List of monarchs of Sardinia

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Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia from the 14th century

The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica (then only the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1479), from 1323 to 1861.

Early history[edit]

We know nothing about the history of Nuraghic civilization that, in the period from the 18th to the 12th century BC realized impressive megalithic constructions, as well as those that followed, due to the absence of written sources. The first news of Sardinia we receive from Greek sources, but relate more to myth than to historical reality. It depends on the ancient authors: an African or Iberian hero, Norax, named the city of Nora. A son of Hercules, Sardo, gave the island its name; one of his nephews, Iolaus, founded the city of Olbia.[1] Actually, the Greek colonization of the city of Olbia has been confirmed by recent archaeological excavations.[2] Towards the end of the 6th century AC, Sardinia was conquered by the Carthaginians and, in 238 BC it was occupied by the Romans, which belonged to about 1000 years (in the Eastern Roman Empire) a part the brief dominion of Vandals in the 5th and 6th centuries.

Early medieval rulers[edit]

Vandal coin found in Sardinia depicting Godas. Latin legend : REX CVDA.
  • Godas, 533–535, As for Procopius,[3] he was a Vandal governor of Sardinia that rebelled to his king Gelimer, that ruled northern Africa and Sardinia, and asked for help from the Romans against his own people. He, wrote Procopius,[4] behaved like a king but it was a brief kingdom. After two years, an expedition from Carthage, guided by Tzazo, brother of the king Gelimer, defeated and killed him. But in the same days, romans troops, send by emperor Justinianus, and guided by general Belisarius, totally annihilated the vandal kingdom, and Sardinia returned under Roman administration.


Main article: Giudicati

Before the Kingdom of Sardinia was founded, the rulers of the island were known as archons (ἄρχοντες in Greek) or judges (iudices in Latin, judices in Sardinian, giudici in Italian).[5][6] The island was organized into one "judicatus" from the 9th century on. After the Muslim conquest of Sicily in the 9th century, the Byzantines, who ruled Sardinia until then, couldn't defend their isolated far western province. In all likelihood a local noble family acceded to the power, still identifying themselves as vassals of the Byzantines, but independent "de facto" as communications with Constantinople were very difficult. We known only two names of those rulers, Salusios (Σαλούσιος) and the protospatharios Turcoturios (Tουρκοτούριος) from two inscriptions [7][8][9]), who probably reigned between the 10th and the 11th century. These rulers were still closely linked to the Byzantines, both for a pact of ancient vassalage,[10] and from the ideological point of view, with the use of the Greek language (in a country of the romance language), and the use of art of Byzantine inspiration.

In the early 11th century an attempt to conquer the island was made by Muslims based in Spain.[11] The only records of that war are from Pisan and Genoese chronicles.[12] The Christians won, but after that, the previous Sardinian kingdom was totally undermined and divided into four small judicati: Cagliari (Calari), Arborea (Arbaree), Gallura, Torres or Logudoro.

Some of these rulers occasionally took the style of king (rex):

Nominal kings of Imperial appointment[edit]

Entius Hohenstaufen coat of arms

Some rulers of the time obtained the title of King of Sardinia (Rex Sardiniae) by grant of the Holy Roman Emperor:

None of these rulers had effective authority over the whole island. In 1269, an anti-imperial faction in Logudoro elected Philip of Sicily as king of all Sardinia, but this was never confirmed by emperor or pope and Philip never visited the island.

Kings of Sardinia and Corsica[edit]

James II of Aragon received royal investiture from Pope Boniface VIII in 1297 as Rex Sardiniae et Corsicae. The Aragonese did not take actual possession of the isle until 1323, after a victorious military campaign against the Pisans. However, Sardinian royal title never had a specific line of succession, and all kings used their own primary numeral title.

