List of secondary school sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples

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Among the categories of names for sports teams in North America, those referring to Indigenous peoples are lesser in popularity only to the names of various animals (Eagles, Tigers, Bulldogs, Panthers, Wildcats, Lions, Cougars). In the top ten, "Warriors" is number six, and "Indians" is number eight.[1] The typical logo is an image of a stereotypical Native American man in profile, wearing a Plains Indians headdress; some are more realistic, while others are cartoons or caricatures. Other imagery include dreamcatchers, feathers, spears, and arrows. Individual schools may have performance traditions, such as the tomahawk chop, a mascot or cheerleaders in stereotypical Native attire, and chants adapted from Hollywood movies. These fictional representations stand in the way of any authentic understanding of contemporary Indigenous peoples, and promote racism.[2]

The documents most often cited to justifying the trend for change are an advisory opinion by the United States Commission on Civil Rights in 2001[3] and a resolution by the American Psychological Association in 2005.[4] Both support the views of Native American organizations and individuals that such mascots maintain harmful stereotypes that are discriminatory and cause harm by distorting the past and preventing understanding of Native American/First Nations peoples in the present.

The trend towards the elimination of indigenous names and mascots in local schools has been steady, with two-thirds having been eliminated over the past 50 years according to the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).[5] In a few states with significant Native American populations, change has been mandated by law, such in Wisconsin,[6] Oregon,[7] and Washington.[8][9] A bill to ban Native American mascots statewide passed the Maine House of Representatives and Senate[10] and was signed into law by Governor Janet Mills in May, 2019.[11]

The list below for U.S. High Schools however remains substantial, with over 400 teams currently calling themselves "Indians", over 100 "Braves", over 100 "Warriors" using indigenous imagery (there are many with the name using generic, Greek or Roman mascots), and 48 "Redskins". The latter has shown the greatest decline, due to an association with the Washington Redskins name controversy.

Current usage[edit]

The following schools are listed in alphabetical order by team name:

Apaches[edit]

Centennial High School

Arrows[edit]

The following use Native American arrows, feathers, or arrowheads in their logos:

Aztecs[edit]

Big Reds[edit]

Blackhawks[edit]

Most of the schools with the name use a bird logo, therefore are not directly derived from an indigenous people although there may be an indirect reference to Chief Black Hawk. The following use Native American images/symbols:

Brave(s)[edit]

Brownies[edit]

Cherokees[edit]

Chickasaws[edit]

Chiefs[edit]

Chieftains[edit]

Chinook[edit]

Chippewas/Chippewa Raiders[edit]

Choctaws[edit]

Comanches[edit]

Dine' Warriors[edit]

Eskimos or Eskymos[edit]

Halfbreeds[edit]

Hurons[edit]

Indian(s)[edit]

A-F[edit]

Cheyenne Mountain High School Logo
Dartmouth High School Indian

G-L[edit]

M-R[edit]

S-Z[edit]

Marauders[edit]

  • Monache High School, Porterville, California – There is a large mural of a Native American on the side of the school's gym, created by Adam Sanchez, class of 2002. This refers to the high school's mascot, the "Marauder".

Mohawks[edit]

Mohigans[edit]

Red Raiders/Raiders[edit]

Redmen[edit]

Reds[edit]

Redskins[edit]

Renegades[edit]

Sachems[edit]

Sauras[edit]

Savages[edit]

Scouts[edit]

Seminoles[edit]

Senecas[edit]

Sioux[edit]

Squaws[edit]

Thunderbirds[edit]

Although the thunderbird is a creature in Native American mythology, these school's logos/mascots may come from indirect associations with the United States Air Force Thunderbirds or the Ford Thunderbird.

Tomahawk(s)[edit]

Tribe[edit]

Two schools that dropped the Redskins name, in compliance with California law, choose Tribe as a new name to retain their logo and other Native American imagery.

Wamps[edit]

Warrior(s)[edit]

A number of schools with the name "Warriors" never used indigenous imagery, or changed in response to the controversy.

