List of rulers of Maluku

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This is a list of rulers of Maluku from proto-historical times until the present. The four sultanates of Ternate, Tidore, Jailolo and Bacan were considered descendants of a legendary figure called Jafar Sadik and formed a ritual quadripartition. Drawing wealth from the spice production and trade with other parts of Asia, Ternate and Tidore lorded over extensive realms which stretched from Sulawesi to Papua, while Jailolo and Bacan merely had local significance. They fell under Portuguese or Spanish influence in the sixteenth century, superseded by Dutch impact in the seventeenth century. The sultanates were subordinated to the Dutch colonial state until 1942 when the Japanese occupied Indonesia. After the outbreak of the Indonesian revolution they belonged to the Dutch-approved quasi-state East Indonesia from 1946 to 1950 when they were incorporated in the unitary Indonesian state.

Sultans of Bacan[1][edit]

  • Muhammad Bakir (c. 1500) [son of Jafar Sadik]
  • Zainal Abidin (before 1512-c. 1557) [son]
  • Bayansirullah (Dom João) (c. 1557-1578/79) [son]
  • Dom Henrique (1578/79-1581) [brother]
  • Alauddin I (1581-c. 1609) [son of Bayansirullah]
  • Nurusalat (c. 1609-1649) [son]
  • Muhammad Ali (1649-1660) [son]
  • Alauddin II (1660-1706) [son]
  • Dutch protectorate 1667-1942/1946
  • Musa Malikuddin (1706-1715) [brother]
  • Kie Nasiruddin (1715-1732) [son of Alauddin II]
  • Hamza Tarafan Nur (1732-1741) [nephew]
  • Muhammad Sahaddin (1741-1780) [grandson of Musa Malikuddin]
  • Skandar Alam (1780-1788) [nephew]
  • Muhammad Badaruddin (1788-1797) [son of Kie Nasiruddin]
  • Kamarullah (1797-1826) [nephew]
  • Muhammad Hayatuddin Kornabé (1826-1861) [son]
  • Muhammad Sadik (1862-1889) [son]
  • Muhammad Usman (1900-1935) [son]
  • Muhammad Muhsin (1935-1983) [son]
  • Incorporation in Indonesian unitary state 1950
  • Muhammad Gahral (titular sultan 1983-2009) [son]
  • Muhammad Abdurrahim (titular sultan 2009-present) [son]

Sultans of Jailolo[a][edit]

Legendary list[edit]

  • Kaicil Darajati
  • Fataruba
  • Tarakabun
  • Nyiru
  • Kaicil Yusuf I
  • Dias
  • Bantari
  • Sugi
  • Hasanuddin
  • Kaicil Husain
  • Kaicil Yusuf II
  • Doa (rule of Tidore)
  • Kaicil Gugu Alam (male offspring Yusuf I)

Historical list[edit]

  • Kaicil Yusuf (fl. 1514-1521)
  • Kaicil Firuz Alauddin (c. 1532-1536) [son]
  • Katarabumi (1536-1552) [seizing legitimate possession]
  • Kaicili Guzarate (1552-?) [son]
  • Kodrat (?-c. 1605)
  • Dua (c. 1605-1613) [son; rule of Tidore]
  • Raja Buka (1613-1656) [son]
  • Kaicil Alam (gogugu [regent] c. (1679-1684) [son; married Princess of Ternate]
  • Rule of Ternate 1656-1797
  • Muhammad Arif Bila (1797-1806) [descendant of brother of Dua; rule of Tidore]
  • British occupation 1799-1802
  • Muhammad Asgar (1808-1818) [son; rule of Ternate]
  • Muhammad Hajuddin Syah (1818-1825) [brother]
  • Dano Baba Hasan (1875-1878) [grandnephew]
  • Rule of Ternate 1803-1950
  • Abdulah Harjanto Sjah (titular sultan 2003-2010) [descendant of Dano Baba Hasan; rule of Ternate]

Kings and Sultans of Ternate[b][edit]

