List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms

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Arsacids of Armenia 12–428 AD[edit]

  1. Vonones 12–16 (Former king of Parthia as Vonones I)
  2. Orodes 16–18 (Son of Artabanus III king of Parthia)
  3. Artaxias III 18–35 (From the house of Polemon)
  4. Arsaces I 35 (Son of Artabanus III king of Parthia)
  5. Orodes 35 (Again)
  6. Mithridates I 35–37 (Son of Mithridates (IV) king of Iberia)
  7. Orodes 37–42 (Again)
  8. Mithridates I 42–52 (Again)
  9. Rhadamistus 52–54 (Son of Pharasmanes (III) king of Iberia)
  10. Tiridates I 54–60 (Son of Vonones II king of Parthia & Medes)
  11. Tigranes VI 60–62 (From the house of Herod)
  12. Tiridates I 62–c. 75 (Again)
  13. Unknown king c. 75–89 (Probably Vologases II of Parthia)
  14. Sanatruces I 89–109 (Son of Vologases I of Parthia)
  15. Axidares (Ashkhadar) 110–113 (Son of Pacorus II king of Parthia)
  16. Parthamasiris (Partamasir) 113–114 (Son of Pacorus II king of Parthia)
    • Roman occupation 114–115
  17. Mithridates II 114–116 (Brother of Sanatruces I & Osroes I king of Parthia)
  18. Sanatruces II 116 (Son of Mithridates II)
  19. Vologases I from 116 (Son of Sanatruces I)
  20.  ?Achaemenes until 138/144
  21. Sohaemus 138/144–161 (Son of Achaemenes)
  22. Pacorus I 161–164 (Aurelius Pacorus)
  23. Sohaemus 164–178 (Again)
  24. Vologases II 178–197
  25. Unknown king 197-215
  26. Khosrov I 215–216 (Son of Vologases II)
    • Roman occupation 216-217
  27. Tiridates II 217–222
  28.  ?Khosrov (II) 222–238
  29.  ?Tiridates (III) 238–253
    • Sasanian occupation 253-279
  30. Hormozd-Ardashir 253-270 (Later king of Iran as Hormizd I son of Shapur I Sassanid)
  31. Narseh 270-293 (Later king of Iran as Narseh son of Shapur I Sassanid)
  32. Artavasdes VI c. 260
  33. Khosrov II 279–287
  34. Tiridates (IV) 287–298
  35. Tiridates III 298–330
  36. Pacorus II 330 (Usurper)
  37. Khosrov III 330–338
  38. Tigranes VII 338–351
  39. Arsaces II (Arshak II) 351–367
  40. Papas (Pap) 367–374
  41. Varasdates (Varazdat) 374–378
  42. Vologases III 378–386 (Co-ruler with Arsaces III (Arshak III))
  43. Arsaces III 378–389 (Co-ruler with Vologases III then Khosrov IV)
  44. Khosrov IV 386–392 (Co-ruler with Arsaces III & then alone)
  45. Vramshapuh 392–414
  46. Khosrov IV 414–416 (Again)
  47. Tigranes VIII 416 co-ruler with Arsaces IV
  48. Arsaces IV 416 co-ruler with Tigranes VIII
  49. Shapur 416–420 (Later king of Iran as Shapur IV son of Yazdegerd I Sassanid)
  50. Artaxias IV 422–428

Arsacids of Media 144 BC – 232 AD[edit]

  1. Vologases (Bagasha) 144–122 BC[1]
  2. Arsaces 122–111[1]
  3. Artaxerxes 111–97[1]
  4. Artabanus 97–88[1]
  5. Mithridates 88–67[1]
  6. Darius 67–65[1]
  7. Mithridates 65–55
  8. Orodes 55–50
  9. Pacorus 50–38
  10.  ?Tiridates c. 30–25
  11.  ?Mithridates 12–9 BC[2]
  12.  ?Orodes c. 4–6 AD
  13. Artabanus 9–12 AD
    • ....
  14. Vonones c. 45–51
  15. Pacorus 51–75 son of Vonones
    • ....
  16. Arsaces c. 136 AD
  17.  ?Pacorus to 163 AD
    • ....
  18. Vologases to 208
    • ....
  19. Artabanus 213–226
  20. Pacorus from 226 AD son of Artabanus

Arsacids of Iberia 123 BC – c. 230 AD[edit]

