List of rulers of Oman

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Sultan of Oman
سلطان عمان
Royal Standard of Oman.svg
Incumbent
Secretary Pompeo Meets with the Sultan of Oman Haitham bin Tariq Al Said (49565463757) (cropped).jpg
Haitham bin Tariq Al Said
since 11 January 2020
Details
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentTheyazin bin Haitham
First monarchAl-Julanda bin Masud (imamate)
Ahmad bin Said (as Sultan)
Formation751 (imamate)
1744 (Al Busaid Dynasty)
ResidenceAl Alam Palace
Websitewww.oman.om

The sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman. It is the most powerful position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the Al Busaidi dynasty, which has been the ruling family of Oman since the mid-18th century.

Haitham bin Tariq Al Said is the current sultan, serving since 11 January 2020. [1]

List of Imams (751–1959)[edit]

Imams Tribe Residence Began to reign Reference
Transliteration of the Arab names Names in Arab script
Al-Julanda bin Masud الجلندى بن مسعود Azd Sohar 751 [2]
Mohammed bin Abi Affan محمد بن أبي عفان Azd Nizwa ? [3]
Al-Warith bin Ka'ab الوارث بن كعب Yahmad Nizwa 801 [4]
Ghassan bin Abdullah غسان بن عبد الله Yahmad Nizwa 807 [5]
Abdulmalik bin Humaid عبد المالك بن حميد Azd ? 824 [6]
Al-Muhanna bin Jayfar المهنا بن جيفر Yahmad Nizwa 840 [7]
Al-Salt bin Malik الصلت بن مالك Azd ? 851 [8]
Rashid bin Al-Nadhar راشد بن النظر ? ? 886 [9]
Azzan bin Tamim عزان بن تميم ? Nizwa 890 [10]
Mohammed bin Al-Hassan محمد بن الحسن Azd ? 897 [11]
Azzan bin Al-Hazbar عزان بن الهزبر Yahmad ? 898 [12]
Abdullah bin Mohammed عبد الله بن محمد ? ? 899 [13]
Al-Salt bin Al-Qasim الصلت بن القاسم ? ? 900 [14]
Al-Husn bin Said الحسن بن سعيد ? ? 900 [15]
Al-Hawari bin Matraf الحواري بن مطرف ? ? 904 [16]
Omar bin Mohammed عمر بن محمد ? ? 912 [17]
Mohammed bin Yazid محمد بن يزيد Kinda ? ? [18]
Al-Hakm bin Al-Milaa Al-Bahri الحكم بن الملا البحري Bahri Nizwa ? [19]
Said bin Abdullah سعيد بن عبد الله ? ? 939 [20]
Rashid bin Waleed راشد بن الوليد ? Nizwa ? [21]
Al-Khalil bin Shadhan الخليل بن شاذان Kharusi ? 1002 [22]
Rashid bin Said راشد بن سعيد Yahmad ? 1032 [23]
Hafs bin Rashid حفص بن راشد ? ? 1068 [24]
Rashid bin Ali راشد بن علي ? ? 1054 [25]
Musa bin Jabir ابن جابر موسى ? Nizwa 1154 [26]
Malik bin Aly مالك بن علي ? ? 1406 [27]
Salim bin Rashid Al Kharusi Azdi, Yamani, Qahtani ? 1913 - 1919
Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al Khalili ? 1919 - 1954
Ghalib Alhinai ? 1954 - 1959

List of Imams (1406–1749)[edit]

Nabhani dynasty (1406–1624)[edit]

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Makhzum bin al Fallah No image.png 1406 1435
Abul Hassan of Oman No image.png 1435 1451
Omar bin al Khattab No image.png 1451 1490
Omar al Sharif No image.png 1490 1500
Muhammad bin Ismail No image.png 1500 1529 Portuguese protectorate imposed on 15 April 1515.
Barakat bin Muhammad No image.png 1529 1560
Abdulla bin Muhammad No image.png 1560 1624

Yaruba dynasty (1624–1749)[edit]

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Nasir bin Murshid No image.png 1624 1649
Sultan bin Saif No image.png 1649 1679 Portuguese protectorate ended with their expulsion on 1 January 1650.
Bil'arab bin Sultan No image.png 1679 1692
Saif bin Sultan No image.png 1692 1711
Sultan bin Saif II No image.png 1711 1718
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1718 1719
Muhanna bin Sultan No image.png 1719 1720
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1720 1722 Second reign
Ya'arab bin Bel'arab No image.png 1722 1722
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1722 1724 Third reign
Muhammad bin Nasir No image.png 1724 1728 Not a member of the dynasty
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1728 1742 Fourth reign; at first in the coastal area only
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image.png 1728 1737 First reign; in the interior
Sultan bin Murshid No image.png 1742 1743
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image.png 1743 1749 Second reign; in the interior

