List of rulers of Moldavia

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This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.

Notes[edit]

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons – being defined as os de domn – "of Voivode marrow", or as having hereghie – "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. Between 1821 and 1862, various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Moldavian rulers, like Wallachian and other Eastern European rulers, bore the titles of Voivode or/and Hospodar.

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

The list is brought up to date for the first rulers, following the documented studies of Ștefan S. Gorovei[1] and Constantin Rezachevici.[2]

List[edit]

Princes of Moldavia[edit]

Non-dynastic[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
DragosIofMoldavia.jpg Dragoș c. 1347 c. 1354 Described as an early ruler of Moldavia, he was sent there as a representative of king Louis I of Hungary to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde, where he ruled.
Sas c. 1354 c. 1363 son of Dragoș

House of Bogdan-Mușat[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Bogdan I of Moldavia.jpg Bogdan I the Founder c. 1363 1367 deposed Sas
Petru I 1367 July 1368 Grandson of Bogdan I [3]
Stamp of Moldova 196.gif Lațcu July 1368 1375 son of Bogdan I, deposed Petru I [3]
Petru I Musat.jpg Petru II Mușat 1375 December 1391 possibly son of Costea
Roman I Musat.jpg Roman I December 1391 March 1394 possibly son of Costea
Stamp of Moldova 345.gif Ștefan I March 1394 28 November 1399 son of Roman I
Iuga (George I) 28 November 1399 29 June 1400 son of Roman I, deposed by intervention of Mircea I of Wallachia
AlexandruCelBun-Neamt.JPG Alexandru I the Good 29 June 1400 1 January 1432 son of Roman I, installed by Mircea
Iliaș I 1 January 1432 September 1433 son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Ștefan II September 1433 4 August 1435 son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Iliaș I 4 August 1435 1 August 1442 2nd rule, jointly with Ștefan II since 8 March 1436
Ștefan II 8 March 1436 13 July 1447 2nd rule, 8 March 1436 – 1 January 1442 jointly with Iliaș; 1444–1445 jointly with Petru II
Petru III May 1444 1445 1st rule, jointly with Ștefan II.
Roman II 13 July 1447 22 August 1447 son of Iliaș; 1st rule
Petru III 22 August 1447 23 December 1447 2nd rule
Roman II 23 December 1447 between 23 February and 5 April 1448 2nd rule
Petru III 5 April 1448 10 October 1448 3rd rule
Csupor de Monoszló 10 October 1448 December 1448 Non-dynastic. Born in Croatia, he was a Hungarian nobleman, commander of troops of John Hunyadi. He was sent in support of Petru III to depose his brother Roman, but Petru died suddenly two months later. Csupor ascended at the throne. His name, literally Tub Voivode was mentioned by Grigore Ureche.
Alexandru II December 1448 12 January 1449 son of Iliaș I; 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 357.gif Bogdan II 12 January 1449 15 October 1451 nephew of Alexandru the Good.
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 15 October 1451 24 February 1452 illegitimate son of Alexandru the Good; 1st rule
Alexandru II 24 February 1452 22 August 1454 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 22 August 1454 between 8 December 1454 and 8 February 1455 2nd rule
Alexandru II 8 February 1455 25 March 1455 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 25 March 1455 12 April 1457 3rd rule
Stefan cel Mare.jpg Ștefan III the Great 12 April 1457 2 July 1504 son of Bogdan II. In his reign Moldavia reaches its zenith.
Stamp of Moldova 403.gif Bogdan III The One-Eyed 2 July 1504 22 April 1517 son of Ștefan III the Great;
Stefan al IV-lea.jpg Ștefan IV the Younger 22 April 1517 14 January 1527 son of Bogdan III; also called Ștefăniță until 1523 under the regency of Luca Arbore, Gatekeeper of Suceava
Rares.jpg Petru V Rareș 14 January 1527 14 September 1538 illegitimate son of Stephen the Great, 1st rule
Ștefan V Lăcustă
(Stephen V Locust)
21 September 1538 20 December 1540 grandson of Stephen the Great
Alexandru III Cornea 21 December 1540 9 or 16 February 1541 son of Bogdan III
Rares.jpg Petru V Rareș 9 or 16 February 1541 2 or 3 September 1546 2nd rule
IliasRares.jpg Ilie II Rareș 2 or 3 September 1546 30 May 1551 1st son of Petru Rareș
StefanRares.jpg Ștefan VI Rareș 30 May 1551 1 September 1552 2nd son of Petru Rareș
Ioan I Joldea between 4 and 12 September 1552 between 4 and 12 September 1552 Non-dynastic. Ruled 2 or 3 days in 1552.
Stamp of Moldova 143.gif Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 4 and 12 September 1552 30 November 1561 son of Bogdan III, brother of Ștefan IV; 1st rule
Iacob Eraclid Despot.jpg Ioan II Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides)
18 November 1561 9 November 1563 the Despot Vodă, non-dynastic.
Ștefan VII Tomșa 9 August 1563 between 20 February and 10 March 1564 Non-dynastic.
Stamp of Moldova 143.gif Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 20 February and 10 March 1564 9 March 1568 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 360.gif Bogdan IV 9 March 1568 15 February 1572 son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu
Ioan Voda.jpg Ioan III the Terrible 15 February 1572 11 June 1574 son of Ștefan IV; also called cel Viteaz) (the Brave)