Arsacid kings of Iberia
Ruler Year
Rev I 189 to 216
Vache 216 to 234
Bacurius I 234 to 249
Mithridates II 249 to 265
Amazaspus III 260 to 265
Aspacures I 265 to 284

Arsacids of Caucasian Albania 123 BC – c .490 AD[edit]

  1. Vachagan I the Brave
  2. Vache I
  3. Urnayr
  4. Vachagan II
  5. Mirhavan
  6. Satoy
  7. Asay
  8. Aswagen
  9. Vache
  10. Vachagan III the Pious

Arsacids of Hyrcania c. 170 BC – c. 230 AD[edit]

  1. Arsaces c. 165 BC son of Phraates I
  2. Himerus to 129 BC
  3. Otanes c. 70 BC
  4. Artabanus c. 9–40 AD
  5. Gotarzes 40–51 AD

Kings of Sistan c. 20 –c. 240 AD[edit]

  • Main Indo-Parthian rulers
  1. Gondophares I (c. 20 BC – first years AD) Coin
  2. Gondophares II Sarpedones (first years AD – c. 20 AD)Coin
  3. Abdagases I (first years AD – mid-1st century AD) Coin
  4. Gondophares III Gadana, previously Orthagnes (c. 20 AD – 30 AD?)
  5. Gondophares IV Sases, previously Sases, (mid-1st century AD)
  6. Pacores (late 1st century AD) Coin

Kings of Merv & Abarshahr[3] c. 10–c. 250 AD[edit]

  1.  ? cont. with Phraates V
  2.  ? cont. with Artabanus II
  3.  ? cont. with Gotarzes II and Vardanes I
  4. D... c. 50 AD
  5. Po... cont. with Vologases I
  6. Sanabares c. 2nd half of the 1st century AD
  7. Pacores c. 100 AD
  8.  ? cont. with Vologases III and Mithridates IV
  9.  ? cont. with Vologases III and Mithridates IV
  10. Tiren cont. with Vologases IV
  11.  ? cont. with Vologases IV
  12. Ardashir c. 200 AD
  13.  ? 1st half of the 3rd century
  14.  ? 1st half of the 3rd century
  15.  ? c. 250 AD

Kings of Persis[4] c. 230 BC – c. 210 AD[edit]

Name Date Family Relations Note
1 Vahbarz I beg. of 3rd century BC  ? leader of a revolution against Seleucids
2 Baykard  ?  ?
3 Baydad end of 3rd/ beg. of 2nd century BC son of Baykard sub-Seleucid
4 Ardashir I 1st half of 2nd century  ? sub-Seleucid
5 Vahbarz II 1st half of 2nd century  ?
6 Vadfradad I mid-2nd century son of Vahbarz Vadfradad I and his successors were as sub-Parthian dynasts.
7 Vadfradad II c. 140  ?
8 ‘Unknown king I’ (Syknlt?) 2nd half of 2nd century  ?
9 Darev I end of 2nd century  ?
10 Vadfradad III 1st half of 1st century  ?
11 Darev II 1st century son of Vadfradad III
12 Ardashir II 2nd half of 1st century son of Darev II killed by his brother Vahshir I
13 Vahshir I 2nd half of 1st century son of Darev II
14 Pakor I 1st half of 1st century AD son of Vahshir I
15 Pakor II 1st half of 1st century  ?
16 Nambed mid-1st century son of Ardashir II
17 Napad 2nd half of 1st century son of Nambed
18 ‘Unknown king II’ end of 1st century  ?
19 Vadfradad IV 1st half of 2nd century  ?
20 Manchihr I 1st half of 2nd century  ?
21 Ardashir III 1st half of 2nd century son of Manchihr I
22 Manchihr II mid-2nd century son of Ardashir III
23 Pakor III[5] 2nd half of 2nd century  ?
24 Manchihr III 2nd half of 2nd century son of Manchihr II
25 Ardashir IV end of 2nd century son of Manchihr III
26 Vahshir II c. 206-210 AD  ? The last of Bazarangids.
27 Shapur beg. of 3rd century Brother of the first Sasanian, Ardashir I

Rulers of Hatra[edit]

In inscriptions found at Hatra, several rulers are mentioned. Other rulers are sporadically mentioned by classical authors. They appear with two titles. The earlier rulers are called mry´ (translation uncertain, perhaps administrator), the later ones mlk -king.

