List of rulers of Taiwan

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History of Taiwan
1640 Map of Formosa-Taiwan by Dutch 荷蘭人所繪福爾摩沙-臺灣.jpg
Chronological
Prehistory to 1624
Dutch Formosa 1624–1662
Spanish Formosa 1626–1642
Kingdom of Tungning 1662–1683
Qing rule 1683–1895
Republic of Formosa 1895
Japanese rule 1895–1945
Republic of China rule since 1945
Topical
Local
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Dutch Formosa (1624–1662)[edit]

The Dutch Empire, during the period of the Dutch United Provinces and under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), attempted to conquer Macau in 1622. Later they colonized the Pescadores Islands, where they built a fort in Makung. In 1624, the Chinese attacked, and the Dutch were driven to Taiwan (then called Formosa, meaning "beautiful island"). That year they established Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan's southwest coast. In 1637, the Dutch conqurered Favorolang (also Favorlang; present day Huwei, Yunlin). The names listed here are the Dutch governors:[1]

Portrait Name Term
1 Martinus Sonck 1624 - 1625[2]
2 Gerard Frederikszoon de With 1625 - 1627
3 Pieter Nuyts in 1629.jpg Pieter Nuyts 1627 - 1629
4 Hans Putmans 1629 - 1636
5 Johan van der Burg 1636 - 1640[2]
6 Paulus Traudenius 1640 - 1643
7 Maximilian le Maire 1643 - 1644
8 François Caron 1644 - 1646
9 Overtwater.jpg Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater 1646 - 1649
10 Nicolas Verburg 1649 - 1653
11 [[]] 1653 - 1656
12 Frederick Coyett.jpg Frederick Coyett 1656 - 1662
13 []][3]

Spanish Formosa (1626–1642)[edit]

In response to the Dutch settlements, the Spanish settled at Keelung on the northeast coast of the island in 1626 and built Fort San Salvador. Later they built another outpost, Fort San Domingo, at Tamsui in the northwest. In 1629 these forts had a combined total of about 200 Spaniards and 400 Filipinos. By 1635, the Tamsui settlement was abandoned; however, the Keelung settlement remained in Spanish hands until 1642, when a Dutch force of 11 ships and 1,000 men attacked the fort of 446 people. The Spanish surrendered.

Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683)[edit]

The Southern Ming (Ming Dynasty loyalists) invaded Taiwan under Koxinga, expelling the Dutch and capturing Fort Zeelandia. They established the Kingdom of Tungning.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Title(s) Reign
(Lunar calendar)
1 The Portrait of Koxinga.jpg Zheng Chenggong
(Koxinga)

鄭成功
Zhèng Chénggōng
(1624–1662)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Prince Wu of Chao (潮武王)
14 June 1661
Yongli 15-5-18
23 June 1662
Yongli 16-5-8
2 Zheng Xi
鄭襲
Zhèng Xí
(1625–?)
Protector (護理) 23 June 1662
Yongli 16-5-8
November 1662
Yongli 17
3 Zheng Jing
鄭經
Zhèng Jīng
(1642–1681)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Prince Wen of Chao (潮文王)
November 1662
Yongli 17
17 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-28
4 Zheng Kezang
鄭克𡒉
Zhèng Kèzāng
(1662–1681)
Prince Regent (監國) 17 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-28
19 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-30
5 Zheng Keshuang*
鄭克塽
Zhèng Kèshuǎng
(1670–1707)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Duke Haicheng (海澄公)
19 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-30
5 September 1683
Yongli 37-8-13

* Regency of Feng Xifan from 1682 to 1683.

