Lithuanian: Augustas III Saksas
5 October 1733

5 October 1763
(30 years)
Louis de Silvestre - Portrait of Augustus III of Poland (after 1733) - Google Art Project.jpg Coat of Arms of Wettin kings of Poland.svg 17 October 1696
Dresden
Son of Augustus II the Strong and Christiane Eberhardine
(1) Maria Josepha of Austria, 16 children 5 October 1763
Dresden
Aged 66
Usurped
Proclaimed King of Poland in 1733, crowned in 1734
Dethroned elected predecessor in 1736
Wettin
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Stanislaus II Augustus
Lithuanian: Stanislovas Augustas II Poniatovskis
7 September 1764

25 November 1795
(31 years, 80 days)
Vigee Stanislaw Augustus.jpg Coat of Arms of Stanislaus Augustus as king of Poland.svg 17 January 1732
Wołczyn
Son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
Unmarried 1 February 1798
Saint Petersburg
Aged 66
Elected
Born into nobility
Last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, his reign ended in the Partitions of Poland
Poniatowski

Kingdom of Lithuania (1918)[edit]

The Council of Lithuania declared independence on 16 February 1918 and invited Wilhelm of Urach to become king of Lithuania. The name of the state was the Kingdom of Lithuania. On 9 July 1918, Duke Wilhelm accepted the offer and took the name Mindaugas II. However, on 2 November the council revoked this decision as it was likely Germany would lose the war.

House of Urach (1918)[edit]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death
King-elect
Mindaugas II
11 July 1918

2 November 1918
(115 days)
WilhelofUrach.jpg Wappen des Herzogs von Urach.svg 30 May 1864
Son of Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach and
Princess Florestine of Monaco
Duchess Amalie in Bavaria
Princess Wiltrud of Bavaria
24 March 1928

Republic of Lithuania (1918–1940)[edit]

Presidents of the Presidium of the Council of Lithuania[edit]

The state of Lithuania was ruled by the Presidium of the State Council of Lithuania, its chairman was de facto Head of State. The institution of President was established on 4 April 1919. Chairman of the Presidium Antanas Smetona was elected as First President of the State of Lithuania by the State Council of Lithuania and was the only one in under whose rule this position has been considered the office of the head of state.

# Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term Party Election Prime Minister
1 Antanas Smetona-edit2.jpg Antanas Smetona
(1874–1944)
2 November 1918

4 April 1919

Party of
National Progress
1917

By the Council

Position officially
established on
November 11, 1918
Augustinas Voldemaras
Mykolas Sleževičius
Pranas Dovydaitis

Presidents of the Republic of Lithuania[edit]

The institution of President (Lithuanian: Prezidentas) was created on 4 April 1919. Antanas Smetona was elected as the first President of Lithuania.

# Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term Party Election Prime Minister
1 Antanas Smetona 2.jpg Antanas Smetona
(1874–1944)
4 April 1919

19 June 1920
Party of

National Progress

4 April, 1919

By the Council

Pranas Dovydaitis
Mykolas Sleževičius
Aleksandras Stulginskis (1885-1969).jpg Aleksandras Stulginskis
(1885–1969)
Acting
19 June 1919

21 December 1922
Lithuanian Christian

Democratic Party

Acting President as
Chairman of the
Constituent Assembly
of Lithuania
Ernestas Galvanauskas
Kazys Grinius
Aleksandras Stulginskis (1885-1969).jpg Aleksandras Stulginskis
(1885–1969)
21 December 1922

7 June 1926
Lithuanian Christian

Democratic Party

21 December, 1922

By the Seimas

2
Ernestas Galvanauskas
Antanas Tumėnas
Vytautas Petrulis
Leonas Bistras
Kazys Grinius.jpg Kazys Grinius
(1866–1950)
7 June 1926

18 December 1926
Lithuanian Popular

Peasants' Union

June 7, 1926

By the Seimas

3
Mykolas Sleževičius
Augustinas Voldemaras
1926 Lithuanian coup d'état
Jonas Staugaitis.jpg Jonas Staugaitis
(1866–1950)
Acting
18 December 1926

19 December 1926
Lithuanian Popular

Peasants' Union

Unelected — acting President

following coup d'état

Augustinas Voldemaras
Aleksandras Stulginskis (1885-1969).jpg Aleksandras Stulginskis
(1885–1969)
Acting
19 December 1926 Lithuanian Christian