List of Sultans[edit]

Al Busaidi dynasty (1749–present)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ahmad bin Said
  • أحمد بن سعيد
1710 –
15 December 1783(1783-12-15) (aged 73)
10 June 174915 December 1783From 1744 in the coastal regionAl Said
Said bin Ahmad
  • سعيد بن أحمد
1741 – 1811 (aged 70)15 December 17831784Son of Ahmad bin SaidAl Said
Hamad bin Said
  • حمد بن سعيد
? – 13 March 1792178413 March 1792Son of Said bin AhmadAl Said
Sultan bin Ahmad
  • سلطان بن أحمد
1755 –
17 November 1804 (aged 48-49)
18 March 179217 November 1804Son of Ahmad bin SaidAl Said
Salim bin Sultan
  • سالم بن سلطان
(1790-09-11)11 September 1790 –
4 April 1821(1821-04-04) (aged 30)
18 November 180414 September 1806Son of Sultan bin AhmadAl Said
Said bin Sultan
  • سعيد بن سلطان
(1791-06-05)5 June 1791 –
19 October 1856(1856-10-19) (aged 65)
20 November 180419 October 1856Son of Sultan bin AhmadAl SaidSaid bin Sultan
Thuwaini bin Said
  • ثويني بن سعيد
1821 –
11 February 1866(1866-02-11) (aged 45)
19 October 185611 February 1866Son of Said bin SultanAl SaidThuwaini bin Said
Salim bin Thuwaini
  • سالم بن ثويني
1839 –
7 December 1876(1876-12-07) (aged 37)
11 February 18663 October 1868Son of Thuwaini bin Said
Deposed
Al Said
Azzan bin Qais
  • سعيد بن أحمد
? - 30 January 18713 October 186830 January 1871Great-great-grandson of Ahmad bin SaidAl SaidAzzan bin Qais
Turki bin Said
  • تركي بن سعيد
1832 –
4 June 1888(1888-06-04) (aged 56)
30 January 18714 June 1888Son of Said bin SultanAl SaidTurki bin Said
Faisal bin Turki
  • فيصل بن تركي
(1864-06-08)8 June 1864 –
5 October 1913(1913-10-05) (aged 49)
4 June 18885 October 1913Son of Turki bin SaidAl SaidFaisal bin Turki
Taimur bin Faisal
  • تيمور بن فيصل
1886 –
28 January 1965(1965-01-28) (aged 79)
5 October 191310 February 1932Son of Faisal bin Turki
Abdicated
Al SaidTaimur bin Feisal
Said bin Taimur
  • سعيد بن تيمور‎
(1910-08-13)13 August 1910 –
19 October 1972(1972-10-19) (aged 62)
10 February 193223 July 1970Son of Taimur bin Feisal
Deposed
Al SaidSaid bin Taimur
Qaboos bin Said
  • قابوس بن سعيد
(1940-11-18)18 November 1940 –
10 January 2020(2020-01-10) (aged 79)
23 July 197010 January 2020Son of Said bin TaimurAl SaidQaboos bin Said
Haitham bin Tariq
  • هيثم بن طارق
(1955-10-13)13 October 195511 January 2020IncumbentGrandson of Taimur bin FeisalAl SaidHaitham bin Tariq


List of the Head of government[edit]

Chief ministers (Wazir)[edit]

1832–1856: Sulayman bin Hamad al-Busa`idi (b. c.1785 – d. 1873)

1868–1870: Sa`id bin Khalfan al-Khalili (b. 1811 – d. 1870)

1871–13 Aug 1873: Thuwayni bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi (b. 1838 – d. 1873)

1873–1888: Sa`id bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi (1st time) (b. 1840 – d. 1901)

1888–1895: Muhammad bin `Azzan al-Busa`idi

1896–1901: Sa`id bin Muhammad al-Busa`idi (2nd time) (s.a.)

1900–1920: Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Ghasham (b. 18.. – d. 1929)

1920: Daniel Vincent McCollum (b. 1886 – d. 1967)

Chairmen of the Council of Deputies[edit]

Apr 1920–1926: Nadir bin Faysal al-Busa`idi (b. 1888 – d. 1971)

1926–1928: Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Ghasham (s.a.)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)[edit]

1929–1970: Sa`id bin Taimur (s.a.)