Prior usage[edit]

School City State / Provence Old Name New Name Year Notes
Afton High School Afton New York Indians Crimson Knights 2001
Alto Pass High School Alto Pass Illinois Apaches NA 1969 School closed and consolidated into Cobden High School, nicknamed Appleknockers
Arvada High School Arvada Colorado Redskins Reds 1993 Bulldog mascot[178]
Austine School for the Deaf Brattleboro Vermont Arrows NA 2014 All K-12 programs suspended
Balfour Collegiate Regina Saskatchewan Redmen Bears 2014 [204]
Bedford Road Collegiate Saskatoon Saskatchewan Redmen Redhawks 2014 [205]
Belding High School Belding Michigan Redskins Black Knights[206] 2016 The Belding Area Schools Board of Education unanimously voted December 19, 2016 to drop the Redskins and begin the process of selecting a new name.[207]
Boise High School Boise Idaho Braves Brave 2019 While the name will be used immediately, it may take years to remove all of the former mascot imagery.[208]
Brebeuf College School North York Ontario Redmen Bulls 2004
Canajoharie High School Canajoharie New York Redskins Cougars 2000 [178]
Capitol Hill High School Oklahoma City Oklahoma Redskins Red Wolves 2015 Redskins retired December 2014 by a vote of the school board,[209] students selected as their new mascot in 2015.[210]
Cardinal Gibbons High School Fort Lauderdale Florida Redskins Chiefs 2006 School retains Native American imagery
Carrollton High School Carrollton Alabama Indians
Cedar High School Cedar City Utah Redmen Reds[211] 2019 "Redmen" mascot retired by a 3-2 vote of the school board.[212]
Centennial High School Blaine Minnesota Chiefs Cougars
Chowchilla High School Chowchilla California Redskins Tribe 2016 School plans to retain Native American imagery.[186]
Colusa High School Colusa California Redskins RedHawks 2012 [178]
Conrad Schools of Science Wilmington Delaware Redskins Red Wolves 2017 The name was dropped in June 2016[213] The "Red Wolves" was selected by a student vote in February, 2017.[214]
Cooperstown Junior-Senior High School Cooperstown New York Redskins Hawkeyes 2013 Students voted to change the mascot over the objections of alumni and parents.[215] In appreciation the Oneida Tribe of New York donated $10,000 to assist with the cost of the change.[216]
Copper Cliff Sudbury Ontario Braves Crushers 2013 [217]
Cumberland High School Cumberland Kentucky Redskins NA 2008 Consolidated with two other schools into Harlan County High School
Effingham County High School Springfield Georgia Chiefs The Rebels
Enterprise High School Enterprise Oregon Savages Outlaws
Fairview High School Fairview Park Ohio Warriors 2019 Native imagery replaced by gladiator[218]
Flint Central High School Flint Michigan Indians Phoenix 2005
Frontier Regional School Deerfield Massachusetts Redskins Red Hawks 2000 [178]
Gardena High School Los Angeles California Mohican Panther 1997 Located in the Harbor Gateway neighborhood of LA.
General William J. Palmer High School Colorado Springs Colorado Terrors 1985 Did not change the name but the original mascot was a caricature of a Native American called "Eagle Beak", replaced with an Eagle.
Glenwood High School Chatham Illinois Redskins Titans 2001 [178]
Goffstown High School Goffstown New Hampshire Redskins Grizzlies 1994 [178]
Goshen High School Goshen Indiana Redskins Redhawks 2016
Grafton High School Grafton Wisconsin Blackhawks "Black Hawks"
Grand Forks Central High School Grand Forks North Dakota Redskins Knights 1992 [178]
Grand Rapids High School Grand Rapids Minnesota Indians Thunderhawks
Gridley High School Gridley Illinois Redskins NA 2004 Merged with another school to become the El Paso–Gridley Titans.[219]
Gustine High School Gustine California Redskins Reds 2016 Became the first to comply with the Californian state law, adopting the name used by the school from 1913 to 1936.[220]
Hall High School West Hartford Connecticut Warriors 2012 Kept name, remove Native American imagery.[221]
Hiawatha High School Hiawatha Kansas Redskins Red Hawks 2001 [178]
Hot Springs High School Hot Springs Montana Savages Savage Heat 2007
Huntley High School Huntley Illinois Redskins Red Raiders 2002 Native American Bar Association threatened litigation.[222]
Idaho School for the Deaf and the Blind Gooding Idaho Redskins Raptors 1990 [178]
Immaculate Conception High School Lodi New Jersey Apaches Blue Wolves 2004
Iowa Falls-Alden High School Iowa Falls Iowa Redskins Cadets 1999 [178]
James S. Rickards High School Tallahassee Florida Redskins Raiders 2000 [178]
Jefferson High School Daly City California Indians Grizzlies
John Swett High School Crockett California Indians Warriors 2015 While dropping the Indian name,[223] adoption of the Warriors is seen by many as a way of retaining Native American imagery.[224]
