List of rulers of Oman

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Sultan of Oman
سلطان عمان
Royal Standard of Oman.svg
Incumbent
Omani Qaboos bin Said Al Said (cropped).jpg
Qaboos
since 23 July 1970
Details
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentNone currently designated
First monarchAl-Julanda bin Mas'ood (imamate)
Ahmad bin Said (Al Bu Said dynasty)
Formation751 (imamate)
1744 (Al Said Dynasty)
ResidenceSeveral palaces
Websitewww.oman.om
National emblem of Oman.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Oman
Cabinet

The Sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman. It is the most powerful position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the Al Said dynasty, which is the ruling family of Oman since the mid-18th century.

Since 23 July 1970, Qaboos bin Said al Said is the current sultan.

List of Imams (751–1406)[edit]

Imams Tribe Residence Began to reign Reference
Transliteration of the Arab names Names in Arab script
Al-Julanda bin Mas'ood الجلندى بن مسعود Azd ? 751 [1]
Mohammed bin Abi Affan محمد بن أبي عفان Azd Nizwa ? [2]
Al-Warith bin Ka'ab الوارث بن كعب Yahmad Nizwa 801 [3]
Ghassan bin Abdullah غسان بن عبد الله Yahmad Nizwa 807 [4]
Abdulmalik bin Humaid عبد المالك بن حميد Azd ? 824 [5]
Al-Muhanna bin Jayfar المهنا بن جيفر Yahmad Nizwa 840 [6]
Al-Salt bin Malik الصلت بن مالك Azd ? 851 [7]
Rashid bin Al-Nadhar راشد بن النظر ? ? 886 [8]
Azzan bin Tamim عزان بن تميم ? Nizwa 890 [9]
Mohammed bin Al-Hassan محمد بن الحسن Azd ? 897 [10]
Azzan bin Al-Hazbar عزان بن الهزبر Yahmad ? 898 [11]
Abdullah bin Mohammed عبد الله بن محمد ? ? 899 [12]
Al-Salt bin Al-Qasim الصلت بن القاسم ? ? 900 [13]
Al-Husn bin Said الحسن بن سعيد ? ? 900 [14]
Al-Hawari bin Matraf الحواري بن مطرف ? ? 904 [15]
Omar bin Mohammed عمر بن محمد ? ? 912 [16]
Mohammed bin Yazid محمد بن يزيد Kinda ? ? [17]
Al-Hakm bin Al-Milaa Al-Bahri الحكم بن الملا البحري ? Nizwa ? [18]
Said bin Abdullah سعيد بن عبد الله ? ? 939 [19]
Rashid bin Waleed راشد بن الوليد ? Nizwa ? [20]
Al-Khalil bin Shadhan الخليل بن شاذان ? ? 1002 [21]
Rashid bin Said راشد بن سعيد ? ? 1032 [22]
Hafs bin Rashid حفص بن راشد ? ? 1068 [23]
Rashid bin Ali راشد بن علي ? ? 1054 [24]
Musa bin Jabir ابن جابر موسى ? Nizwa 1154 [25]
Salim bin Rashid Al Kharusi Azdi, Yamani, Qahtani ? 1331 - 1338 [26]
Malik bin Aly مالك بن علي ? ? 1406 [27]

List of Imams (1406–1749)[edit]

Nabhani dynasty (1406–1624)[edit]

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Makhzum bin al Fallah No image.png 1406 1435
Abul Hassan of Oman No image.png 1435 1451
Omar bin al Khattab No image.png 1451 1490
Omar al Sharif No image.png 1490 1500
Muhammad bin Ismail No image.png 1500 1529 Portuguese protectorate imposed on 15 April 1515.
Barakat bin Muhammad No image.png 1529 1560
Abdulla bin Muhammad No image.png 1560 1624

Yaruba dynasty (1624–1749)[edit]

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Nasir bin Murshid No image.png 1624 1649
Sultan bin Saif No image.png 1649 1679 Portuguese protectorate ended with their expulsion on 1 January 1650.
Bil'arab bin Sultan No image.png 1679 1692
Saif bin Sultan No image.png 1692 1711
Sultan bin Saif II No image.png 1711 1718
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1718 1719
Muhanna bin Sultan No image.png 1719 1720
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1720 1722 Second reign
Ya'arab bin Bel'arab No image.png 1722 1722
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1722 1724 Third reign
Muhammad bin Nasir No image.png 1724 1728 Not a member of the dynasty
Saif bin Sultan II No image.png 1728 1742 Fourth reign; at first in the coastal area only
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image.png 1728 1737 First reign; in the interior
Sultan bin Murshid No image.png 1742 1743
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image.png 1743 1749 Second reign; in the interior

