List of scientific misconduct incidents

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Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in the publication of professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries gave examples of policy definitions. In Denmark, scientific misconduct is defined as "intention[al] or gross negligence leading to fabrication of the scientific message or a false credit or emphasis given to a scientist", and in Sweden as "intention[al] distortion of the research process by fabrication of data, text, hypothesis, or methods from another researcher's manuscript form or publication; or distortion of the research process in other ways."[1][2]

A 2009 systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data found that about 2% of scientists admitted to falsifying, fabricating, or modifying data at least once.[3]

Biomedical sciences[edit]

  • Anna Ahimastos-Lamberti (Australia), a former medical researcher, admitted to fabricating scientific results published in numerous major international medical journals.[4] As a result, two journal articles about a three-year clinical trial involving a medication used to treat hypertension were retracted.[5][6]
  • Bharat Aggarwal (US), a former Ransom Horne, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Cancer Research at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center,[7] resigned his position after fraud was discovered in 65 papers published by him in the area of curcumin as a treatment for cancer.[8] Aggarwal has had 28 of his publications retracted.[9]
  • Elias Alsabti (Iraq, US), was a medical practitioner who posed as a biomedical researcher. He plagiarized as many as 60 papers in the field of cancer research, many with non-existent co-authors.[10][11][12]
  • Piero Anversa (US, Italy) and Annarosa Leri (US, Italy), collaborators and former researchers at Harvard University, were found in a 2014 investigation to have "manipulated and falsified" data in their research on endogenous cardiac stem cells, and to have included "false scientific information" in grant applications.[13] Anversa and Leri lost a lawsuit they brought against Harvard that claimed the investigation had damaged their reputations.[14] Anversa and Leri have one retracted and eight corrected publications.[15] In October 2018, Harvard University and Brigham and Women's Hospital called for an additional 31 paper retractions after many failed replications of their work.[16]
  • Edward Awh and graduate student David Anderson (US), formerly of the University of Oregon, retracted nine of their publications due to data fabrication.[17][18] This included an action identified by The Scientist (magazine) as a Top 10 Retraction of 2015.[19]
  • Werner Bezwoda (South Africa), formerly of the University of Witwatersrand, admitted to scientific misconduct in trials on high-dose chemotherapy on breast cancer, stating that he had "committed a serious breach of scientific honesty and integrity."[20][21][22]
  • Philippe Bois (US), a former postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital was found by the Office of Research Integrity to have used misleading data for one image in a 2005 Journal of Cell Biology paper and completely faked another image in a Molecular and Cellular Biology article published the same year. The JCB paper was retracted later in May 2007 and the MCB paper was corrected.[23]
  • Joachim Boldt (Germany), an anesthesiologist formerly based at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, was stripped of his professorship and criminally investigated for forgery in his research studies.[24] Boldt has had 96 of his publications retracted.[25]
  • C. David Bridges (US), a researcher at Purdue University and formerly at Baylor College of Medicine, was found by a NIH investigation panel to have stolen ideas from a rival's manuscript that Bridges had been asked to review, and used that information to produce and publish his own research.[26][27] The investigating panel described Bridges' conduct as "an egregious misconduct of science that undermines the entire concept and practice of scientific experimentation and ethical responsibility,"[28] with NIH later stripping Bridges' of his funding.[29]
  • Silvia Bulfone-Paus (Germany, UK), an immunologist at the Research Center Borstel and the University of Manchester, has had 13 of her publications retracted following investigations of alleged scientific misconduct involving image manipulation.[30][31]
  • Ranjit Chandra (Canada), former nutrition researcher at Memorial University of Newfoundland and self-proclaimed "father of nutritional immunology,"[32] was in 2015 stripped of his Order of Canada membership following accusations of scientific wrongdoing in his research.[33] In 2015 Chandra lost a $132 million case against the CBC, which in 2006 presented a documentary in which 10 of Chandra's publications were identified as “fraudulent or highly suspicious;”[34] Chandra was ordered to pay the CBC $1.6 million to cover the defendant's legal fees.[35] At least four of Chandra's publications have been retracted.[36]
  • Ching-Shih Chen (US), the former chair of cancer research at The Ohio State University, was investigated by OSU and the federal Office of Research Integrity after being anonymously reported for falsifying data. The investigation found that he falsified information in at least 11 publications, and that he did not keep any laboratory notebooks on his research, a violation of federal research policies.[37][38]
  • Carlo M. Croce (US), an oncologist and professor of medicine at Ohio State University, has been the subject of several allegations of scientific misconduct, including data falsification, and related institutional investigations.[39][40][41] Croce, who has filed lawsuits against critics,[42] including a defamation lawsuit against David Sanders (biologist) of Purdue University,[43] has had eight of his publications retracted.[44]
  • John Darsee (US), a cardiologist formerly based at Harvard University, fabricated data in published research articles and more than 100 abstracts and book chapters.[45][46] In 1983 Darsee was disbarred for ten years by the US National Institutes of Health.[47] Darsee has had at least 17 of his publications retracted.[48]
  • Dipak Das (US), former director of the Cardiovascular Research Center at the University of Connecticut Health Center, was found in a University investigation to be guilty of 145 counts of fabrication or falsification of research data.[49] Das has had 20 of his publications retracted.[50]
  • Evan B. Dreyer (US), former Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at Harvard University Medical School, reported falsified and/or fabricated experimental results in manuscripts and grant applications. In 2000 Dreyer was blocked for 10 years from receiving NIH-sponsored research grants.[51][52][53]
  • Richard Eastell (UK), a medical doctor and Professor at the University of Sheffield, was found in a 2009 General Medical Council hearing to be negligent in making "untrue" and "misleading" declarations involving a trial of the osteoporosis drug Actonel.[54] Eastell had in 2006 resigned as director of research at Sheffield National Health Service Trust following allegations of "financial irregularities" connected to his research program.[55][56][57]
