List of monarchs of Sardinia

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Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia from the 14th century

The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1479 to 1861.

Early history[edit]

Owing to the absence of written sources, little is known of the history of the Nuraghic civilization which constructed impressive megalithic structures between the 18th and the 12th centuries BCE. The first accounts of Sardinia are from Greek sources, but relate more to myth than to historical reality; an African or Iberian hero, Norax, named the city of Nora; Sardo, a son of Hercules, gave the island its name; one of his nephews, Iolaus, founded the city of Olbia.[1] Greek colonization of the city of Olbia has been confirmed by recent archaeological excavations.[2] Towards the end of the 6th century BC, Sardinia was conquered by the Carthaginians and in 238 BC it was occupied by the Romans for c.1000 years, with a period under the dominion of the Vandals in the 5th and 6th centuries CE.

Early medieval rulers[edit]

Vandal coin found in Sardinia depicting Godas. Latin legend : REX CVDA.

According to Procopius,[3] Godas was a Vandal governor of Sardinia who rebelled against his king, Gelimer, who ruled northern Africa and Sardinia. Procopius wrote that Godas behaved like a king, but it was a short-lived kingdom.[4] Godas was defeated and killed after two years by an expedition from Carthage led by King Gelimer's brother, Tzazo. Shortly afterwards, Roman troops sent by Emperor Justinianus and led by General Belisarius, totally annihilated the Vandal kingdom and Sardinia returned to Roman administration.

Judges[edit]

Main article: Giudicati

Before the Kingdom of Sardinia was founded, the rulers of the island were known as archons (ἄρχοντες in Greek) or judges (iudices in Latin, judices in Sardinian, giudici in Italian).[5][6] The island was organized into one "judicatus" from the 9th century. After the Muslim conquest of Sicily in the 9th century, the Byzantines (who ruled Sardinia) could no longer defend their isolated far western province. In all likelihood a local noble family came to power, still identifying themselves as vassals of the Byzantines but in reality independent since communication with Constantinople was very difficult.

Of those rulers, only two names are known: Salusios (Σαλούσιος) and the protospatharios Turcoturios (Tουρκοτούριος),[7][8][9] who probably reigned some time in the 10th and 11th centuries. They were still closely linked to the Byzantines, both by a pact of ancient vassalage[10] and from culturally, with the use of the Greek language (in a country of the Romance language) and Byzantine art.

In the early 11th century, Muslims based in Spain attempted to conquer the island.[11] The only records of that war are from Pisan and Genoese chronicles.[12] The Christians won but afterwards the previous Sardinian kingdom had been undermined and was divided into four small judicati: Cagliari (Calari), Arborea (Arbaree), Gallura, Torres or Logudoro.

Occasionally, these rulers took the style of king (rex):

Nominal kings of Imperial appointment[edit]

Entius Hohenstaufen coat of arms

Some rulers obtained the title King of Sardinia (Rex Sardiniae) by grant of the Holy Roman Emperor:

None of these rulers had effective authority over the whole island. In 1269, an anti-imperial faction in Logudoro elected Philip of Sicily as king of all Sardinia, but this was never confirmed by the emperor or the pope and Philip never visited the island.[citation needed]

Kings of Sardinia and Corsica[edit]

James II of Aragon received royal investiture from Pope Boniface VIII in 1297 as Rex Sardiniae et Corsicae. The Aragonese did not take possession of the island until 1323, after a victorious military campaign against the Pisans. However, the Sardinian royal title did not have a specific line of succession and all kings used his own primary title.[citation needed]

Arms of the House of Barcelona
The king of Aragon in Le grand armorial équestre de la Toison d'or, 1430-1461

House of Barcelona (Aragon), 1323–1410[edit]

Main articles: Kings of Aragon and Crown of Aragon
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James II of Aragon
1323–1327
James I 10 August 1267
Valencia
son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Isabella of Castile
1 December 1291
No children

Blanche of Anjou
29 October 1295
10 children

Marie de Lusignan
15 June 1315
No children

Elisenda de Montcada
25 December 1322
No children
5 November 1327
Barcelona
aged 60
Alfonso IV of Aragon
1327–1336
Alfonso I 1299
Naples
son of James II of Aragon and Blanche of Anjou
Teresa d'Entença
1314
7 children

