List of rulers of Toungoo

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This is a list of rulers of Taungoo, the predecessor principality of the Taungoo Dynasty of what is now Myanmar. The principality of Taungoo, at the edge of the realm of Upper Burma-based kingdoms, was a rebellion-prone vassal state. The region was ruled by hereditary viceroys as well as appointed governors, depending on the power of the high king at Pinya, and later Inwa (Ava). Many of the rulers of Taungoo were assassinated while in office, and a few others died in action, showing the frontier nature of the region. The high kings at Ava at times had only nominal control or no control in many stretches.[1] After 1612, the office of viceroy at Taungoo became a mere appointed governorship as the Restored Taungoo kings abolished then existing hereditary viceroyships throughout the entire Irrawaddy valley.[2]

Origins[edit]

The first recorded administration of the Taungoo region came in 1191 when King Sithu II appointed Ananda Thuriya, a son-in-law of his, to be governor of Kanba Myint (ကမ်းပါးမြင့်), a settlement on the Swa stream, a tributary of the Paunglaung, about 40 km north of present-day Taungoo. The first governor was succeeded by his son, Min Hla Saw, who in turn was succeeded by his son, Thawun Letya. According to the chronicle Toungoo Yazawin, Thawun Gyi and Thawun Nge, the two sons of Thawun Letya founded a new settlement near the present-day city of Taungoo, about 40 km south of Kanba Myint, in 1279. It was named Taungoo (တောင်ငူ, "Hill's Spur") because of its location by the hills.[3]

Name Term From Term Until Relationship to predecessor(s)
Ananda Thuriya 1191 c. late 1220s Appointed
Min Hla Saw c. late 1220s 1250s Son
Thawun Letya 1250s 1256 Son
No office holder (1256–79)

List of rulers[edit]

Name Term From Term Until Relationship to predecessor(s) Notes
Thawun Gyi 17 April 1279 c. 23 June 1317 Son of Thawun Letya Vassal of Pagan (1279–87); assassinated
Thawun Nge c. 23 June 1317 1324 Brother Independent (1317–18); Vassal of Pinya (1318–24)
Saw Hnit 1324 1325 Son Vassal of Pinya; assassinated
Kayin Ba 1325 c. May 1342 No relations; usurper Vassal of Pinya
Letya Sekkya c. May 1342 c. May 1344 Son-in-law Vassal of Pinya; assassinated
Htauk Hlayga c. May 1344 c. January 1347 Brother; usurper Vassal of Pinya; assassinated
Theingaba c. January 1347 29 March 1367 No relations; usurper Independent/in rebellion (1358–67)
Pyanchi I 29 March 1367 c. November 1375 Son Vassal of Ava; assassinated
Ma Sein c. November 1375 c. January 1376 Usurper Vassal of Hanthawaddy Pegu; assassinated
Pyanchi II c. January 1376 1379 Son of Pyanchi I Vassal of Ava; assassinated
Sokkate 1379 1383 Brother-in-law Vassal of Ava; assassinated
Phaungga 1383 1397 Usurper Vassal of Ava
Saw Oo I 1397 1399 Son Removed from office
Min Nemi 1399 1408/09 No relations, appointed
Letya Zeya Thingyan 1408/09 1411/12 Appointed Moved to become governor of Pyinzi
Thinkhaya I 1411/12 1415 Appointed
Thinkhaya II 1415 1418/19 Son KIA
Pantaung 1419 1420 Appointed Interim governor
Thinkhaya III 1420 1435 Appointed Independent/in rebellion (1426–35)
Uzana 1435 1436 Son-in-law; Appointed Independent/in rebellion; Vassal of Hanthawaddy; Removed from office by Binnya Ran I
Saw Oo II 1436 1440 Son of Thinkhaya III Independent/in rebellion; killed in action
Tarabya 1440 2 January 1446[4] Appointed Vassal of Ava
Minkhaung I 2 January 1446 1451 Son Vassal of Ava; assassinated
Minye Kyawhtin 1451 1459 Usurper; son of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa Independent/in rebellion (1451–59); assassinated
Thiri Zeya Thura 1459 1466 Appointed Removed from office
Letya Zala Thingyan 1466 1470 Appointed Independent/in revolt (1470); deposed
Sithu Kyawhtin 1470 1481 Appointed Vassal of Ava; died in action
Min Sithu 1481 c. April 1485 Son Vassal of Ava; assassinated
Mingyi Nyo c. April 1485 24 November 1530 Nephew Declared independence from Ava in 1510
Tabinshwehti 24 November 1530 1540 Son Moved seat of government to Bago (Pegu) in 1539
Mingyi Swe 1540 March 1549[note 1] Appointed; father of Bayinnaung
Minkhaung II March 1549 11 January 1551[5] Appointed Independent/in rebellion (1550–51)
Bayinnaung 11 January 1551 12 March 1552[6] Elder brother
Minkhaung II 6 June 1552[7] June 1584[8] Younger brother; re-appointed
Minye Thihathu II June 1584 11 August 1609 Son Independent/in rebellion (1597–1609)
Natshinnaung 11 August 1609 August 1612[9] Son; appointed 1610–12 Independent/in rebellion (1609–10)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 236): He died in year 910 ME after having participated in the 1548–1549 Siamese campaign. Since Tabinshwehti arrived back at Pegu on 1 March 1549 (3rd waxing of Late Tagu 910 ME) per (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 232), Mingyi Swe died during the remaining weeks of 910 ME, which ended on 29 March 1549.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 10–13
  2. ^ Lieberman 2003: 161–162
  3. ^ Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 15
  4. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 31): 5th waxing of Tabodwe 807 ME = 2 January 1446
  5. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 257): Sunday, 3rd waxing of Tabodwe 912 ME = 11 January 1551.
  6. ^ Thaw Kaung 2010: 107
  7. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 269): 14th waxing Waso 914 ME = 6 June 1552
  8. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 269): Waso 946 ME = 8 June 1584 to 6 July 1584
  9. ^ (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 320): Wagaung 974 ME = 29 July 1612 to 27 August 1612

Bibliography[edit]

  • Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1829–1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information (Myanmar). 
  • Sein Lwin Lay, Kahtika U (2006). Mintaya Shwe Hti and Bayinnaung: Ketumadi Taungoo Yazawin (in Burmese) (2nd printing ed.). Yangon: Yan Aung Sarpay. 
  • Thaw Kaung, U (2010). Aspects of Myanmar History and Culture. Yangon: Gangaw Myaing.