Arms of the House of Barcelona
The king of Aragon in Le grand armorial équestre de la Toison d'or, 1430-1461

House of Barcelona (Aragon), 1323–1410[edit]

Main articles: Kings of Aragon and Crown of Aragon
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James II of Aragon
James I 10 August 1267
son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Isabella of Castile
1 December 1291
No children

Blanche of Anjou
29 October 1295
10 children

Marie de Lusignan
15 June 1315
No children

Elisenda de Montcada
25 December 1322
No children
5 November 1327
aged 60
Alfonso IV of Aragon
Alfonso I 1299
son of James II of Aragon and Blanche of Anjou
Teresa d'Entença
7 children

Eleanor of Castile
2 children
27 January 1336
aged 37
Peter IV of Aragon
Peter 5 October 1319
son of Alfonso IV and Teresa d'Entença
Maria of Navarre
2 children

Leonor of Portugal
No children

Eleanor of Sicily
4 children
5 January 1387
aged 68
John I of Aragon
Peter IV 27 December 1350
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Martha of Armagnac
1 child

Yolande of Bar
3 children
19 May 1396
aged 46
Martin I of Aragon
Martin I 1356
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Maria de Luna
13 June 1372
4 children

Margarita of Aragon-Prades
No children
31 May 1410
aged 54
Between 1410 and 1412 there was an interregnum.
Arms of the Aragonese House of Trastámara

House of Trastámara, 1412–1516[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ferdinand I of Aragon
Ferdinand I 27 November 1380
Medina del Campo
son of John I of Castile and Eleanor of Aragon
Eleanor of Alburquerque
8 children
2 April 1416
aged 36
Alfonso V of Aragon
Alfonso V 1396
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Maria of Castile
No children
27 June 1458
aged 52

Kings of Sardinia[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
John II of Aragon
John II 29 June 1397
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Blanche I of Navarre
6 November 1419
4 children

Juana Enríquez
2 children
20 January 1479
aged 81
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II 10 March 1452
son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Isabella I of Castile
19 October 1469
5 children

Germaine of Foix
No children
23 January 1516
aged 63
Joanna of Castile
Joanna 6 November 1479
daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile
Philip IV of Burgundy,
6 children
12 April 1555
aged 75

House of Habsburg (Spanish branch), 1516–1700[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles I of Spain co-king with his mother Joanna
Charles IV 24 February 1500
son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
3 children
21 September 1558
aged 58
Philip II of Spain
Philip I 21 May 1527
son of Charles IV and Isabella of Portugal
Maria of Portugal
1 child

Mary I of England
No children

Elisabeth of Valois
2 children

Anna of Austria
4 May 1570
5 children
13 September 1598
aged 71
Philip III of Spain
Philip II 14 April 1578
son of Philip I and Anna of Austria
Margaret of Austria
18 April 1599
5 children
31 March 1621
aged 42
Philip IV of Spain
Philip III 8 April 1605
son of Philip II and Margaret of Austria
Elisabeth of Bourbon
7 children

Mariana of Austria
5 children

17 September 1665
aged 60
Charles II of Spain
Charles V 6 November 1661
son of Philip III and Mariana of Austria
Maria Luisa of Orléans
19 November 1679
No children

Maria Anna of Neuburg
14 May 1690
No children

1 November 1700
aged 38
Coat of arms of Philip V of Spain

House of Bourbon (Spanish branch) 1700–1708[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip V of Spain
Charles V 19 December 1683
son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria
Maria Luisa of Savoy
2 November 1701
4 children

Elisabeth of Parma
24 December 1714
7 children

9 July 1746
aged 62

Sardinia was taken over by the Habsburg troops in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession in the name of the Habsburg claimant of the Spanish throne, "Charles III". At the end of the war Sardinia remained in the possession of the same ruler, and by the Treaty of Rastatt it was ceded to him.

Coat of Arms of Archduke Charles of Austria

House of Habsburg (Austrian branch), 1708–1720[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Emperor Charles VI
Charles VI 1 October 1685
son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine
1 August 1708
4 children
20 October 1740
aged 55

Spanish forces invaded the kingdom in 1717 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The island was under Spanish military occupation until 1720 when it was given back to Emperor Charles VI who ceded it to the Duke of Savoy by the Treaty of The Hague.