Eleanor of Castile
2 children
27 January 1336
Barcelona
aged 37
Peter IV of Aragon
1336–1387
Peter 5 October 1319
Balaguer
son of Alfonso IV and Teresa d'Entença
Maria of Navarre
1338
2 children

Leonor of Portugal
1347
No children

Eleanor of Sicily
27 August 1349
4 children
5 January 1387
Barcelona
aged 68
John I of Aragon
1387–1396
Peter IV 27 December 1350
Perpignan
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Martha of Armagnac
March 27 1373
1 child

Yolande of Bar
1380
3 children
19 May 1396
Foixà
aged 46
Martin I of Aragon
1396–1410
Martin I 1356
Girona
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Maria de Luna
13 June 1372
4 children

Margarita of Aragon-Prades
17 September 1409
No children
31 May 1410
Barcelona
aged 54
Between 1410 and 1412 there was an interregnum.
Arms of the Aragonese House of Trastámara

House of Trastámara, 1412–1516[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ferdinand I of Aragon
1412–1416
Ferdinand I 27 November 1380
Medina del Campo
son of John I of Castile and Eleanor of Aragon
Eleanor of Alburquerque
1394
8 children
2 April 1416
Igualada
aged 36
Alfonso V of Aragon
1416–1458
Alfonso V 1396
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Maria of Castile
1415
No children
27 June 1458
Naples
aged 52

Kings of Sardinia[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
John II of Aragon
1458–1479
John II 29 June 1397
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Blanche I of Navarre
6 November 1419
4 children

Juana Enríquez
April 1444
2 children
20 January 1479
Barcelona
aged 81
Ferdinand II of Aragon
1479–1516
Ferdinand II 10 March 1452
son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Isabella I of Castile
19 October 1469
5 children

Germaine of Foix
1505
No children
23 January 1516
Madrigalejo
aged 63
Joanna of Castile
1516–1555
Joanna 6 November 1479
daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile
Philip IV of Burgundy,
1496
6 children
12 April 1555
Madrigalejo
aged 75

House of Habsburg (Spanish branch), 1516–1700[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles I of Spain co-king with his mother Joanna
1516–1556
Charles IV 24 February 1500
Ghent
son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
3 children
21 September 1558
Yuste
aged 58
Philip II of Spain
1556–1598
Philip I 21 May 1527
Valladolid
son of Charles IV and Isabella of Portugal
Maria of Portugal
1543
1 child

Mary I of England
1554
No children

Elisabeth of Valois
1559
2 children

Anna of Austria
4 May 1570
5 children
13 September 1598
Madrid
aged 71
Philip III of Spain
1598–1621
Philip II 14 April 1578
Madrid
son of Philip I and Anna of Austria
Margaret of Austria
18 April 1599
5 children
31 March 1621
Madrid
aged 42
Philip IV of Spain
1621–1665
Philip III 8 April 1605
Valladolid
son of Philip II and Margaret of Austria
Elisabeth of Bourbon
1615
7 children

Mariana of Austria
1649
5 children

17 September 1665
Madrid
aged 60
Charles II of Spain
1665–1700
Charles V 6 November 1661
Madrid
son of Philip III and Mariana of Austria
Maria Luisa of Orléans
19 November 1679
No children

Maria Anna of Neuburg
14 May 1690
No children

1 November 1700
Madrid
aged 38
Coat of arms of Philip V of Spain

House of Bourbon (Spanish branch) 1700–1708[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip V of Spain
1700–1708
Charles V 19 December 1683
Versailles
son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria
Maria Luisa of Savoy
2 November 1701
4 children

Elisabeth of Parma
24 December 1714
7 children

9 July 1746
Madrid
aged 62

Sardinia was taken over by Habsburg troops in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession in the name of the Habsburg claimant to the Spanish throne, "Charles III". At the end of the war, Sardinia remained in Charles' possession and, by the Treaty of Rastatt, was ceded to him.

Coat of Arms of Archduke Charles of Austria

House of Habsburg (Austrian branch), 1708–1720[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Emperor Charles VI
1708–1720
Charles VI 1 October 1685
Vienna
son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine
1 August 1708
4 children
20 October 1740
Vienna
aged 55

Spanish forces invaded the kingdom in 1717 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The island was under Spanish military occupation until 1720, when it was given back to Emperor Charles VI who in turn ceded it to the Duke of Savoy by the Treaty of The Hague.