Name Title Date Family Relations Note
1 Worod mry´
2 Ma’nu mry´
3 Elkud mry´ 155/156 AD
4 Nashrihab mry´ 128/29 - 137/38 AD
5 Naṣru mry´ 128/29 - 176/77
6 Wolgash I mry´ and mlk - King
7 Sanatruq I mry´ and mlk - King 176/177 AD ruled together with Wolgash I
8 Wolgash (II?) son of Wolgash (I)
9 Abdsamiya mlk - King 192/93 - 201/202 AD Supported the Roman emperor Pescennius Niger
10 Sanatruq II mlk - King 207/08 - 229/230 AD

Kings of Elymais[6] c. 147 BC – c. 224 AD[edit]

  1. Kamnaskires I Megas Soter (c. 147–c. 145 BC)
  2. Kamnaskires II Nikephoros (c 145–c. 139 BC)
  3. Okkonapses (c. 139/138 BC)
  4. Tigraios (c. 138/137 – c. 133/132 bc)
  5. Darius (before c. 129 BC)
  6. Kamnaskires III Megas Nikephorus (c. 85 BC)
  7. Kamnaskires IV (c. 82/81–c. 76/75 BC) with Anzaze (his Queen)
  8. Kamnaskires V[7] (c. 73/72–c. 46 BC)
  9. Kamnaskires VI[8] (c. 46–c. 28 BC)
  10. Kamnaskires VII[9] (c. 28 BC – c. 1 AD)
  11. Kamnaskires VIII[10] (c. 1–c. 15 AD)
  12. Kamnaskires IX[11] (c. 15–c. 25 AD)
  13. Orodes I (c. 25–c. 50 AD)
  14. Orodes II (c. 50–c. 70 AD) son of Orodes I
  15. Phraates[12] (c. 70–c. 90 AD) son of Orodes (I or II)
  16. Orodes III[13] (c. 90–c. 100 AD) son of Orodes II
  17. Kamnaskires-Orodes[14] (c. 100–c. 120 AD) son of Orodes II
  18. Ariobarzanes (c. 125 AD)
  19. Osroes (c. 125–c. 130 AD)
  20. Unknown King I (c. 130–c. 140 AD)
  21. Orodes IV[15] & Ulpan (c. 140–c. 160 AD)
  22. Abarbasi[16] (c. 160–c. 170 AD)
  23. Orodes V[17] (c. 170–c. 180 AD) son of Beldusa
  24. Vologases[18] (c. 180–c. 190 AD)
  25. Unknown King II[19] (c. 190–c. 210 AD)
  26. Unknown King III[20] (c. 210–c. 220 AD)
  27. Orodes VI[21] (c. 220 – 224 AD)

Kings of Characene[22] c. 170 BC–c. 222 AD[edit]

  1. Hyspaosines c. 127–122/121 BC
  2. Apodakos c. 110/109-104/103 BC
  3. Tiraios I 95/94-90/89 BC
  4. Tiraios II 79/78-49/48 BC
  5. Artabazos 49/48-48/47 BC
  6. Attambelos I 47/46-25/24 BC
  7. Theonesios I c. 19/18 BC
  8. Attambalos II c. 17/16 BC - AD 8/9
  9. Abinergaos I 10/11; 22/23
  10. Orabazes I c. 19
  11. Attambalos III c. 37/38-44/45
  12. Theonesios II c. 46/47
  13. Theonesios III c. 52/53
  14. Attambalos IV 54/55-64/65
  15. Attambalos V 64/65-73/74
  16. Orabazes II c. 73-80
  17. Pakoros (II) 80-101/02 king of Iran
  18. Attambalos VI c. 101/02-105/06
  19. Theonesios IV c. 110/11-112/113
  20. Attambalos VII 113/14-117
  21. Meredates c. 131-150/51 son of Pakoros (II) king of Iran
  22. Orabazes III c. 150/151-165
  23. Abinergaios II (?) c. 165-180
  24. Attambalos VIII c. 180-195 (?)
  25. Maga (?) c. 195-210
  26. Abinergaos III c. 210-222

Kings of Osrhoene 132 BC–c. 293 AD[edit]