Coats of arms of Savoy House

House of Savoy, 1720–1861[edit]

The monarchs of the House of Savoy ruled from their mainland capital of Turin but styled themselves primarily with the royal title of Sardinia as superior to the original lesser title of Duke of Savoy. However, their numeral order continued the Savoyard list.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
17 February 1720 – 3 September 1730
Victor Amadeus 14 May 1666
son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France
10 April 1684
6 children
31 October 1732
aged 66
Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy
3 September 1730 – 20 February 1773
Charles Emmanuel III 27 April 1701
son of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France
Anne Christine of Sulzbach
1 child

Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg
6 children

Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine
3 children
20 February 1773
aged 72
Victor Amadeus III of Savoy
20 February 1773 – 16 October 1796
Victor Amadeus III 26 June 1726
son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg
Maria Antonietta of Spain
12 children
16 October 1796
aged 70
Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy
16 October 1796 – 4 June 1802
Charles Emmanuel IV 24 May 1751
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Marie Clotilde of France
No children
6 October 1819
aged 68
Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy
4 June 1802 – 12 March 1821
Victor Emmanuel I 24 July 1759
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
21 April 1789
7 children
10 January 1824
aged 65
Charles Felix of Savoy
12 March 1821 – 27 April 1831
Charles Felix 6 April 1765
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily
7 March 1807
No children
27 April 1831
aged 66
Charles Albert of Savoy
27 April 1831 – 23 March 1849
Charles Albert 2 October 1798
son of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan and Maria Cristina of Saxony
Maria Theresa of Austria
3 children
28 July 1849
aged 50
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
23 March 1849 – 17 March 1861
Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820
son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria
Adelaide of Austria
8 children

Rosa Vercellana
2 children
9 January 1878
aged 57

In 1861, after the annexation of all the others states of the Italian peninsula, the parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia voted a bill (Legge N° 4671 of 17 marzo 1861) to change the name of the state to the Kingdom of Italy. The Kings of Italy retained their old title of King of Sardinia as part of their full title until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1946.

Coats of arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia until 1848

Kings of Italy[edit]

House of Savoy, 1861–1946[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
17 March 1861 – 9 January 1878
Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820
son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria
Adelaide of Austria
8 children

Rosa Vercellana
2 children
9 January 1878
aged 57
Umberto I of Italy
9 January 1878 – 29 July 1900
Umberto I of Italy 14 March 1844
son of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy and Adelaide of Austria
Margherita of Savoy
1 child
29 July 1900
aged 56
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy 11 November 1869
son of Umberto I of Italy and Margherita of Savoy
Elena of Montenegro
5 children
28 December 1947
aged 78
Umberto II of Italy
9 May 1946 – 12 June 1946
Umberto II of Italy 15 September 1904
son of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Elena of Montenegro
Marie José of Belgium
4 children
18 March 1983
aged 78

The Kingdom of Italy was abolished by a constitutional referendum on 2 June 1946 and the Italian Republic was established (the region of Sardinia itself voted for the continuation of the monarchy with 60.9% majority).

Coats of arms of the Kingdom of Italy between 1890–1929 and 1943–1946.

Presidents of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia[edit]

Official flag of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia (since 1999)
Official coat of arms of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia

Since 1949, Sardinia is an Autonomous Region[14] as part of the Italian Republic. Its statute[15] is a constitutional law of the Italian State, and is therefore an integral part of the Constitution of the Italian Republic.