  • Masoumeh Ebtekar (Iran), head of the Iranian Department of Environment at Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, substantially plagiarized several previously-published articles in a 2006 paper that was later retracted.[58][59]
  • Terry Elton (US), Professor of Pharmacology at Ohio State University, was found guilty of scientific misconduct by both a University committee and the Office of Research Integrity.[60][61] Elton has had seven of his publications retracted.[62]
  • Yoshitaka Fujii (Japan), an anesthesiologist, was found to have fabricated data in at least 183 scientific papers, setting what is believed to be a record for the number of papers by a single author requiring retractions. A committee reviewing 212 papers published by Fujii over a span of 20 years found that 126 were entirely fabricated, with no scientific work done. Only 3 were found to be valid. He was also found to have forged the signatures of scientists he listed as co-authors without their knowledge.[63][64][65]
  • Roxana Gonzalez (US), former doctoral student in the laboratory of Jennifer Lerner at Carnegie Mellon University, falsified data in research projects supported by the US National Institutes of Health that "affected three published papers, two manuscripts, and one review article."[66][67][68]
  • Dong-Pyou Han (US), former assistant professor of biomedical sciences at Iowa State University, added human antibodies to samples of rabbit blood in an effort to falsely enhance the utility of an experimental HIV vaccine.[69][70] In 2015 Han was sentenced to nearly five years in prison and ordered to return $7.2 million to the NIH.[71]
  • Marc Hauser (US), an evolutionary biologist and former Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, was found by a University committee and the US Office of Research Integrity to have fabricated and falsified data in his research.[72][73][74][75]
  • Friedhelm Herrmann and Marion Brach (Germany), formerly of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, admitted to fabricating data in their research on cancer.[76][77] Herrmann has had 21 of his publications retracted.[78]
  • Woo-suk Hwang (Hwang Woo-suk) (South Korea), former Professor of Biotechnology at Seoul National University, was found by a University committee to have committed "deliberate fabrication" in his research on stem cells, and to have coerced female members of his research team to donate their eggs.[79] In 2009 Hwang was found guilty by the Seoul Central District Court of embezzlement and bioethical violations in connection to his research program.[80][81]
  • Sophina ("Sophie") Jamal (Canada), former Professor of Medicine at University of Toronto and former staff Endocrinologist at Women's College Hospital, Toronto, falsified data from studies of nitroglycerin compounds in osteoporosis.[82] Results published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 2011 were retracted by the Journal in 2016.[83] In 2016 Jamal received a lifetime funding ban from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research,[84][85] and in 2018 had her license to practice medicine revoked by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario in 2018.[86]
  • Kim Tae-kook (South Korea), formerly of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, falsified research on modulating cellular proteins with the synthetic compound CGK733.[87][88]
  • Gideon Koren (Canada), former Director of the Motherisk Program at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, published an article without the informed consent of co-author Nancy Olivieri, and sent her anonymous harassing letters.[89][90]
  • Steven A. Leadon (US), former professor of radiation oncology and head of the molecular radiobiology program at the University of North Carolina, falsified and fabricated data in his research on DNA repair.[91][92][93]
  • Paolo Macchiarini (Sweden, Italy), a thoracic surgeon and researcher formerly at the Karolinska Institutet, was in 2017 found by an ethics review board to have committed research misconduct, including false claims of clinical success and falsely claiming ethical approval for his surgical interventions, in his work on the surgical implantation of artificial trachea seeded with patients' own stem cells.[94][95][96] The review board recommended that six of Macchiarini's publications be retracted.[97]
  • William McBride (Australia), a physician who discovered the teratogenicity of thalidomide, was found by an Australian medical tribunal to have "deliberately published false and misleading scientific reports and altered the results of experiments" on the effects of Debendox/Bendectin on pregnancy.[98][99][100]
  • Alirio Melendez (Singapore), a former immunologist at the National University of Singapore, was found guilty by a University committee of misconduct on an "unprecedented" scale by having fabricated, falsified or plagiarized at least 21 research papers published in international academic journals.[101][102] Melendez has had 14 of his publications retracted.[103]
  • Michael W. Miller (US), former Professor and Chair of Neuroscience at SUNY Upstate Medical University, falsified data in two retracted publications, one manuscript submitted for publication, and four grant applications.[104][105][106]
  • Moon Hyung-in (South Korea), former Professor in the Department of Medicinal Biotechnology at Dong-A University (South Korea), used false names and email addresses to "peer review" his own research publications.[107] Moon has had 35 of his research publications retracted.[108]
  • H.M. Krishna Murthy (US), a protein crystallographer and former research associate professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, was found in 2009 by a University committee to be "solely responsible for ... fraudulent data" on protein structures published in nine papers.[109][110] At least five of Krishna Murthy's publications have been retracted.[111] In 2018 the United States Office of Research Integrity placed a 10-year ban on Federal funding for Murthy.[112]
  • Haruko Obokata and Yoshiki Sasai of RIKEN (Japan) falsified data in the widely-publicized STAP cell fraud.[113]
  • Luk Van Parijs (US), former Associate Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) fabricated and falsified data in a research paper, several unpublished manuscripts, and grant applications. He was convicted in 2011 of making a false statement on a federal grant application.[114]
  • Malcolm Pearce (UK), former senior consultant and obstetrician at St George's Hospital in London, falsified his claims of successful reimplantation of an ectopic pregnancy,[115][116] and fabricated a study on the effects of Human chorionic gonadotrophin on pregnancy outcome.[117]
  • Milena Penkowa (Denmark), a neuroscientist and former Professor at the Panum Institute of the University of Copenhagen, was in 2010 convicted of fraud and embezzlement of research funds, and in 2012 was found to have committed "deliberate scientific malpractice."[118][119][120] In 2017 the University of Copenhagen revoked Penkowa's doctoral degree, and she has had six of her publications retracted.[121]
  • Eric Poehlman (US), a former Professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Vermont, was convicted in 2005 of grant fraud after falsifying data in as many as 17 grant applications between 1992 and 2000. He was the first academic in the United States to be jailed for falsifying data in a grant application.[122][123] Poehlman has had seven of his publications retracted.[124]
