List of senior officers of the Sturmabteilung

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SA insignia

This article lists the individuals who have been identified as senior officers of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), between the years of 1920 and 1945.

The supreme commander of the entire SA was Oberster SA-Führer, literally "Supreme SA Leader", a titular position, while Stabschef, literally "Chief of Staff", oversaw the day-to-day operations of the group.

Oberster SA-Führer[edit]

Oberster SA-Führer Took office Left office Time in office Party Ref
1
Emil Maurice
Maurice, EmilEmil Maurice
(1897–1972)
192019210–1 yearsNSDAP[1]
2
Hans Ulrich Klintzsch
Klintzsch, Hans UlrichHans Ulrich Klintzsch
(1898–1959)
1921February 19231–2 yearsNSDAP[1]
3
Hermann Göring
Göring, HermannHermann Göring
(1893–1946)
February 1923November 19230 yearsNSDAP[1]
4
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon
Pfeffer von Salomon, FranzFranz Pfeffer von Salomon
(1888–1968)
14 February 1926August 19304 yearsNSDAP[1]
5
Adolf Hitler
Hitler, AdolfAdolf Hitler
(1889–1945)
August 193030 April 1945[a] †14 yearsNSDAP[1]

To centralize the loyalty of the SA, Hitler personally assumed command of the entire organization in 1930 and remained Oberster SA-Führer for the duration of the group's existence. After 1931, those who held the rank of Stabschef, such as Ernst Röhm, were accepted as the commanders of the SA.[2] The Oberster SA-Führer had no particular uniform insignia and was a paramilitary title that could be denoted in a variety of ways. Göring, for instance, created an elaborate uniform, with swastika armband accompanied with white service stripes. In contrast, Maurice wore simply a brown Nazi stormtrooper shirt with no insignia, as did Hitler when he held the title of Oberster SA-Führer.

Stabschef[edit]

After 1931, Stabschef was considered the actual leader of the SA.

Stabschef Took office Left office Time in office Party Ref
1
Otto Wagener
Wagener, OttoOtto Wagener
(1888–1971)
October 192931 December 19301 year, 2 monthsNSDAP[2]
2
Ernst Röhm
Röhm, ErnstErnst Röhm
(1887–1934)
5 January 19311 July 1934[b] †3 years, 5 monthsNSDAP[3]
3
Viktor Lutze
Lutze, ViktorViktor Lutze
(1890–1943)
1 July 19342 May 1943[c] †8 years, 10 monthsNSDAP[4]
-
Max Jüttner [de]
Jüttner, MaxMax Jüttner [de]
(1888–1963)
Acting
2 May 1943August 19432 monthsNSDAP[5]
4
Wilhelm Schepmann
Schepmann, WilhelmWilhelm Schepmann
(1894–1970)
August 19435 May 19451 year, 9 monthsNSDAP[1]

Initial insignia for Stabschef consisted of an oak leaf patch worn on the collar of the stormtrooper uniform. Photographic evidence shows Röhm wearing such an insignia in his early days as Stabschef. As Röhm's authority increased, so did his insignia. Photographs from mid-1931 show Röhm wearing a two- and then a three-leaf insignia design. After 1933, the insignia for Stabschef consisted of a "crossed lances" pattern wreathed by a half oak leaf circle. Personally designed by Röhm, it was based on the insignia of a Bolivian general (Röhm served as a German military advisor to Bolivia in the late 1920s).

After Röhm was murdered during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, his successor Lutze changed the insignia to a wreathed oak leaf pattern identical to the insignia of Reichsführer-SS. This remained as the insignia until the end of the war, and the Sturmabteilung, in 1945.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Committed suicide.
  2. ^ Executed during the Night of the Long Knives.
  3. ^ Died in a car accident.

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • McNab, Chris (2009). The Third Reich. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-51-8.
  • Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1997) [1991]. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068079-3-0.