28 Jul 1970–14 Aug 1970: Barayq bin Hamad (acting)

14 Aug 1970–2 Jan 1972: Tariq bin Taimur (b. 1921 - d. 1980) (non-party)

Since 2 Jan 1972: the Sultans

Succession[edit]

Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos did not publicly name an heir. Article 6 of the constitution says the Royal Family Council has three days to choose a new sultan from the date the position falls vacant. If the Royal Family Council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of the Defence Council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the upper and lower houses of the consultative assemblies.[28] Analysts saw the rules as an elaborate means of Sultan Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it was considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.[28]

Qaboos had no children, and only one sister, Sayyida Umaima, but no male siblings; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle, Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said, Oman's first prime minister (and his former father-in-law). Oman watchers believed the top contenders to succeed Qaboos were three of Tariq's sons: Assad bin Tariq Al Said, Deputy Prime Minister[29] for International Relations and Cooperation[30] and the Sultan's special representative; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired commander of the Royal Navy of Oman; and Haitham bin Tariq, the Minister of Heritage and National Culture.[28][31]

On 11 January 2020, Oman state TV said the Royal Family Council, in a letter to the Defense Council, have decided to defer to the choice that the late Sultan had named in his will, and thus had opened the letter by Sultan Qaboos bin Said naming his successor, announcing shortly that Haitham bin Tariq is the country's ruling sultan.[32] Haitham bin Tariq has two sons and two daughters.[33][34]

On 12 January 2021, the current Sultan, Haitham bin Tariq officially changed the Basic Law of State, stipulating the creation of the post for the Crown Prince of Oman and appointed his first son, Sayyid Dhi Yazan bin Haitham as the apparent successor, making him the first Crown Prince of the Sultanate.

Changes to the rules of succession[edit]

On 11 January 2021, the new Sultan, Haitham bin Tariq changed the Basic law of the state and charted out the procedures for succession in the future.

As per the new rules, The power shall be transferred from the Sultan to his eldest son and then to the eldest son of the Heir Apparent. In case the eldest son of the sultan is no more, then the power will be transferred to the eldest son of the Heir Apparent.

If the Heir Apparent has no sons, then the power should be transferred to the eldest of his brothers. In Case the heir apparent has no brothers, then the powers shall transfer to the son of the eldest of his brothers and so on as per the sequence of the ages of the brothers.

In case there exists no brothers or sons of brothers to the Heir Apparent, then the rule shall transfer to the uncles(only from the fathers' side) and their sons as per the order set by the paragraph(2) of the Basic Law of the State. It is also stated the Heir apparent must be a Muslim and Legitimate son of Omani Muslim parents.

Article (3) of the Law states that if the transfer of power is made to a person aged under 21, then the power of the Sultan shall be undertaken by a trusteeship council appointed by a Royal Will and in case of non-appointment of such a council before his death, the Royal Family Council will appoint a trusteeship council comprising one of the brothers of the Sultan and two sons of his uncles.

The system of the trusteeship council shall be issued by a Royal Decree.  Article (7) states that a Royal Order shall be issued on the appointment of the Heir Apparent to assume power and the prerogatives and duties to be assigned to him.   

The Heir Apparent shall be sworn in before the Sultan before exercising his prerogatives and duties.

Article (8) says that in case it is not temporarily possible for the Sultan to exercise his powers, then the Heir Apparent shall assume such powers.

Standard of the Sultan[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (Pre-Islam – 12th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (13th Century AD – 18th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "The Al Bu Said Dynasty". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
Specific
  1. ^ "Oman's new ruler Haitham bin Tariq takes oath: newspapers". Reuters. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 7
  3. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 9
  4. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 10
  5. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 12
  6. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 15
  7. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 16
  8. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  9. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  10. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 20
  11. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  12. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  13. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  14. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  15. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  16. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  17. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 27
  18. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 28
  19. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  20. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  21. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 30
  22. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  23. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  24. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  25. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  26. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  27. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  28. ^ a b c Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  29. ^ "In Oman, a train-of-succession mystery: Who follows Qaboos?". 17 April 2017 – via Christian Science Monitor.
  30. ^ "Here is why Social Development Ministry honoured 32 private firms". Times of Oman. Retrieved 2018-12-01.
  31. ^ "Sultan Qaboos of Oman dies aged 79". 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  32. ^ "Oman names culture minister as successor to Sultan Qaboos". AP NEWS. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  33. ^ "Oman's new ruler chosen to provide continuity". 11 January 2020 – via www.reuters.com.
  34. ^ "Who is the new Sultan of Oman?". Tehran Times. 13 January 2020.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]