  • Anil Potti (US), a former Associate Professor of Medicine at Duke University, engaged in scientific misconduct "by including false research data in ... published papers, [a] submitted manuscript, [a] grant application, and the research record."[125][126] Potti's misconduct resulted in the suspension of three clinical trials based on his research and a lawsuit filed against Duke by patients enrolled in those studies.[127] Potti has had 11 of his publications retracted.[128]
  • Azza El-Remessy (US), a former Associate Professor of the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, falsified Western blot data in published manuscripts.[129][130]
  • Scott Reuben (US), a former Professor of Anesthesiology at Tufts University, falsified and fabricated clinical trials involving painkiller medications.[131][132] Reuben pleaded guilty in 2010 to one count of health care fraud and was sentenced to six months in prison.[133] Reuben has had 25 of his publications retracted.[134]
  • José Román-Gómez (Spain), a leukemia researcher at the University of Córdoba (Spain) who has been described as "a serial image manipulator/misappropriator," altered and misappropriated gel images from the work of others for his own published papers.[135][136][137][138] Román-Gómez has had six of his publications retracted.[139]
  • Steven S. Rosenfeld (US), a former Harvard undergraduate, forged letters of recommendation for himself in the name of David Dressler, whose laboratory he used. His research on transfer factor, on which two articles were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could not be successfully replicated by other scientists.
  • Robert Ryan (UK), formerly of the University of Dundee, was found by a University committee in 2016 to have committed research misconduct in his work on molecular bacteriology.[140] Four of Ryan's publications have been retracted.[141]
  • Fazlul Sarkar (US), a pathologist formerly at Wayne State University, was in 2015 found by a University committee to have "engaged in and permitted (and tacitly encouraged) intentional and knowing fabrication, falsification, and/or plagiarism of data, and its publication in journals, and its use to support his federal grant applications."[142] Sarkar, who in 2016 lost a defamation lawsuit he brought against anonymous critics of his work,[143] has had 33 of his publications retracted, and at least a dozen others corrected.[144]
  • Yoshihiro Sato (Japan), a researcher in osteoporosis at Mitate Hospital in Tagawa, published more than 200 papers involving 33 clinical trials, of which 30 trials have been retracted (as of August 2018) either by Sato or by the journals.[145]
  • Eric J. Smart (US), a former nutrition researcher, associate professor, vice-chairman of the Department of Pediatrics and the Barnstable-Brown Chair in Diabetes Research at the University of Kentucky, was in 2012 found by the US Office of Research Integrity to have committed scientific misconduct over a period of 10 years by falsifying data in 10 published papers and seven grant applications.[146][147][148] Smart has had eight of his publications retracted.[149]
  • Alfred Steinschneider (US), a medical doctor formerly based at Upstate Medical University, in 1972 developed the theory, published in the journal Pediatrics (journal), that SIDS was caused by prolonged Sleep apnea,[150][151] although none of his research or research conducted subsequently by others supported the theory.[152][153][154] The case-study upon which Steinschneider's theory was based was later revealed to involve Infanticide committed by the mother, with Steinschneider allegedly having ignored evidence and reports that the children were being abused.[155][156] In 1997 the editor of Pediatrics (journal), Jerold Lucey, stated that Steinschneider's original paper on the subject was "seriously flawed" and should not have been published.[157]
  • Marc Straus (US), former Chief of Oncology and Associate Professor of Medicine at Boston University Medical Center, in 1982 admitted to "serious deficiencies," including the use of false data, in research studies he supervised. He also admitted to using ineligible patients in his studies, administering drug dosages different from those in his plan, and not assuring compliance with rules of informed consent.[158][159][160]
  • Jon Sudbø (Norway), an oncologist and former Associate Professor at the University of Oslo, was found in a 2006 investigation to have manipulated and fabricated data in grant applications and 15 of his research papers.[161][162][163] Sudbø has had 12 of his publications retracted.[78]
  • Akio Sugino (Japan), a former molecular biologist and professor at Osaka University, was dismissed from the University following an investigation that revealed he fabricated research data in two of his papers.[164][165][166]
  • William Summerlin (US), a dermatologist formerly at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, in 1974 committed scientific misconduct in his work on transplant immunology.[167][168] It was from this case that the phrase "painting the mice" originated as a synonym for research fraud.[169][170]
  • Kazunari Taira (Japan), formerly of the biochemistry and biotechnology department at the University of Tokyo, was found by a University committee to have faked experiments on RNA interference.[171][172][173][174]
  • Andrew Wakefield (UK), a former practicing physician and senior lecturer at the Royal Free Hospital in London, was found guilty of dishonesty in his research and banned from medicine by the UK General Medical Council following an investigation by Brian Deer of the London Sunday Times.[175] Wakefield's claims of a link between the MMR vaccine, autism and inflammatory bowel disease have been reported in the British Medical Journal as "based not on bad science but on a deliberate fraud,"[176] and the 1998 paper originally presenting his theory was retracted in 2010 by The Lancet.[177][178] Wakefield was unsuccessful in an attempt to sue detractors/critics for libel and defamation.[179][180]
  • Weishui Y. Weiser (US), a former Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, falsified data supported by two Public Health Service (PHS) grants.[181][182] Weiser has had at least four publications retracted.[183]
  • Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories fabricated research data to the extent that upon FDA analysis of 867 studies, 618 (71%) were deemed invalid, including many of which were used to gain regulatory approval for widely used household and industrial products.[184][185]
  • Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital retracted a 2012 paper published in Surgery in 2016 after an internal investigation determined that an image used in the paper was fabricated. The investigation was sparked by other scientists who questioned the paper’s claim to have presented the molecular underpinnings of how a form of curcumin could reduce the growth of neuroblastoma.[186] The official retraction stated, “The irregularities in Figure 3E have been investigated by the co-authors and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, and the investigation concluded that the image was fabricated. We therefore retract the publication.”[187]