Houses of Basarab (Drăculeşti line) and Bogdan-Muşat[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 1574 1577 Drăculești 1st rule
Ivan Pidkova only portrait.jpg Ioan IV Potcoavă November 1577 December 1577 Hetman, also called Ivan Pidkova, Nicoară Potcoavă or Ivan Sarpega. Non-dynastic.
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 1578 1579 Drăculești 2nd rule
Ioan V the Saxon 1579 1582 Bogdan-Mușat illegitimate son of Petru Rareș
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 1582 1591 Drăculești 3rd rule
Aaron I the Tyrant 1591 1592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu; 1st rule
Alexandru V the Wrongdoer 1592 1592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Bogdan IV; also ruled Wallachia (1592–1593)
Petru VII the Cossack 1592 1592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
Aaron I the Tyrant 1592 1595 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
063 - Stefan Razvan.jpg Ștefan VIII Răzvan 1595 1595

Houses of Basarab (Drăculești line) and Movilești[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Stamp of Moldova 192.gif Ieremia Movilă 1595 1600 Movilești grandson of Petru Rareș; 1st rule
MViteazul at Alba Iulia.jpg Mihail I Viteazul
(Michael I the Brave)
1600 1600 Drăculești also ruled Wallachia (1593–1600) and Transylvania (1599–1600)
Stamp of Moldova 192.gif Ieremia Movilă 1600 1606 Movilești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 255.gif Simion Movilă 1606 1607 Movilești brother of Iremia Movilă
Mihail II Movilă 1607 1607 Movileşti son of Ieremia Movilă; 1st rule
Constantin I Movilă 1607 1607 Movilești son of Ieremia Movilă; under the regency of his mother Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz; 1st rule
Mihail II Movilă 1607 1607 Movilești 2nd rule
Constantin I Movilă 1607 1611 Movilești under the regency of his mother; 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 229.gif Ștefan IX Tomșa 1611 1615 2nd rule
Alexandru VI Movilă 1615 1616 Movilești
Stamp of Moldova 444.gif Radu Mihnea 1616 1619 Drăculești 1st rule
GasparGratiani.jpg Gaspar Graziani 1619 1620

Various dynasties[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Alexandru VII Iliaş 1620 1621 Bogdan-Mușat nephew of Petru VI, Aron Tiranul and Bogdan IV; 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 229.gif Ștefan IX Tomșa 1621 1623 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 444.gif Radu Mihnea 1623 1626 Drăculești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 362.gif Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 1626 1629 Movilești 1st rule
Alexandru VIII Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
1626 1629 Drăculești 1st rule
Moise Movilă 1630 1631 Movilești 1st rule
Alexandru VII Iliaș 1631 1633 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 362.gif Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 1633 1633 Movilești 2nd rule
Moise Movilă 1633 1634 Movilești 2nd rule
Vasile Lupu.png Vasile Lupu 1634 1653 1st rule
106 - Gheorghe Stefan.jpg Gheorghe II Ștefan 1653 1653 1st rule
Vasile Lupu.png Vasile Lupu 1653 1653 2nd rule
106 - Gheorghe Stefan.jpg Gheorghe II Ștefan 1653 1658 2nd rule
114 - Gheorghe Ghica.jpg Gheorghe III Ghica 1658 1659 Ghica
Constantin Șerban 1659 1659 1st rule
Stefanica lupu.jpg Ștefan X Lupu 1659 1661 also called Papură-Vodă (Bullrush Voivode); 1st rule
Constantin Serban Basarab.jpg Constantin Șerban 1661 1661 2nd rule
Stefanica lupu.jpg Ștefan X Lupu 1659 1661 2nd rule
Eustratie Dabija 1661 1665
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 1665 1666 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 423.gif Iliaș III Alexandru 1666 1668 Bogdan-Mușat The last member of the House of Bogdan-Mușat reigning in Moldavia; son of Alexandru VII
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 1668 1672 2nd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 1672 1673 1st rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 1673 1673 Cantacuzene 1st rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 1673 1674 2nd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 1674 1675 Cantacuzene 2nd rule
123 - Antonie Ruset.jpg Antonie Ruset 1675 1678 Rosetti
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 1678 1683 3rd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 1683 1684 3rd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 1684 1685 Cantacuzene 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova 273.gif Constantin Cantemir 1685 1693 Cantemirești
Dimitrie Cantemir color.jpg Dimitrie Cantemir 1693 1693 Cantemirești 1st rule; deposed by Ottomans
Constantin Duca 1693 1695 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md414.jpg Antioh Cantemir 1695 1700 Cantemirești 1st rule
Constantin Duca 1700 1703 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuș
1703 1703 1st term
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihail III Racoviță 1703 1705 Racoviță 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md414.jpg Antioh Cantemir 1705 1707 Cantemirești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihail III Racoviță 1707 1709 Racoviță 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuș
1709 1710 2nd term
NicolaeMavrocordat.gif Nicolae Mavrocordat 1709 1710 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Dimitrie Cantemir color.jpg Dimitrie Cantemir 1710 1711 Cantemirești 2nd rule