Killingly High School Killingly Connecticut Redmen 2019 Renewed discussion in 2019 of whether the mascot is offensive was prompted by a student initiative.[225] After input from the Nipmuc Tribal Council that no Native mascots are flattering, the school board has decided to change the name.[226]
Lamar High School Houston Texas Redskins Texans 2014 Houston ISD voted to change racially insensitive mascots.[227][228][229]
Lancaster High School Lancaster New York Redskins Legends 2015 After contentious community meetings, the school board voted to retire the name.[230] The new name was selected by a vote by students.[231]
Ledgemont High School Thompson Township Ohio Redskins NA 2015 School closed.[232]
Logan High School Logan South Dakota Arrows NA School closed.[233]
Manchester High School Manchester Connecticut Indians Red Hawks 2019 The Manchester Board of Education voted to change the nickname and mascot.[234]
Marist High School Chicago Illinois Redskins Redhawks 1997 Change was discussed, then made with little comment except a few alumni.[235]
Marshall High School Marshall Michigan Redskins Redhawks 2005 [178]
Massena Central High School Massena New York Red Raiders (Indian head logo until 2004) Red Raiders (Spartan logo from 2018) 2018 The old logo was dropped during 2001–2004, but the name was not changed and the new logo was not approved until 2018, so unofficial use of the prior "Indian head" logo continued.[236][237]
Meadowdale High School Edmonds Washington Chiefs Mavericks 1999
Milford High School Highland Michigan Redskins Mavericks 2002 [178]
Millard South High School Omaha Nebraska Indians Patriots 2000
Mohawk High School Marcola Oregon Mohawk Indian Mustangs 2017 Name derived from Mohawk Valley.[238]
Montevideo High School Montevideo Minnesota Mohawks Thunderhawks
Monticello High School Monticello Minnesota Redmen Redhawks
Mountain Empire High School Pine Valley California Redskins Redhawks 1997 [178]
Napa High School Napa California Indians Grizzly 2018 A school district committee recommended changing the mascot in 2017, which aroused some opposition.[239] However, a new mascot was selected in August, 2018 by students and staff.[240]
Naperville Central High School Naperville Illinois Redskins Red Hawks 1992 Alumni retained an attachment to the old name, but most think the change was a good one.[241]
Natick High School Natick Massachusetts Redmen Red Hawks 2012 Change voted 2007, new name selected 2012.[242][243]
Nauset Regional High School Eastham Massachusetts Warriors 2008 Name retained, but all references to Native Americans removed.[244]
North Douglas High School Drain Oregon Warriors 2016 Name will be retained, but the mascot "Willie the Warrior" will be retired at the end of the 2016 school year and other Native American imagery will be removed.[245]
North River High School Cosmopolis Washington Redskins Mustangs 1995 [178]
North Side High School Fort Wayne Indiana Redskins Legends 2015 The school's yearbook had always been the Legend.[246]
Northwest Catholic High School West Hartford Connecticut Indians Lions 2015 [247]
Oak Park High School Oak Park Michigan Redskins Knights 1990 [178]
Onteora High School Boiceville New York Indian Eagle 2016 [248]
Osseo-Fairchild High School Osseo Wisconsin Chieftains Thunder
Ossining High School Ossining New York Indians No mascot
Owatonna Senior High School Owatonna Minnesota Indians Huskies 1994
Park High School Cottage Grove Minnesota Indians Wolfpack 1994 An "Indian Head" mosaic created in 1965 in the main hallway of the school has become the subject of contention between Native Americans and their supporters who want it removed, and others in the community who consider it a work of art and part of the school's history.[249]
Parsippany High School Parsippany-Troy Hills New Jersey Redskins Redhawks 2001 [178]
Penfield High School Penfield New York Chiefs Patriots 2001
Pontiac Central High School Pontiac Michigan Chiefs NA 2009 School closed
Port Townsend High School Port Townsend Washington Redskins Redhawks[250] 2014
Potomac High School Oxon Hill Maryland Braves Wolverines
Poynette High School Poynette Wisconsin Indians Pumas 2009 [251]
Reading Memorial High School Reading Massachusetts Redmen Rockets
Red Cloud Indian School Pine Ridge Indian Reservation South Dakota Chiefs Crusaders
Red Lodge High School Red Lodge Montana Redskins Rams 2011 The trustees of the school favored a change, while the community was divided.[252]
Reedsport Community Charter School Reedsport Oregon Braves Brave 2016 The school board decided to change name and remove Native American imagery.[245]
Runnymede Collegiate Institute Toronto Ontario Redmen Ravens 1994