Chemistry[edit]

  • Claudio Airoldi (Brazil), former professor at the University of Campinas, and Denis de Jesus Lima Guerra (Brazil), former professor at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, have had 13 of their papers retracted[188] in what was reported as the biggest case of scientific fraud in Brazil.[189]
  • Henk Buck (Netherlands), former professor of Physical Organic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry at the Eindhoven University of Technology, was directly involved in The Buck-Goudsmit controversy, in which a potential method to inhibit HIV-1 replication was ultimately shown to be based on flawed research.[190][191]
  • Juan Carlos Mejuto (Spain) and Gonzalo Astray Dopazo (Spain) of the University of Vigo had two papers retracted in 2011 because "significant portions" of the papers duplicated previously published work.[192][193][194]
  • Leo Paquette (US), an Ohio State University professor, plagiarized sections from an unfunded NIH grant application for use in his own NIH grant application.[195] He also plagiarized a NSF proposal for use in one of his scientific publications.[196][197]
  • H. Zhong, T. Liu, and their colleagues (China) at Jinggangshan University have retracted at least 70 papers published in Acta Crystallographica[198][199] following analyses that revealed the organic structures claimed in these papers to be impossible or implausible; the supporting data appeared to have been taken from valid structures that had then been altered by substituting atoms.[200][201]
  • Guido Zadel (Germany), published an article with the title "Enantioselective Reactions in a Static Magnetic Field" in 1994.[202] His experiments had been manipulated, which led to the retraction of the respective paper and the final loss of his doctoral degree in 2004.[203] The German version of the article is still accessible at Angew. Chem. in 2018 for $59 without any obvious retraction note.[204]