Taiwan under Great Qing (First period, 1683–1721)[edit]

Taiwan-Xiamen Circuit Commissioner (福建分巡台灣廈門道, 1687—1727)
Commissioner Start of office

Taiwanese revolt (1721)[edit]

  • Yonghe-based rebellion under Zhu Yigui.
    • Zhu Yigui (朱一貴; May 26-July 30, 1721)

Taiwan under Great Qing (Second period, 1721–1895)[edit]

  • Qing rule was reestablished after a month-long revolt. The Taiwan Circuit was established in 1727 with its seat in Taiwan-fu, unlike its predecessor, the Taiwan-Xiamen Circuit, which was based in Xiamen. The Taiwan Circuit Commissioner had its powers checked by the Taiwan Circuit Investigating censors.
Taiwan Military Circuit Commissioner (福建分巡臺灣兵備道, 1767-1791)
Commissioner Start of office
Provincial Censor-ranked Taiwan Military Circuit Commissioner (按察使銜分巡台灣兵備道, 1791-1895)
Commissioner Start of office

Governor of Fujian-Taiwan Province[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Ancestry Original Post Term of Office
(Lunar calendar)
1 Liutaiwan.jpg Liu Mingchuan
劉銘傳
Liú Míngchuán
(1836–1896)
Hefei, Anhui Governor of Fujian 12 October 1885
Guangxu 11-9-5
4 June 1891
Guangxu 17-4-28
Shen Yingkui[4]
沈應奎
Shěn Yìngkuí
Pinghu, Zhejiang Civil Affairs Minister, Fujian Province 4 June 1891
Guangxu 17-4-28
25 November 1891
Guangxu 17-10-24
2 Shao You-lien
邵友濂
Shào Yǒulián
(1840–1901)
Yuyao, Zhejiang Governor of Hunan 9 May 1891
Guangxu 17-4-2
13 October 1894
Guangxu 20-9-15
3 Tang Jingsong.jpg T'ang Ching-sung
唐景崧
Táng Jǐngsōng
(1841–1903)
Guanyang, Guangxi Civil Affairs Minister, Fujian-Taiwan Province 13 October 1894
Guangxu 20-9-15
20 May 1895
Guangxu 21-4-26

Republic of Formosa (1895)[edit]

Following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), China ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores to the Empire of Japan in perpetuity, with a grace period for inhabitants wishing to remain Qing Dynasty subjects to sell their property and return to the Great Qing. The date set for the handover was June 2, 1895.

However, the Republic of Formosa was formed on May 25, 1895 by a group of Qing officials and local gentry with its capital at Tainan to resist impending Japanese rule. The republic lasted for less than six months; on October 21, 1895 Imperial Japanese Army forces entered the capital and quelled the resistance. The Republic of Taiwan had two presidents:

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Place of Birth Term of Office Days
1 Tang Jingsong.jpg T'ang Ching-sung
唐景崧
Táng Jǐngsōng
(1841–1903)
President
Guilin, Guangxi, Qing dynastyQing Dynasty 23 May 1895 5 June 1895 13
2 Liu Yongfu.jpg Liu Yung-fu
劉永福
Liú Yǒngfú
(1837–1917)
Commander-in-chief
Qinzhou, Guangdong, Qing dynastyQing Dynasty 5 June 1895 21 October 1895 138

Taiwan under Japanese Empire (1895–1945)[edit]

After establishing control over the island, the Japanese used the French Empire model of an occupying force and were instrumental in the industrialization of the island; they built railroads, a sanitation system and a public school system, among other things. Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the empire.

In 1941, war broke out when the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval port of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. By 1945, desperate plans were in place to incorporate popular representation of Taiwan into the Imperial Diet to end colonial rule of the island and transfer occupying troops to the front lines to fight the Allies. The names listed here are the Japanese governor-generals:

  Military   Rikken Seiyūkai   Kenseikai   Rikken Minseitō

Portrait Name Origin Occupation Affiliation Term of Office
1 Kabayama Sukenori.jpg Kabayama Sukenori
樺山資紀
Kagoshima Admiral (Imperial Japanese Navy) (Viscount) Military 10 May 1895 2 June 1896
2 11 KatsuraT.jpg Katsura Tarō
桂太郎
Yamaguchi Lieutenant General (Imperial Japanese Army) (Viscount) Military 2 June 1896 14 October 1896
3 Maresuke Nogi, 近世名士写真 其1 - Photo only.jpg Nogi Maresuke
乃木希典
Yamaguchi Lieutenant General (Imperial Japanese Army) (Baron) Military 14 October 1896 26 February 1898
4 Gentaro Kodama 2.jpg Kodama Gentarō
兒玉源太郎
Yamaguchi Lieutenant General (Imperial Japanese Army) (Baron) Military 26 February 1898 11 April 1906
5 Sakuma Samata.jpg Sakuma Samata
佐久間左馬太
Yamaguchi General (Imperial Japanese Army) (Viscount) Military 11 April 1906 1 May 1915
6 Ando Teibi.jpg Andō Teibi
安東貞美
Nagano General (Imperial Japanese Army) (Baron) Military 1 May 1915 6 June 1918
7 Akashi Motojiroh.jpg Akashi Motojiro
明石元二郎
Fukuoka Lieutenant General (Imperial Japanese Army) Military 6 June 1918 24 October 1919
8 Den Kenjiro.jpg Den Kenjirō
田健治郎
Hyōgo Member of Terauchi Cabinet (Baron) Seiyūkai 29 October 1919 2 September 1923
9 Kakichi Uchida.jpg Uchida Kakichi
內田嘉吉
Tokyo Member of House of Peers Seiyūkai 6 September 1923 1 September 1924
10 Takio Izawa 1.jpg Izawa Takio
伊澤多喜男
Nagano Member of House of Peers Kenseikai 1 September 1924 16 July 1926
11 Mannoshin Kamiyama.jpg Kamiyama Mitsunoshin
上山滿之進
Yamaguchi literary figure Kenseikai 16 July 1926 16 June 1928
12 Takeji kawamura.jpg Kawamura Takeji
川村竹治
Akita Member of House of Peers Seiyūkai 16 June 1928 30 July 1929
13 Eizō Ishizuka.jpg Ishizuka Eizō
石塚英藏
Fukushima Member of House of Peers Minseitō 30 July 1929 16 January 1931
14 Ōta Masahiro.jpg Ōta Masahiro
太田政弘
Yamagata Director of Kwantung Leased Territory Minseitō 16 January 1931 2 March 1932
15 Minami Hiroshi.jpg Minami Hiroshi
南弘
Toyama Member of House of Peers Seiyūkai 2 March 1932 26 May 1932
16 Nakagawa Kenzō.jpg Nakagawa Kenzō
中川健蔵
Niigata Undersecretary of Education Minseitō 26 May 1932 2 September 1936
17 Seizō Kobayashi.jpg Seizō Kobayashi
小林躋造
Hiroshima Admiral (Imperial Japanese Navy) Military 2 September 1936 27 November 1940
18 Hasegawa Kiyoshi.JPG Hasegawa Kiyoshi
長谷川清
Fukui Admiral (Imperial Japanese Navy) Military 27 November 1940 30 December 1944
19 Ando Rikichi.jpg Andō Rikichi
安藤利吉
Miyagi General (Imperial Japanese Army) Military 30 December 1944 25 October 1945

Taiwan under Republic of China (1945-Present)[edit]

Following the end of World War II in 1945, under the terms of the Instrument of Surrender of Japan, Japan provisionally accepted the Potsdam Declaration (which referenced the never-signed Cairo Declaration), under which the island was to be transferred to the Republic of China. ROC troops were authorized to come to Taiwan to accept the surrender of Japanese military forces on behalf of Allied Powers in General Order No. 1, issued by Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, on September 2, 1945. ROC troops were later transported to Keelung by the U.S. Navy, and Japanese handed the control of Taiwan to the ROC on October 25, 1945. Following its defeat in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, Premier Yan Xishan proclaimed the ROC Government's relocation to Taiwan (where it exists until today), thus replacing the Provincial Chairperson as the highest-ranked executive official on Taiwan. This lasted until March 1950, when Chiang Kai-shek resumed his duties as President in Taipei.

