List of self-driving car fatalities

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Since 2013 when self-driving cars first began appearing in large numbers on public roadways,[1] a primary goal of manufacturers has been to create an autonomous car system that is clearly and demonstrably safer than an average human-controlled car. Whether that will be possible in the real world without sacrificing even more human lives is a controversial topic, especially in light of accidents and fatalities resulting from system glitches.[2]

There are currently 6 levels of automated driving, of which two are considered autonomous (or self-driving) driving (Level 4 and Level 5). Tesla Autopilot is a Level 2 automated driving system.

One of the key metrics for comparing the safety levels for autonomously controlled car systems versus human controlled car systems is the number of fatalities per 100,000,000 miles (160,000,000 kilometres) driven. Cars driven under traditional human control are currently involved in approximately 1.8 fatalities for every 100,000,000 mi (160,000,000 km) driven.[3] According to many automotive safety experts, much more data is yet required before any such clear and demonstrably higher levels of safety can be convincingly provided.[3][4]

To demonstrate reliability in terms of fatalities and injuries, autonomous vehicles would have to be driven hundreds of millions more miles in full autonomous mode. [5] As of February 2018, autonomous vehicles from Waymo (the Google Self-Driving Car Project) have covered 5 million miles with the presence of a human driver who monitors and overrides the autonomous mode to improve safety. [6] According to reports, human intervention for autonomous vehicles was needed every 13 miles to 5600 miles on average. [7]

== Level 3 Fatalities == (Mortal Combat Edition)

A Level 3 autonomous driving system would occasionally expect a driver to take over control.

List of known autonomous car fatalities (occurring while autonomous-system acknowledged to have been engaged)
Date Incident no. Country City State/county/province No. of fatalities System manufacturer Vehicle Type Distance driven by the system at time of incident Notes
18 March 2018 3 United States of America (USA) Tempe Arizona 1 Uber 'Refitted Volvo' [8] Pedestrian fatality.[9]

Level 2 Fatalities[edit]

Level 2 is considered automated driving, but not autonomous driving. A Level 2 driving system expects a driver to be fully aware at any time of the driving and traffic situation and be able to take over any moment.

List of known automated driving system car fatalities (occurring while automated driving-system acknowledged to have been engaged)
Date Incident no. Country City State/county/province No. of fatalities System manufacturer Vehicle Type Distance driven by the system at time of incident Notes
20 January 2016 1 China Handan Hebei 1 Tesla (Autopilot) Model S [10] Driver fatality.[11][12]
7 May 2016 2 United States of America (USA) Williston Florida 1 Tesla (Autopilot) Model S[8] 130,000,000 mi
210,000,000 km[13][14]
Driver fatality.[15][16]
23 March 2018 4 United States of America (USA) Mountain View California 1 Tesla (Autopilot) Model X[8] Driver fatality.[17]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vislab, University of Parma, Italy - Public Road Urban Driverless-Car Test 2013 - World premiere of BRAiVE".
  2. ^ "Are Uber's autonomous vehicles safe?".
  3. ^ a b McArdle, Megan (March 20, 2018). "Opinion | How safe are driverless cars? Unfortunately, it's too soon to tell". The Washington Post. Fred Ryan. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  4. ^ Noland, David (October 14, 2016). "How safe is Tesla Autopilot? A look at the statistics". The Christian Science Monitor. Christian Science Publishing Society. Green Car Reports. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  5. ^ Driving to Safety: How Many Miles of Driving Would It Take to Demonstrate Autonomous Vehicle Reliability? Rand Corporation. By Nidhi Kalra and Susan M. Paddock. 2016. Downloaded April 1, 2018.
  6. ^ Waymo reaches 5 million self-driven miles. Waymo Team. February 28, 2018. Downloaded May 8, 2018.
  7. ^ Uber’s self-driving cars in Arizona averaged only 13 miles without intervention prior to crash. The Hill. March 23, 2018. Downloaded May 8, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Joseph, Yonette (2018-04-29). "Briton Who Drove Tesla on Autopilot From Passenger Seat Is Barred From Road". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
  9. ^ Lubben, Alex (March 19, 2018). "Self-driving Uber killed a pedestrian as human safety driver watched". Vice News. Vice Media. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  10. ^ Boudette, Neal (2016-09-14). "Autopilot Cited in Death of Chinese Tesla Driver". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  11. ^ Horwitz, Josh; Timmons, Heather (September 20, 2016). "The scary similarities between Tesla's (TSLA) deadly autopilot crashes". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  12. ^ Felton, Ryan (February 27, 2018). "Two Years On, A Father Is Still Fighting Tesla Over Autopilot And His Son's Fatal Crash". Jalopnik. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  13. ^ Kech, Sean (March 20, 2018). "Death by Driverless Car: Who's to blame when robot cars kill?". Trusted Reviews. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  14. ^ The Tesla Team (2016-06-30). "A Tragic Loss". Tesla official blog. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  15. ^ Yadron, Danny; Tynan, Dan (June 30, 2016). "Tesla driver dies in first fatal crash while using autopilot mode". The Guardian. San Francisco: Guardian Media Group. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  16. ^ Vlasic, Bill; Boudette, Neal E. (June 30, 2016). "Self-Driving Tesla Was Involved in Fatal Crash, U.S. Says". The New York Times. Detroit: A.G. Sulzberger. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  17. ^ Green, Jason (March 30, 2018). "Tesla: Autopilot was on during deadly Mountain View crash". The Mercury News. Palo Alto. ISSN 0747-2099. OCLC 145122249. Retrieved April 3, 2018.