List of rulers of Taiwan

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History of Taiwan
1640 Map of Formosa-Taiwan by Dutch 荷蘭人所繪福爾摩沙-臺灣.jpg
Prehistory to 1624
Dutch Formosa 1624–1662
Spanish Formosa 1626–1642
Kingdom of Tungning 1662–1683
Qing rule 1683–1895
Republic of Formosa 1895
Japanese rule 1895–1945
Republic of China rule since 1945
Taiwan portal

Dutch Formosa (1624–1662)[edit]

The Dutch Empire, during the period of the Dutch United Provinces and under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), attempted to conquer Macau in 1622. Later they colonized the Pescadores Islands, where they built a fort in Makung. In 1624, the Chinese attacked, and the Dutch were driven to Taiwan (then called Formosa, meaning "beautiful island"). That year they established Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan's southwest coast. In 1637, the Dutch conqurered Favorolang (also Favorlang; present day Huwei, Yunlin). The names listed here are the Dutch governors:

Name Served
Marten Sonk 1624–1625
Gerard Frederikszoon de With 1625–1627
Pieter Nuyts 1627–1629
Hans Putmans 1627–1636
Johan van der Burg 1636–1640
Paulus Traudenius 1640–1643
Maximilian le Maire 1643–1644
François Caron 1644–1646
Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater 1646–1649
Nicolas Verburg 1649–1653
Cornelis Caesar 1653–1656
Frederick Coyett 1656–1662

Spanish Formosa (1626–1642)[edit]

In response to the Dutch settlements, the Spanish settled at Keelung on the northeast coast of the island in 1626 and built Fort San Salvador. Later they built another outpost, Fort San Domingo, at Tamsui in the northwest. In 1629 these forts had a combined total of about 200 Spaniards and 400 Filipinos. By 1635, the Tamsui settlement was abandoned; however, the Keelung settlement remained in Spanish hands until 1642, when a Dutch force of 11 ships and 1,000 men attacked the fort of 446 people. The Spanish surrendered.

Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683)[edit]

The Southern Ming (Ming Dynasty loyalists) invaded Taiwan under Koxinga, expelling the Dutch and capturing Fort Zeelandia. They established the Kingdom of Tungning.

King Reign
Zhèng Chénggōng (Koxinga) 1661–1662
Zheng Shixi 1662
Zheng Jing 1662–1681
Zheng Kezang 1681
Zheng Keshuang* 1681–1683

* Regency of Feng Xifan from 1682 to 1683.

Taiwan under Great Qing (First period, 1683–1721)[edit]

Taiwanese revolt (1721)[edit]

  • Yonghe-based rebellion under Zhu Yigui.
    • Zhu Yigui (朱一貴; May 26-July 30, 1721)

Taiwan under Great Qing (Second period, 1721–1895)[edit]

  • Qing rule was reestablished after a month-long revolt. Provincial governors were:
Provincial Governor Served
Aisin Gioro Wudali 1722
Huang Shujing 1722–1723
Shan Jibu 1723–1724
Jing Kaoxiang 1724–1725
Wang Jijing 1725
Suolin 1725–1726
Yin Qin 1726–1727
Hesuse 1727
Xia Zhifang 1727–1729
Xideshen 1729
Li Yuanshi 1729
Gao Shan 1729–1731
Jueluobiaiyou 1731–1732
Lin Tianmu 1732–1733
Durtai 1733–1734
Yan Ruihong 1734–1735
Bai Qitu 1735–1736
Shan Tepu 1736–1737
Romubu 1737–1738
Yang Erchou 1738–1739
Shuge 1739–1740
Zhang Mei 1740–1741
Shu Shan 1741–1742
Xiong Xuepeng 1742–1743
Liu Shiqi 1743–1744
Fan Xian 1744–1745
Unknown 1745–1786
Lin Tzuang-wen (林爽文) 1786–1788
Circuit administration 1788–1862
Native Rebellion 1862–1863
Circuit administration 1863–1885
Liu Mingchuan 1885–1891
Shao Youlian 1891–1894
Tang Ching-sung 1894–1895

Republic of Formosa (1895)[edit]

Following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), China ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores to the Empire of Japan in perpetuity, with a grace period for inhabitants wishing to remain Qing Dynasty subjects to sell their property and return to the Great Qing. The date set for the handover was June 2, 1895.

However, the Republic of Formosa was formed on May 25, 1895 by a group of Qing officials and local gentry with its capital at Tainan to resist impending Japanese rule. The republic lasted for less than six months; on October 21, 1895 Imperial Japanese Army forces entered the capital and quelled the resistance. The Republic of Taiwan had two presidents:

President Served
Tang Ching-sung May 25, 1895–June 5, 1895
Liu Yongfu June 5, 1895–October 21, 1895

Taiwan under Japanese Empire (1895–1945)[edit]

After establishing control over the island, the Japanese used the French Empire model of an occupying force and were instrumental in the industrialization of the island; they built railroads, a sanitation system and a public school system, among other things. Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the empire.

In 1941, war broke out when the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval port of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. By 1945, desperate plans were in place to incorporate popular representation of Taiwan into the Imperial Diet to end colonial rule of the island and transfer occupying troops to the front lines to fight the Allies. The names listed here are the Japanese governor-generals:

Name Served
Motonori Kabayama 1895–1896
Katsura Taro 1896
Maresuke Nogi 1896–1898
Gentaro Kodama 1898–1906
Samata Sakuma 1906–1915
Teibi Ando 1915–1918
Motojiro Akashi 1918–1919
Kenjiro Den 1919–1923
Kakichi Uchida 1923–1924
Takio Izawa 1924–1926
Mitsunoshin Ueyama 1926–1928
Takeji Kawamura 1928–1929
Eizo Ishizuka 1929–1931
Masahiro Ota 1931–1932
Hiroshi Minami 1932
Kenzo Nakagawa 1932–1936
Seizo Kobayashi 1936–1940
Kiyoshi Hasegawa 1940–1944
Rikichi Ando 1944–1945

Taiwan under Republic of China (1945-Present)[edit]

Following the end of World War II in 1945, under the terms of the Instrument of Surrender of Japan, Japan provisionally accepted the Potsdam Declaration (which referenced the never-signed Cairo Declaration), under which the island was to be transferred to the Republic of China. ROC troops were authorized to come to Taiwan to accept the surrender of Japanese military forces in General Order No. 1, issued by Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, on September 2, 1945. ROC troops were later transported to Keelung by the U.S. Navy, and Japanese ceded control of Taiwan to ROC on October 25, 1945. Following its defeat in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, ROC Government relocated to Taiwan where it exists today. The names listed here are the ROC governors:

Name Served
Chen Yi 1945–1947
Wey Daw-ming 1947–1949
Chen Cheng 1949
Wu Gwo-jen (Wu Kuo-chen) 1949–1953
Yu Horng-jiun 1953–1954
Yen Chia-kan 1954–1957
Chow Chih-jou 1957–1962
Huang Chieh 1962–1969
Chen Ta-ching 1969–1972
Shien Tung-min 1972–1978
Lin Yang-kang 1978–1981
Lee Teng-hui 1981–1984
Chiu Chuang-huan 1984–1990
Lien Chan 1990–1993
James Soong 1993–1998
Chao Shou-po 1998–2000
Chang Po-ya 2000–2002
Fan Kuang-chun 2002–2003
Lin Kuang-hua 2003–2006
Vacant 2006–2007
Lin Si-yao 2007–2008
Tsai Hsun-hsiung 2008–2009
Chang Jin-fu 2009–2010
Lin Junq-tzer 2010–present

See also[edit]

External links[edit]