Computer science and mathematics[edit]

  • Ioan Mang (Romania), a computer scientist at the University of Oradea, plagiarized a paper by cryptographer Eli Biham,[205] Dean of the Computer Science Department of Technion, Haifa, Israel. He was accused of extensive plagiarism in at least eight of his academic papers.[206][207][208][209]
  • Dănuț Marcu (Romania), a mathematician and computer scientist, was banned from publishing in several journals due to plagiarism.[210] He had submitted a manuscript for publication that was a word-for-word replicate of a published paper written by another author.[211]

Physics[edit]

Plant biology[edit]

  • Supachai Lorlowhakarn (Thailand), an official at Thailand’s National Innovation Agency (NIA), plagiarized 80% of his PhD thesis concerning asparagus cultivation.[228] Lorlowhakarn was in 2012 found guilty of criminal forgery, had his PhD degree retracted, was fined, and received a six-month suspended jail sentence, but was not dismissed from NIA.[229] The whistleblower (and plagiarized author) in this case, United Nations official Wyn Ellis, was in 2015 detained by Thai immigration officials for four days, apparently due to an official letter from Lorlowhakarn characterizing Ellis as a "danger to Thai society."[230]
  • Olivier Voinnet (France) was suspended in 2015 for two years from the CNRS (the French National Centre for Scientific Research) due to multiple cases of data manipulation.[231][232] In 2016 EMBO recalled the Gold Medal awarded to Voinnet in 2009.[233][234] Voinnet has had eight research publications retracted.[235]