  Kuomintang   Democratic Progressive Party

Chief Executive[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
1 Chen Yi.jpg Chen Yi
陳儀
Chén Yí
(1883-1950)
August 29, 1945 April 22, 1947 Kuomintang

Chairperson of the Provincial Government[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
1 Wei Daoming.jpg Wei Tao-ming
魏道明
Wèi Dàomíng
(1899-1978)
May 16, 1947 January 5, 1949 Kuomintang
2 Chen Cheng2.jpg Chen Cheng
陳誠
Chén Chéng
(1897–1965)
January 5, 1949 December 21, 1949 Kuomintang

Premier of the Republic of China (7 December 1949—1 March 1950)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political Party President
26 Yan Xishan.jpg Yan Xishan
閻錫山
Yán Xíshān
(1883–1960)
3 June 1949 7 March 1950 277 Kuomintang Li Zongren, Chiang Kai-shek

President of the Republic of China (1 March 1950— )[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Term Elections Political Party Vice President
1 Chiang Kai-shek enhanced.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
1 March 1950 20 May 1954 1 Kuomintang Li Zongren (1950–1954[5])
Vacant(1954)
20 May 1954 20 May 1960 2 1954 (96.91%) Chen Cheng
20 May 1960 20 May 1966 3 1960 (93.97%) Chen Cheng (1960–1965[6])
Vacant(1965-1966)
20 May 1966 20 May 1972 4 1966 (98.60%) Yen Chia-kan
20 May 1972 5 April 1975 5 1972 (99.39%) Yen Chia-kan
2 Yen Chia-kan 1965.jpg Yen Chia-kan
(C.K. Yen)

嚴家淦
Yán Jiāgàn
(1905–1993)
6 April 1975 20 May 1978 Kuomintang Vacant
3 Chiang Ching-Kuo in 1954.png Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
Jiǎng Jīngguó
(1910–1988)
20 May 1978 20 May 1984 6 1978 (98.34%) Kuomintang Hsieh Tung-min
20 May 1984 13 January 1988 7 1984 (95.11%) Lee Teng-hui
4 Lee Teng-hui 2004-cropped.jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī
(1923–)
13 January 1988 20 May 1990 Kuomintang Vacant
20 May 1990 20 May 1996 8 1990 (85.24%) Li Yuan-zu
20 May 1996 20 May 2000 9 1996 5,813,699 (54.0%) Lien Chan
5 2000-ele-Chen-CC4.png Chen Shui-bian
陳水扁
Chén Shuǐbiǎn
(1950–)
20 May 2000 20 May 2004 10 2000 4,977,737 (39.3%) Democratic Progressive Party Annette Lu
20 May 2004 20 May 2008 11 2004 6,446,900 (50.11%)
6 中華民國第12、13任總統馬英九先生官方肖像照.jpg Ma Ying-jeou
馬英九
Mǎ Yīngjiǔ
(1950–)
20 May 2008 20 May 2012 12 2008 7,658,724 (58.45%) Kuomintang Vincent Siew
20 May 2012 20 May 2016 13 2012 6,891,139 (51.60%) Wu Den-yih
7 蔡英文官方元首肖像照.png Tsai Ing-wen
蔡英文
Cài Yīngwén
(1956–)
20 May 2016 Incumbent 14 2016 6,894,744 (56.1%) Democratic Progressive Party Chen Chien-jen

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Information from 郭弘斌 (2003)
  2. ^ a b Died in office.
  3. ^ Appointed in 1661 but did not take office due to Koxinga's conquest of Formosa.
  4. ^ As acting; Fujian-Taiwan Province Civil Affairs Minister.
  5. ^ Impeached, recalled in 1954.
  6. ^ Chen Cheng, Died on 5 March 1965.

External links[edit]