  1. Aryu (132–127 BC)
  2. Abdu bar Maz'ur (127–120 BC)
  3. Fradhasht bar Gebar'u (120–115 BC)
  4. Bakru I bar Fradhasht (115–112 BC)
  5. Bakru II bar Bakru (112–94 BC)
  6. Ma'nu I (94 BC)
  7. Abgar I Piqa (94–68 BC)
  8. Abgar II bar Abgar (68–52 BC)
  9. Ma'nu II (52–34 BC)
  10. Paqor (34–29 BC)
  11. Abgar III (29–26 BC)
  12. Abgar IV Sumaqa (26–23 BC)
  13. Ma'nu III Saphul (23–4 BC)
  14. Abgar V Ukkama bar Ma'nu (Abgarus of Edessa) (4 BC–7 AD)
  15. Ma'nu IV bar Ma'nu (7–13 AD)
  16. Abgar V Ukkama bar Ma'nu (13–50)
  17. Ma'nu V bar Abgar (50–57)
  18. Ma'nu VI bar Abgar (57–71)
  19. Abgar VI bar Ma'nu (71–91)
  20. Sanatruk (91–109)
  21. Abgar VII bar Ezad (109–116)
    • Roman interregnum 116–118
  22. Yalur (118–122, co-ruler with Parthamaspates)
  23. Parthamaspates (118–123)
  24. Ma'nu VII bar Ezad (123–139)
  25. Ma'nu VIII bar Ma'nu (139–163)
  26. Wa'il bar Sahru (163–165)
  27. Ma'nu VIII bar Ma'nu (165–167)
  28. Abgar VIII (167–177)
  29. Abgar IX (the great) (177–212)
  30. Abgar X Severus bar Ma'nu (212–214)
  31. Abgar (X) Severus Bar Abgar (IX) Rabo (214–216)
  32. Ma’nu (IX) Bar Abgar (X) Severus (216–242)
  33. Abgar (XI) Farhat Bar Ma’nu (IX) (242–244)

Kings of Adiabene c. 69 BC – c. 310 AD[edit]

  1. Abdissares (c. 164 BC)
  2. Unknown king (c. 69 BC)
  3. Artaxares (cont. with Augustus)
  4. Izates I (c. 15 AD)
  5. Bazeus Monobazus I (20?–30?)
  6. Heleni (c. 30–58)
  7. Izates II bar Monobazus (c. 34–58)
    • Vologases (Parthian occupation opposing Izates II) (c. 50)
  8. Monobazus II bar Monobazus (58 – middle of the 70s)
  9. Izates III (c. 109)
  10. Meharaspes (?–116)
  11. Racbactus (until 136)
  12. Atwr ('tlw) (c. 150)
  13. Narsai of Adiabene (c. 170–200)
  14. Shahrat (Shahrad) (c. 216-227)
  15. Adorzahab (until c. 240)
  16. Aphraates (c. 310)

Kings of Korduene c. 140 BC – c. 359 AD[edit]

  1. Zarbienus; early mid-1st century BC until c. 69 BC. Killed by Tigranes II.
  2. Manisarus; ~ 115 AD: He took control over parts of Armenia and Mesopotamia, in the time of Trajan.
  3. Ardashir; ~ 340s AD: He was against the Christianization of Corduene.[23]
  4. Jovinian ~ 359 AD [24]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  2. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  3. ^ Baratin, 2009.
  4. ^ Wiesehöfer, 1996, p. 319.
  5. ^ Rezakhani, Kh., "The “Unbekannter König III” and the Coinage of Hellenistic and Arsacid Persis", Nameye Iran-e Bastan, 15 (2010)
  6. ^ Wiesehöfer, 1996, p. 318. Pakzadian, 2007, pp. 56-57 & VII-X.
  7. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires V, VI, VII, VIII and IX.
  8. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires X and XI.
  9. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires XII and XIII.
  10. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires XIV and XV.
  11. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Late Kamnaskires Successors types 1, 2 and 3.
  12. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Phraates I, II and III.
  13. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Orodes III and IV.
  14. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires-Orodes I and II.
  15. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Orodes V, VI and VII.
  16. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: 1st Unknown King (A)
  17. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Unknown Kings 2nd(B), 3rd(C) and 4th(D)
  18. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Vologases I and II.
  19. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Unknown Kings 5th(E), 6th(F) and 7th(G)
  20. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Unknown Kings 8th(H) and 9th(I)
  21. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: 10th Unknown King (J)
  22. ^ Wiesehöfer, 1996, pp. 317-318.
  23. ^ History of the Syrian Nation and the Old Evangelical-Apostolic Church of the East, page: 128, George David Malech, Published 2006, Gorgias Press LLC, 484 pages, ISBN 1-59333-408-7
  24. ^ The Later Roman Empire: AD 354-378, Ammianus Marcellinus, Translated by Walter Hamilton, page 155, Contributor Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Published 1986, Penguin Classics, ISBN 0-14-044406-8

Bibliography[edit]