Democratic Party

Unelected — acting President

following coup d''état

Antanas Smetona 2.jpg Antanas Smetona
(1874–1944)
19 December 1926

15 June 1940
Lithuanian

Nationalist Union

December 19, 1926

By the undemocratic

approval of Seimas

in one-candidate elections

1
Juozas Tūbelis
Juozas Tūbelis
Juozas Tūbelis
December 11, 1931

By the undemocratic

approval of Special

Nation Representatives in

one-candidate elections

Vladas Mironas
October 14, 1938

By the undemocratic

approval of Special

Nation Representatives in

one-candidate elections

Vladas Mironas
Jonas Černius
Antanas Merkys
15 June 1940 — 1st Soviet occupation of Lithuania
Antanas Merkys.jpg Antanas Merkys
(1877–1955)
Acting
15 June 1940

17 June 1940
Lithuanian

Nationalist Union

Unelected — de jure

acting President

Antanas Merkys
Justas Paleckis 1961b.jpg Justas Paleckis
(1899–1980)
Acting
17 June 1940

15 August 1940
Communist Party

of Lithuania

Unelected — nominal
acting President
placed by the
Soviet leadership
Justas Paleckis
Acting
Position officially
abolished on
June 24 1940

Posthumously recognized acting Presidents[edit]

# Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

In office Cause of death Date of recognition
JZemaitis.JPG General
Jonas Žemaitis
(1909–1954)
Acting
16 February 1949

26 November 1954
In 1954, executed by shooting in
Butyrka prison, Moscow, Russian SFSR.
March, 2009[1]

By the Seimas

Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas.jpg Colonel
Adolfas Ramanauskas
(1918–1957)
Acting
26 November 1954

29 November 1957
In 1957, executed by shooting
in Vilnius, Lithuanian SSR.
November, 2018[2]

By the Seimas

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940–1941)[edit]

The Soviet Union occupied Lithuania and established the Lithuanian SSR in July 1940.

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania[edit]

Lithuanian: Lietuvos komunistų partijos Centro komiteto pirmasis sekretorius; Russian: Первый секретарь Центрального Комитета Коммунистической партии Литвы.

# Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

In office Party Chairman of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet
General Secretary of the CPSU
1 Emblem of Lithuanian SSR (early version).svg Antanas Sniečkus
(1903–1974)
21 July 1940

24 June 1941

Communist Party
of Lithuania
Justas Paleckis
(1899–1980)
Joseph Stalin
22 June 1941 — Nazi occupation of Lithuania

Generalbezirk Litauen (1941–1944)[edit]

As Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, Lithuania liberated itself with the anti-Soviet June Uprising and re-declared Lithuanian Independence. Lithuania was ruled for some time by the Provisional Government of Lithuania, whose prime minister was Juozas Ambrazevičius. The Provisional Government was formed on 23 June 1941, but was dissolved on 5 August of the same year.

Lithuania was occupied by the Germans, who formed Generalbezirk Litauen on 25 July 1941, which was governed by the administration of general commissioner Adrian von Renteln and was a part of Reichskommissariat Ostland.

General Commissioners of Generalbezirk Litauen[edit]

Lithuanian: Lietuvos generalinės srities generalinis komisaras; German: Generalkommissar des Generalbezirks Litauen.

# Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

In office Party General Counselor Reichskommissar of the Ostland
1 Adrian von Renteln.jpg Adrian von Renteln
(1897–1946)
August 1941

August 1944

Nazi Party General
Petras Kubiliūnas
(1894–1946)
Hinrich Lohse
19442nd Soviet occupation of Lithuania

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1944–1990)[edit]

As Nazi Germany retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied the country and reestablished the Lithuanian SSR in 1944. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet de jure acted as a collective head of state from 25 August 1940 to 11 March 1990. However, the Supreme Soviet de facto was controlled by the Communist Party of Lithuania led by the First Secretary.