Coats of arms of Savoy House

House of Savoy, 1720–1861[edit]

The monarchs of the House of Savoy ruled from their mainland capital of Turin, but styled themselves primarily with the royal title of Sardinia as superior to their original lesser dignity as Dukes of Savoy. However, their numeral order continued the Savoyard list.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
17 February 1720 – 3 September 1730
Victor Amadeus 14 May 1666
Turin
son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France
10 April 1684
6 children
31 October 1732
Moncalieri
aged 66
Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy
3 September 1730 – 20 February 1773
Charles Emmanuel III 27 April 1701
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France
Anne Christine of Sulzbach
15 March 1722
1 child

Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg
20 August 1724
6 children

Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine
5 March 1737
3 children
20 February 1773
Turin
aged 72
Victor Amadeus III of Savoy
20 February 1773 – 16 October 1796
Victor Amadeus III 26 June 1726
Turin
son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg
Maria Antonietta of Spain
31 May 1750
12 children
16 October 1796
Moncalieri
aged 70
Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy
16 October 1796 – 4 June 1802
Charles Emmanuel IV 24 May 1751
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Marie Clotilde of France
27 August 1775
No children
6 October 1819
Rome
aged 68
Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy
4 June 1802 – 12 March 1821
Victor Emmanuel I 24 July 1759
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
21 April 1789
7 children
10 January 1824
Moncalieri
aged 65
Charles Felix of Savoy
12 March 1821 – 27 April 1831
Charles Felix 6 April 1765
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily
7 March 1807
No children
27 April 1831
Turin
aged 66
Charles Albert of Savoy
27 April 1831 – 23 March 1849
Charles Albert 2 October 1798
Turin
son of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan and Maria Cristina of Saxony
Maria Theresa of Austria
30 September 1817
3 children
28 July 1849
Porto
aged 50
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
23 March 1849 – 17 March 1861
Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820
Turin
son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria
Adelaide of Austria
12 April 1842
8 children

Rosa Vercellana
18 October 1869
2 children
9 January 1878
Rome
aged 57

In 1861, after the annexation of all the others states of the Italian peninsula, the parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia passed a bill (Legge N° 4671 of 17 marzo 1861) changing the name of the state to the Kingdom of Italy. The Kings of Italy retained the title King of Sardinia until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1946.

Coats of arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia until 1848

Kings of Italy[edit]

House of Savoy, 1861–1946[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
17 March 1861 – 9 January 1878
Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820
Turin
son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria
Adelaide of Austria
12 April 1842
8 children

Rosa Vercellana
18 October 1869
2 children
9 January 1878
Rome
aged 57
Umberto I of Italy
9 January 1878 – 29 July 1900
Umberto I of Italy 14 March 1844
Turin
son of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy and Adelaide of Austria
Margherita of Savoy
21 April 1868
1 child
29 July 1900
Monza
aged 56
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy 11 November 1869
Naples
son of Umberto I of Italy and Margherita of Savoy
Elena of Montenegro
24 October 1896
5 children
28 December 1947
Alexandria
aged 78
Umberto II of Italy
9 May 1946 – 12 June 1946
Umberto II of Italy 15 September 1904
Racconigi
son of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Elena of Montenegro
Marie José of Belgium
8 January 1930
4 children
18 March 1983
Geneva
aged 78

The Kingdom of Italy was abolished by a constitutional referendum on 2 June 1946 and the Italian Republic was established. (The region of Sardinia itself voted for the continuation of the monarchy with 60.9% majority).

Coats of arms of the Kingdom of Italy between 1890–1929 and 1943–1946.