List of Sultans[edit]

Al Said dynasty (1749–present)[edit]

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi No image.png 10 June 1749 15 December 1783 From 1744 in the coastal region
Said bin Ahmad No image.png 15 December 1783 1784 Last direct male descendant of Al Bu Said to hold the office of Imam. He abdicated secular power to his son Hamad and retired to Al-Rustaq where he died in 1803.[28]
Hamad bin Said No image.png 1784 13 March 1792
Sultan bin Ahmad No image.png 13 March 1792 20 November 1804
Salim bin Sultan No image.png 20 November 1804 14 September 1806 Co-Rulers
Said bin Sultan Said Bin Sultan.jpg
Said II bin Sultan 14 September 1806 19 October 1856 Sole Ruler
Thuwaini bin Said No image.png 19 October 1856 11 February 1866 Killed
Salim II bin Thuwaini No image.png 11 February 1866 3 October 1868 Deposed
Azzan bin Qais No image.png 3 October 1868 30 January 1871 Killed
Turki bin Said Turki ibn Said.jpg 30 January 1871 4 June 1888
Faisal bin Turki Faysal bin Turki.jpg 4 June 1888 9 October 1913 British protectorate imposed on 20 March 1891.[29][30]
Taimur bin Feisal 9 October 1913 10 February 1932 Abdicated
Said III bin Taimur 10 February 1932 23 July 1970 Deposed
Qaboos bin Said Omani Qaboos bin Said Al Said (cropped).jpg 23 July 1970 Incumbent British protectorate ended on 2 December 1971.

Succession[edit]

Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos has not publicly named an heir. This became a particular concern after the sultan spent eight months in Germany for medical treatment of an alleged cancer. Although Sultan Qaboos returned to Oman on 23 March 2015 and state officials as well as the Sultan himself repeatedly assured the population over his health, the question of his succession still generates speculation.[31] Article 6 of the constitution says the royal family should choose a new sultan within three days of the position falling vacant. If the royal family council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of a defence council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the two quasi-parliamentary advisory assemblies.[32] Analysts see the rules as an elaborate means of sultan Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it is considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.[32]

Qaboos has no children; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including several paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle, Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said, Oman's first prime minister before the sultan took over the position himself (and his former father-in-law).[33] Oman watchers believe the top contenders to succeed Qaboos are three of Tariq's sons: Assad bin Tariq Al Said, the personal representative of the Sultan; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired naval commander; and Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, the Minister of Heritage and National Culture.[32][34] First Deputy Prime Minister Fahd bin Mahmud al-Said, a distant cousin of the Sultan, and Taimur bin Assad, the son of Assad bin Tariq, are also mentioned as potential candidates.[32] The problem is that none of the above seem to have the necessary capacities to rule Oman, since Sultan Qaboos, differently from the other Persian Gulf countries, has relied more on the business elite than on family members, who have been excluded from key positions, to secure his power over the country. His successor will have to strive to secure the same legitimacy that the current Sultan has managed to gain. Moreover, the question raises whether also the next successor will keep the same absolute power in his hands or whether he will decide to separate State powers, given that although Oman has been largely untouched by the 2011 Arab Spring, unrest has kept on sweeping through the country throughout 2012 and 2013.[31]

Standard of the Sultan[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (Pre-Islam – 12th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (13th Century AD – 18th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "The Al Bu Said Dynasty". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
Specific
  1. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 7
  2. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 9
  3. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 10
  4. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 12
  5. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 15
  6. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 16
  7. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  8. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  9. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 20
  10. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  11. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  12. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  13. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  14. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  15. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  16. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 27
  17. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 28
  18. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  19. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  20. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 30
  21. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  22. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  23. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  24. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  25. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  26. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  27. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  28. ^ Rentz, George (1997) Oman and the south-eastern shore of Arabia Ithaca Press, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom : pages 204-205, ISBN 0-86372-199-0
  29. ^ See Persian Gulf Residency
  30. ^ Oman
  31. ^ a b "Sultan Qaboos Is Back, but Uncertainty Remains – Fanack Chronicle". Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  32. ^ a b c d Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  33. ^ HH Prince Sayyid Tarik bin Taimur al-Said Archived 1 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  34. ^ "The Question of Succession". Muscat Confidential. Retrieved 2 August 2012.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Buyers, Christopher. "Oman". The Royal Ark: Royal and Ruling Houses of Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Retrieved 2010-08-08.