St. Alphonsus High School Dearborn Michigan Arrows NA 2002 School closed[253]
Salesian High School Richmond California Chieftains "Pride" the Lion 2006
Sanford High School Sanford Maine Redskins Spartans 2012 New mascot select by students.[254]
Saranac Lake High School Saranac Lake New York Redskins Red Storm 2001 [178]
Sauk Rapids-Rice High School Sauk Rapids Minnesota Indians Storm 2007 [255]
Scarborough High School Scarborough Maine Redskins Red Storm 2001 [178]
Scotch Plains-Fanwood High School Union County New Jersey Raiders 2004 Although the Native American logo was replaced in 2004 by a generic figure with a sword and shield, fans continued to wear the old logo and appear at games in Native American headdresses. The more professionally designed logo for 2018 of a Knight in Armor is intended to reference a Scottish tradition.[256]
Sequoia High School Redwood City California Cherokee Raven 2019 [257]
Seneca High School MCA Louisville Kentucky Redskins RedHawks 1997 [178]
Skowhegan Area High School Skowhegan Maine Indians 2019 After receiving opposition to the "Indians" name from the Penobscot Nation[258] and the ACLU of Maine,[259] the school board voted in March 2019 to eliminate the mascot.[260]
Storden Jeffers High School Storden Minnesota Chiefs NA High schools consolidated
Talawanda High School Oxford Ohio Braves Brave 2018 In June, 2018 the Native American Rights Fund sent a six page letter detailing its opposition to the name and logo, including the testimony of a former student who stated that she was bullied after identifying herself as Native American.[261] The Talawanda School District has formed a committee to study the issue.[262] In November, 2018 the Board of Education voted 3-2 to change the name from Braves to Brave and phase out Native American references.[263]
Tamalpais High School Mill Valley California Indians Red Tailed Hawks 1990 [264]
Teton High School Driggs Idaho Redskins 2019 The school board for the Teton School District voted 4-1 to retire the nickname with the stipulation no taxpayer money goes toward the removal process; after two of Idaho’s largest Native American tribes, the Shoshone-Bannock and the Nez Perce urged the change, citing the word’s offensive definition by major dictionaries and its use as a racial slur.[265]
The Dalles-Wahtonka High School The Dalles Oregon Indian Eagles Riverhawks 2014 [266]
Thomson Collegiate Institute Scarborough Ontario Redmen Titans 2005
Tulare High School Tulare South Dakota Chieftains NA Hitchcock-Tulare Schools consolidated
Tulare Union High School Tulare California Redskins Tribe 2016 Plans to retain Native American imagery as much as possible.[267]
Turners Falls High School Montague Massachusetts Indians Thunder 2017 Both the school and Turners Falls, Massachusetts are named in honor of Capt. William Turner, who led troops into a battle during King Philip's War where 300 Native Americans were killed.[268] Citing the viewpoints of Native Americans and historians, the Gill-Montague Regional School Committee voted to change the "Indians" mascot in February 2017,[269] which prompted a walkout protest by about 120 students.[270]
Vallejo High School Vallejo California Apaches RedHawks 2014 [271][272]
Warrenton High School Warrenton Oregon Warriors 2015 Native American images removed. In addition, the grade school in the same school distinct will change from "Braves" to Warriors.[273][274]
Wauwatosa East High School Wauwatosa Wisconsin Red Raiders 2010 Nickname retained, but mascot changed to a pirate.[275]
Wells High School Wells Maine Warriors 2018 The school will remain the Warriors, but remove all Native American imagery.[276]
Wiscasset High School Wiscasset Maine Redskins Wolverines 2011 Change was approved in 2011, but the Redskins name was retained until the end of the school year.[277] The new name was then selected by a public poll.[278] In August, 2014 selectmen of the town of Wiscasset voted to name a private road "Redskins Drive" as an indication of their continued attachment to the name of the school.[279] However, following weeks of criticism by members of Maine's Indian tribes and others, a second vote changed the name again, to Micmac Drive.[280]
Woonsocket High School Woonsocket South Dakota Redmen Blackhawks 2016 [281]
Ypsilanti High School Ypsilanti Michigan Braves Grizzlies 2006

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • MaxPreps is a site for U.S. High School sports information, and can be searched by mascot name as well as school name, but the data is not kept up-to-date so it is only a starting place.
  • MascotDB is a searchable database of mascots from Pro to High School.
  • New England Anti-Mascot Coalition

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