Presidents of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia[edit]

Official flag of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia (since 1999)
Official coat of arms of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia

Since 1949, Sardinia has been an Autonomous Region[14] of the Italian Republic. Its statute[15] is a constitutional law of the Italian State and is, therefore, an integral part of the Constitution of the Italian Republic.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Perra Mario, 1993, La Sardegna nelle fonti classiche (Sardinia in classical sources), Editrice S'Alvure, Oristano
  2. ^ http://www.bollettinodiarcheologiaonline.beniculturali.it/documenti/generale/3_DOriano_paperfinal.pdf
  3. ^ De bello Gothico, IV 24
  4. ^ De bello Wandalico
  5. ^ C. Zedda and R. Pinna (2007), La nascita dei giudicati, proposta per lo scioglimento di un enigma storiografico, Archivio Storico Giuridico Sardo di Sassari, vol. 12. http://www.archiviogiuridico.it/Archivio_12/Zedda_Pinna.pdf
  6. ^ F. Pinna (2010), "Le testimonianze archeologiche relative ai rapporti tra gli arabi e la Sardegna nel medioevo", Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 4.
  7. ^ 1) Κύριε βοήθε τοῦ δοῦλου σου Tουρκοτουρίου ἅρχωντος Σαρδινίας καί τής δούλης σου Γετιτ 2) Tουρκοτουρίου βασιλικου πρωτοσπαθαρίου και Σαλουσίου των ευγενεστάτων αρχόντων.) R. CORONEO, Scultura mediobizantina in Sardegna, Nuoro, Poliedro, 2000
  8. ^ Antiquitas nostra primum Calarense iudicatum, quod tunc erat caput tocius Sardinie, armis subiugavit, et regem Sardinie Musaitum nomine civitati Ianue captum adduxerunt, quem per episcopum qui tunc Ianue erat, aule sacri palatii in Alamanniam mandaverunt, intimantes regnum illius nuper esse additum ditioni Romani imperii." - Oberti Cancellarii, Annales p 71, Georg Heinrich (a cura di) MGH, Scriptores, Hannoverae, 1863, XVIII, pp. 56-96
  9. ^ Crónica del califa ‘Abd ar-Rahmân III an-Nâsir entre los años 912-942,(al-Muqtabis V), édicion. a cura de P. CHALMETA - F. CORRIENTE, Madrid,1979, p. 365 Tuesday, August 24th 942 (A.D.), a messenger of the Lord of the island of Sardinia appeared at the gate of al-Nasir (...) asking for a treaty of peace and friendship. With him were the merchants, people Malfat, known in al-Andalus as from Amalfi, with the whole range of their precious goods, ingots of pure silver, brocades etc. ... transactions which drew gain and great benefits
  10. ^ To the Archont of Sardinia: a bulla with two gold bisolida with this written: from the very Christian Lord to the Archont of Sardinia. (εὶς τὸν ἄρχοντα Σαρδανίας. βούλλα κρυσῆ δισολδία. “κέλευσις ὲκ τῶν φιλοχρίστων δεσποτῶν πρὸς τὸν ἄρχοντα Σαρδανίας.”) Reiske, Johann Jakob: Leich, Johannes Heinrich, eds. (1829). Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae libri duo graece et latini e recensione Io. Iac. Reiskii cum eiusdem commentariis integris. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae 1 (Leipzig (1751-54) ed.). Bonn: Weber. pag. 690
  11. ^ F. CODERA, Mochéid, conquistador de Cerdeña, in Centenario della nascita di Michele Amari. Scritti di filologia e storia araba; geografia, storia, diritto della Sicilia medioevale; studi bizantini e giudaici relativi all’Italia meridionale nel medio evo; documenti sulle relazioni fra gli Stati italiani e il Levante, vol. II, Palermo 1910, pp. 115-33, p. 124
  12. ^ B. MARAGONIS, Annales pisani a.1004-1175, ed. K. PERTZ, in MGH, Scriptores, 19,Hannoverae, 1861/1963, pp. 236-2 and Gli Annales Pisani di Bernardo Maragone, a cura di M. L.GENTILE, in Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, n.e., VI/2, Bologna 1930, pp. 4-7. 1017. Fuit Mugietus reversus in Sardineam, et cepit civitatem edificare ibi atque homines Sardos vivos in cruce murare. Et tunc Pisani et Ianuenses illuc venere, et ille propter pavorem eorum fugit in Africam. Pisani vero et Ianuenses reversi sunt Turrim, in quo insurrexerunt Ianuenses in Pisanos, et Pisani vicerunt illos et eiecerunt eos de Sardinea
  13. ^ G. Seche, L'incoronazione di Barisone "Re di Sardegna" in due fonti contemporanee: gli Annales genovesi e gli Annales pisani, in Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, n°4, 2010
  14. ^ Regions of -italy
  15. ^ http://www.regione.sardegna.it/documenti/1_5_20150114110812.pdf