Phanariotes (1711–1821)[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Caimacam
Lupu Costachi
1711 1711
Ioan Mavrocordat.jpg Ioan Mavrocordat 1711 1711 Mavrocordato
NicolaeMavrocordat.gif Nicolae Mavrocordat 1711 1715 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihai Racoviță 1715 1726 Racoviță 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 1726 1733 Ghica 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 1733 1735 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 1735 1739 Ghica 2nd rule
Russian occupation 1739 1739 Russo-Austrian-Turkish War (1735–1739)
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 1739 1741 Ghica 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 1741 1743 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Ioan II Mavrocordat 1743 1747 Mavrocordato son of Nicolae Mavrocordat and brother to Constantin Mavrocordat
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 1747 1748 Ghica 4th rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 1748 1749 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Iordache Stavrachi 1749 1749
Constantin Racoviță 1749 1753 Racoviță 1st rule
Matei Ghica.jpg Matei Ghica 1753 1756 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 1756 1757 Racoviță 2nd rule
Scarlat Ghica 1757 1758 Ghica
Ioan Callimachi.jpg Ioan Teodor Callimachi 1758 1761 Callimachi
Stamp of Moldova RM443..jpg Grigore Callimachi 1761 1764 Callimachi 1st rule
Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg Grigore III Ghica 1764 1767 Ghica 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova RM443..jpg Grigore Callimachi 1767 1769 Callimachi 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 1769 1769 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Russian occupation 1769 1774 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg Grigore III Ghica 1774 1777 Ghica 2nd rule
Constantin Moruzi.jpg Constantin Moruzi 1777 1782 Mourousi 4th rule
Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey 1782 1785 Mavrocordato
Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris 1785 1786 Mavrocordato
Stamp of Moldova md631.jpg Alexandru Ipsilanti 1786 1788 Ypsilanti
Austrian occupation 1787 1791 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Kherson-28102009(059).jpg Emanuel Giani Ruset 1788 1789 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Russian occupation 1788 1791 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 1792 1792 Mourousi 1st rule
Mihai Suțu 1793 1795 Soutzos also called Draco
Alexandru Callimachi.jpg Alexandru Callimachi 1795 1799 Callimachi
Constantin Ipsilanti.jpg Constantin Ipsilanti 1799 1801 Ypsilanti
Alexandru Sutu.jpg Alexandru Suțu 1801 1802 Soutzos
Chancellor
Iordache Conta
1802 1802
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 1802 1802 Mourousi 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 1806 1806 Callimachi 1st rule
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 1806 1807 Mourousi 3rd rule
Russian occupation 1806 1812 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in 1812.
(See also President of Moldova, for the rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in the 20th century.)
Alexandru Hangerli 1807 1807
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 1807 1807 Callimachi deposed by Russians
Caimacam
Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu
1807 1807 Rosetti
MitropVeniaminCostachi.jpg Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
1807 1812 1st term
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 1812 1819 Callimachi
Mihail Sutu.jpg Mihail Suțu 1819 1821 Soutzos
Stolnici
Manu and Rizos-Nerulos
1819 1819
MitropVeniaminCostachi.jpg Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
1821 1821 2nd term
Alexander2.jpg Filiki Eteria occupation 1821 1821 military commander: Alexander Ypsilantis
Stefanbogoridi.png Caimacam
Stefan Bogoridi
(Ștefan Vogoride)
1821 1822
Stamp of Moldova md632.jpg Ioan Sturdza 1822 1828
Russian occupation 1828 1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Mihail Sturdza watch.jpg Mihail Sturdza 1834 1849
Stamp of Moldova md629.jpg Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1849 1853 Ghica 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853 1854 Crimean War
Stamp of Moldova md629.jpg Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1854 1856 Ghica 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Extraordinary Administrative Council 1856 1856
Caimacam
Teodor Balș
1856 1857
Nikola-Bogoridi.jpg Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride
1857 1858
Caimacams 1858 1859 Ștefan Catargiu, Vasile Sturdza and Anastasie Panu
(Catargiu resigns in 1858 and is replaced by Ioan A. Cantacuzino)
Al I Cuza.jpg Alexander John Cuza 1859 1862 also ruled Wallachia in personal union
Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1862.

For later rulers, see Domnitor and King of Romania.

References[edit]

  • Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001,
  1. ^ Gorovei, Ștefan S., Întemeierea Moldovei. Probleme controversate, Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iași, 1997, ISBN 973-9149-74-X
  2. ^ Rezachevici, Constantin, Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova, a. 1324 - 1881, vol. I, Editura Enciclopedică, București, 2001, ISBN 973-45-0387-1
  3. ^ a b Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001