  1. ^ Perra Mario, 1993, La Sardegna nelle fonti classiche (Sardinia in classical sources), Editrice S'Alvure, Oristano
  2. ^
  3. ^ De bello Gothico, IV 24
  4. ^ De bello Wandalico
  5. ^ C. Zedda and R. Pinna (2007), La nascita dei giudicati, proposta per lo scioglimento di un enigma storiografico, Archivio Storico Giuridico Sardo di Sassari, vol. 12.
  6. ^ F. Pinna (2010), "Le testimonianze archeologiche relative ai rapporti tra gli arabi e la Sardegna nel medioevo", Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 4.
  7. ^ 1) Κύριε βοήθε τοῦ δοῦλου σου Tουρκοτουρίου ἅρχωντος Σαρδινίας καί τής δούλης σου Γετιτ 2) Tουρκοτουρίου βασιλικου πρωτοσπαθαρίου και Σαλουσίου των ευγενεστάτων αρχόντων.) R. CORONEO, Scultura mediobizantina in Sardegna, Nuoro, Poliedro, 2000
  8. ^ Antiquitas nostra primum Calarense iudicatum, quod tunc erat caput tocius Sardinie, armis subiugavit, et regem Sardinie Musaitum nomine civitati Ianue captum adduxerunt, quem per episcopum qui tunc Ianue erat, aule sacri palatii in Alamanniam mandaverunt, intimantes regnum illius nuper esse additum ditioni Romani imperii." - Oberti Cancellarii, Annales p 71, Georg Heinrich (a cura di) MGH, Scriptores, Hannoverae, 1863, XVIII, pp. 56-96
  9. ^ Crónica del califa ‘Abd ar-Rahmân III an-Nâsir entre los años 912-942,(al-Muqtabis V), édicion. a cura de P. CHALMETA - F. CORRIENTE, Madrid,1979, p. 365 Tuesday, August 24th 942 (A.D.), a messenger of the Lord of the island of Sardinia appeared at the gate of al-Nasir (...) asking for a treaty of peace and friendship. With him were the merchants, people Malfat, known in al-Andalus as from Amalfi, with the whole range of their precious goods, ingots of pure silver, brocades etc. ... transactions which drew gain and great benefits
  10. ^ To the Archont of Sardinia: a bulla with two gold bisolida with this written: from the very Christian Lord to the Archont of Sardinia. (εὶς τὸν ἄρχοντα Σαρδανίας. βούλλα κρυσῆ δισολδία. “κέλευσις ὲκ τῶν φιλοχρίστων δεσποτῶν πρὸς τὸν ἄρχοντα Σαρδανίας.”) Reiske, Johann Jakob: Leich, Johannes Heinrich, eds. (1829). Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae libri duo graece et latini e recensione Io. Iac. Reiskii cum eiusdem commentariis integris. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae 1 (Leipzig (1751-54) ed.). Bonn: Weber. pag. 690
  11. ^ F. CODERA, Mochéid, conquistador de Cerdeña, in Centenario della nascita di Michele Amari. Scritti di filologia e storia araba; geografia, storia, diritto della Sicilia medioevale; studi bizantini e giudaici relativi all’Italia meridionale nel medio evo; documenti sulle relazioni fra gli Stati italiani e il Levante, vol. II, Palermo 1910, pp. 115-33, p. 124
  12. ^ B. MARAGONIS, Annales pisani a.1004-1175, ed. K. PERTZ, in MGH, Scriptores, 19,Hannoverae, 1861/1963, pp. 236-2 and Gli Annales Pisani di Bernardo Maragone, a cura di M. L.GENTILE, in Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, n.e., VI/2, Bologna 1930, pp. 4-7. 1017. Fuit Mugietus reversus in Sardineam, et cepit civitatem edificare ibi atque homines Sardos vivos in cruce murare. Et tunc Pisani et Ianuenses illuc venere, et ille propter pavorem eorum fugit in Africam. Pisani vero et Ianuenses reversi sunt Turrim, in quo insurrexerunt Ianuenses in Pisanos, et Pisani vicerunt illos et eiecerunt eos de Sardinea
  13. ^ G. Seche, L'incoronazione di Barisone "Re di Sardegna" in due fonti contemporanee: gli Annales genovesi e gli Annales pisani, in Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, n°4, 2010
  14. ^ Regions of -italy
  15. ^