Social sciences[edit]

  • Mart Bax (Netherlands), former professor of political anthropology at the Vrije Universiteit, committed multiple acts of scientific misconduct including data fabrication.[236][237][238] Bax, who has had two of his publications retracted, was found in 2013 to have never published 61 of the papers he listed on his CV.[239][240]
  • Ward Churchill (US), former professor of ethnic studies at University of Colorado, was accused by a University committee of multiple counts of plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification.[241][242] After the University Chancellor recommended Churchill's dismissal to the Board of Regents, Churchill was in 2009 deemed by a jury to have been wrongly fired, although the presiding judge declined to reinstate him.[243] In 2010 the Colorado State Court of Appeals upheld the judge's decision to not reinstate Churchill, a decision that in 2012 was upheld by the Colorado Supreme Court.[244] In 2013 the Supreme Court of the United States declined to hear Churchill's appeal of the Colorado Supreme Court decision.[245]
  • Jens Förster (Netherlands, Germany), a social psychologist formerly of the University of Amsterdam and the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, fabricated data reported in a number of published papers. An investigating committee in 2015 identified in Förster's work data that were "practically impossible" and displayed "strong evidence for low veracity."[246][247] Förster has had three of his publications retracted.[248][249]
  • Bruno Frey (Switzerland), an economist formerly at the University of Zurich, in 2010-11 committed multiple acts of self-plagiarism in articles about the Titanic disaster. Frey admitted to the self-plagiarism, terming the acts "grave mistake[s]" and "deplorable."[250][251]
  • Michael LaCour (US), former graduate student in political science at UCLA, was the lead author of the 2014 article When contact changes minds. Published in Science and making international headlines, the paper was later retracted because of numerous irregularities in the methodology and falsified data.[252][253][254][255] Following the retraction Princeton University rescinded an assistant professorship that had been offered to LaCour.[256]
  • Elisabeth Nixon (US), a former student at Ohio State University, had her PhD in anthropology revoked due to plagiarism.[257][258]
  • Karen M. Ruggiero (US), former Assistant Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, fabricated NIH-sponsored research data on gender and discrimination.[259][260][261]
  • Diederik Stapel (Netherlands), former professor of social psychology at Tilburg University, fabricated data in dozens of studies on human behaviour,[262] a deception described by the New York Times as "an audacious academic fraud."[263] Stapel has had 58 of his publications retracted.[264]
  • Brian Wansink (US), former John S. Dyson Endowed Chair in the Applied Economics and Management Department at Cornell University, was found in 2018 by a University investigatory committee to have "committed academic misconduct in his research and scholarship, including misreporting of research data, problematic statistical techniques, failure to properly document and preserve research results, and inappropriate authorship."[265][266][267] Wansink has had 13 of his papers retracted, and at least 15 others have been corrected.[268]

Other[edit]

  • In 2016 the scientific publisher Springer Nature retracted 58 papers from seven journals, authored mostly by Iran-based researchers, because the papers showed evidence of authorship manipulation, peer-review manipulation, and/or plagiarism.[269][270]
  • Ohio University in 2006 alleged more than three dozen cases of plagiarism in master's degree theses dating back 20 years in its mechanical engineering department.[271] A former faculty member involved in the plagiarism cases, Jay S. Gunasekera, was removed from his position as department chair, had his title of "distinguished professor" rescinded,[272] and in 2011 settled a lawsuit he had brought against the University.[273] Another former faculty member implicated in the plagiarism cases, Bhavin Mehta, in 2012 lost a defamation suit he had brought against the University.[274]
  • 486 Chinese cancer researchers were found guilty of engaging in a fraudulent peer-review scheme by China’s Ministry of Science and Technology. The investigation was initiated after the retraction of 107 papers published in Tumor Biology between 2012 and 2016.[275][276] This is reported to be the most papers retracted from one journal.[277]

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