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania[edit]

# Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

In office Party Chairman of the Presidium

of the Supreme Soviet

General Secretary of the CPSU
1 Emblem of Lithuanian SSR (early version).svg Antanas Sniečkus

(1903–1974)

13 July 1944

22 January 1974

Communist Party

of Lithuania

Justas Paleckis

(1899–1980)

Joseph Stalin
Nikita Khruschev
Leonid Brezhnev
Motiejus Šumauskas

(1905–1982)

Emblem of Lithuanian SSR (early version).svg Valery Khazarov

(1918–2013)

Acting

22 January 1974

18 February 1974

Communist Party

of Lithuania

Emblem of Lithuanian SSR (early version).svg Petras Griškevičius

(1924–1987)

18 February 1974

14 November 1987

Communist Party

of Lithuania

2
Antanas Barkauskas

(1899–1980)

Yuri Andropov
Konstantin Chernenko
Mikhail Gorbachev
Emblem of the Lithuanian SSR.svg Nikolay Mitkin

(1929–1998)

Acting

14 November 1987

1 December 1987

Communist Party

of Lithuania

Ringaudas Songaila

(1929–2019)

3 Emblem of the Lithuanian SSR.svg Ringaudas Songaila

(1929–2019)

1 December 1987

19 October 1988

Communist Party

of Lithuania

Vytautas Astrauskas

(1930–2017)

Algirdas Mykkolas Brazauskas, Litauens statsminster, under det Nordiskt-Baltiska statsministermotet i Reykjavik 2005-10-24.jpg Algirdas Brazauskas

(1932–2010)

15 January 1990

11 March 1990

Communist Party

of Lithuania

4
Algirdas Brazauskas

(1932–2010)

11 March 1990 — Restoration of Independence

Republic of Lithuania (1990–present)[edit]

The leader of the Supreme Council was the official head of state from the declaration of independence on 11 March 1990 until the new Constitution came into effect in 1992 establishing the office of President and the institution of Seimas. The state and its leadership were not recognized internationally until September 1991 [NB: Iceland was the first country to recognise the regained independence of Lithuania in February 1991.[3]Title from 1990 to 1992: Chairman of the Supreme Council (Parliament; Lithuanian: Aukščiausiosios Tarybos pirmininkas). Title from 1992 onwards: President (Lithuanian: prezidentas).

No Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Took office Left office Political party Affiliation/Notes
-
Landsbergis, Vytautas-0085.jpg
Vytautas Landsbergis
(born 1932)
11 March 1990 25 November 1992 Sąjūdis As Chairman of the Supreme Council.
Speaker of the Seimas Algirdas Brazauskas served as acting President from 25 November 1992 to 25 February 1993.
1
Algirdas Mykkolas Brazauskas, Litauens statsminster, under det Nordiskt-Baltiska statsministermotet i Reykjavik 2005-10-24.jpg
Algirdas Brazauskas
(1932–2010)
1993 25 February 1993 25 February 1998 Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania First president of the Republic of Lithuania
2
BDF Summit 2010.06.01 587 (4709180104) (cropped).jpg
Valdas Adamkus
(born 1926)
1997–98 26 February 1998 26 February 2003 Independent
3
2009 m. Respublikos Prezidento rinkimai Paksas (cropped).jpg
Rolandas Paksas
(born 1956)
2002–03 26 February 2003 6 April 2004 Order and Justice Impeached and removed from office.
Speaker of the Seimas Artūras Paulauskas served as acting President from 6 April to 12 July 2004.
(2)
BDF Summit 2010.06.01 587 (4709180104) (cropped).jpg
Valdas Adamkus
(born 1926)
2004 12 July 2004 12 July 2009 Independent
4
Dalia Grybauskaitė 2012-06-13 (2).jpg
Dalia Grybauskaitė
(born 1956)
2009
2014
12 July 2009 12 July 2019 Independent First female President of Lithuania. Became the first President to be reelected.
5
Gitanas Nauseda crop.png
Gitanas Nausėda
(born 1964)
2019 12 July 2019 Incumbent Independent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jonas Žemaitis-Vytautas". istorineprezidentura.lt. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  2. ^ "XIII-1651 Dėl Adolfo Ramanausko-Vanago pripažinimo Lietuvos valstybės vadovu" (in Lithuanian). Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Lithuania: "Thank you, Iceland!". Archived from the original on 8 March 2016.
  • History, Office of the President of the Republic of Lithuania. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  • (in Lithuanian) Vytautas Spečiūnas (ed.), Lietuvos valdovai (XIII-XVIII a.) (Rulers of Lithuania (13–18th centuries)), Mokslo ir enicklopedijų leidybos institutas, Vilnius 2004. ISBN 5-420-01535-8

External links[edit]