  • Cico (king [kolano] 1257-1277)
  • Poit (1277-1284) [son]
  • Siale (1284-1298) [son]
  • Kalabata (1298-1304) [son]
  • Komalo (1304-1317) [son]
  • Patsaranga-ma-lamo (1317-1322) [brother]
  • Siding Arif (1322-1331) [nephew]
  • Paji-ma-lamo (1331-1332) [brother]
  • Syah Alam (1332-1343) [son of Patsaranga-ma-lamo]
  • Tolu-ma-lamo (1343-1347) [brother]
  • Boheyat I (1347-1350) [son of Siding Arif]
  • Ngolo-ma-caya (1350-1357) [brother]
  • Momole (1357-1359) [brother]
  • Gapi-ma-lamo (1359-1372) [brother]
  • Gapi Baguna I (1372-1377) [brother]
  • Komalo Pulu (1377-1432) [son of Tolu-ma-lamo]
  • Gapi Baguna II (1432-1465) [son]
  • Marhum (1465-1486) [son]
  • Zainal Abidin (sultan 1486-1500) [son]
  • Bayan Sirullah (1500-1521) [son]
  • Boheyat II (1522-1529) [son]
  • Dayal (1529-1533; died 1536) [brother]
  • Tabariji (1533-1535) [brother]
  • Hairun Jamilu (1535-1570) [brother]
  • Baabullah (1570-1583) [son]
  • Saidi Berkat (1583-1606; died 1628) [son]
  • Muzaffar Syah I (1607-1627) [son]
  • Hamza (1627-1648) [grandson of Hairun Jamilu]
  • Mandar Syah (1648-1675) [son of Muzaffar Syah I]
  • Sibori Amsterdam (1675-1689) [son]
  • Dutch protectorate 1683-1915
  • Said Fatuddin Toloko (1689-1714) [brother]
  • Kaicili Raja Laut (1714-1751) [son]
  • Outhoorn Ayan Syah (1752-1755) [son]
  • Amir Iskandar Muda Syah, Syah Mardan (1755-1764) [brother]
  • Jalaluddin, Kaicili Zwaardekroon (1764-1774) [brother]
  • Arun Syah (1774-1781) [brother]
  • Aharal (1781-1796) [son]
  • Sarkan (1796-1801) [son of Jalaluddin Kaicili Zwaardekroon]
  • Muhammad Jasin (1801-1807) [son of Arun Syah]
  • Muhammad Ali (1807-1821; died 1824) [brother]
  • Sarmole van der Parra (1821-1823) [brother]
  • Muhammad Zain 1823-1859) [son of Muhammad Jasin]
  • Muhammad Arsad (1861-1876) [son]
  • Ayanhar (1879-1900) [son]
  • Ilham (1900-1902) [son]
  • Muhammad Usman (1902-1915; died 1941) [brother]
  • Interregnum 1915-1929
  • Iskandar Muhammad Jabir Syah (1929-1975) [son]
  • Incorporation into Indonesian unitary state 1950
  • Mudaffar Sjah (titular sultan 1986-2015) [son]
  • Sjarifuddin Sjah (titular sultan 2016-present) [brother]

Kings and Sultans of Tidore[2][edit]

  • Sah Jati (king [kolano])
  • Busamuangi
  • Suhu
  • Balibungah
  • Duhu Madoya
  • Kie Matiti
  • Sele
  • Matagena
  • Jamaluddin, Ciri Leliati (sultan)
  • Al-Mansur I (before 1512-1526)
  • Amiruddin Iskandar Dul-Karna’in (1526-c. 1560) [son]
  • Kie Mansur (c. 1560-?) [son]
  • Kaicili Bungua (=Gapi Baguna?) (fl. 1570) [cousin]
  • Gaua, Iskandar Sani (?) (before 1582)
  • Gapi Baguna (before 1582-1599) [brother]
  • Mole Majimu (1599-1627) [son of Gaua]
  • Ngarolamo (1627-1634) [son]
  • Gorontalo (1634-1639) [nephew of Mole Majimu]
  • Saidi (1640-1657) [son of Ngarolamo]
  • Saifuddin, Golofino (1657-1689) [son of Gorontalo]
  • Dutch protectorate 1657/1780-1905
  • Hamza Faharuddin (1689-1705) [son]
  • Abdul Falali Mansur (1705-1708) [son]
  • Hasanuddin (1708-1728) [grandson of Gorontalo]
  • Amir Muiduddin Malikulmanan (1728-1757) [son of Abdul Falahi Mansur]
  • Amir Muhammad Masud Jamaluddin (1757-1779) [grandson of Saifuddin]
  • Gayjira (regent 1779-1780) [grandson of Hamza Faharuddin]
  • Patra Alam (1780-1783) [son]
  • Hairul Alam Kamaluddin (1784-1797) [great-grandson of Saifuddin]
  • Nuku, Muhammad al-Mabus Amiruddin Syah (1797-1805) [son of Jamaluddin]
  • Zainal Abidin (1805-1810) [brother]
  • Muhammad Tahir (1811-1821) [brother]
  • Al-Mansur Sirajuddin (1822-1856) [son]
  • Ahmad Saifuddin Alting (1856-1865) [son of Kamaluddin]
  • Said Ahmad Fathuddin Syah (1867-1892) [son]
  • Iskandar Sahajuhan (1893-1905) [son]
  • Regency 1905-1947
  • Zainal Abidin Alting (1947-1967) [descendant of Ahmad Saifuddin Alting]
  • Incorporation in Indonesian unitary state 1950
  • Haji Djafar Dano Junus (titular sultan 1999-2012) [descendant of Nuku]
  • Husain Syah (titular sultan 2012-) [descendant of Ahmad Saifuddin Alting]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973-1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I-IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974-1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I-III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, C. van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  2. ^ Early dates before 1500 are unreliable, and are given by Valentijn, Francois (1724-1726) Oud en nieuw Oost-Indien, Vol. I-V. Dordrecht & Amsterdam: Van Braam & Onde de Linden. The genealogy and chronology of the sultans are given in Fraassen, C. van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel, Vol. I-II. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).


References[edit]

  1. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  2. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c. 1780-1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill..

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andaya, Leonard Y. (1993) The world of Maluku. Honolulu: Hawaii University Press.
  • Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  • Fraassen, Christiaan van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  • Jacobs, Hubert (1974-1984) Documenta Molucensia, Vol. I-III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute.
  • Truhart, Peter (2003) Regents of nations. Part 3. Asia & Pacific Oceania. München: Saur.