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List of serial killers by country

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This is a list of notable serial killers, by the country where most of the murders were committed.

Convicted serial killers by country

Afghanistan

Argentina

Australia

Austria

  • Elfriede Blauensteiner: also known as the "Black Widow"; poisoner of three individuals; died in 2003.[46]
  • Alfred Engleder: also known as the "Beast of Sierning"; injured and raped 6 women around the Steyr region, killing two of them; was stabbed by his girlfriend and later succumbed to his injuries in 1993.[47]
  • Max Gufler: poisoned and drowned women; convicted of 4 murders and 2 attempted murders, but believed to have committed 18; died 1996.
  • Martha Marek: poisoned 3 family members and a lodger in her house with thallium between 1932 and 1937; executed 1938.[48]
  • Wolfgang Ott: sex offender and suspected serial killer who kidnapped several women in 1995, killing two of them; sentenced to life imprisonment in 1996.[49]
  • Harald Sassak: gasworks employee who between 1971 and 1972 killed six people for the purpose of robbery; died from an undisclosed illness in 2013.[50]
  • Hugo Schenk: also known as the 'Viennese Housemaids Killer"; swindler who killed 4 maids in 1883 with his accomplice Karl Schlossarek; suspected of more murders; executed 1884.[51]
  • Jack Unterweger: author and sexual sadist; convicted of 10 murders; believed to have killed 12 women; committed suicide in prison in 1994.[52]
  • Maria Gruber, Irene Leidolf, Stephanija Mayer and Waltraud Wagner: also known as the "Lainz Angels of Death"; nurses at the Lainz General Hospital in Vienna who admitted to murdering 49 patients between 1983 and 1989.[53]

Bangladesh

  • Roshu Kha: enraged over rejection by his lover, Roshu killed at least 11 garment workers. He pretended to love them, later killing them brutally. [54]

Belarus

Belgium

  • Marie Alexandrine Becker: poisoned at least 11 people with Digitalis; sentenced to life imprisonment; died 1938.
  • Jan Caubergh: strangled his pregnant neighbour, his girlfriend and their child in 1979; sentenced to death but it was converted to life imprisonment; was the longest-serving prisoner in the country until his death in 2013.[58][59][60][61]
  • Marc Dutroux: convicted of having kidnapped, tortured and sexually abused six girls ranging in age from 8 to 19, during 1995 and 1996. Four of his victims were murdered; the final two were rescued.[62]
  • Ronald Janssen: killed a woman in 2007 and later his neighbour and her boyfriend in 2010; admitted to 5 rapes committed in 1993, but is suspected of 20; sentenced to life imprisonment in 2011.[63][64]
  • Marie-Thérèse Joniaux: poisoned three of her family members between 1894 and 1895; sentenced to death in 1895, but was commuted to life imprisonment; died in Antwerp in 1923.[65]
  • András Pándy: also known as "Vader Blauwbaard" (Father Bluebeard); Hungarian immigrant convicted of the murder and rape of his two wives and four children.[66]

Bolivia

  • Ramiro Artieda: killed his brother in the early 1920s for monetary purposes; emigrated to the United States but later returned and killed seven women until 1938; was arrested in 1939, confessed and was executed by firing squad.[67]

Brazil

Canada

Chile

  • Émile Dubois: French-born murderer and folk hero who's revered as "The Chilean Robin Hood" for killing alleged usurers; executed 1907.[92]
  • Catalina de los Ríos y Lisperguer: also known as "La Quintrala"; 17th century landowner tried for over 40 murders; died 1665.[93]
  • Julio Pérez Silva: also known as "Psychopath from Alto Hospicio", sentenced to life imprisonment for murdering fourteen women from 1998 to 2001
  • Jorge Sagredo and Carlos Topp: also known as the "Viña del Mar Psychopaths"; committed ten murders and four rapes from August 5, 1980 to November 1, 1981 in the city of Viña del Mar; executed by firing squad on January 29, 1985; they were the last people executed in Chile.[94]

People's Republic of China

  • Liu Pengli: 2nd century BC Han prince; one of the earliest serial killers attested by historical sources.[95]
  • Gao Chengyong: nicknamed the "Chinese Jack the Ripper", has killed 11 women between 1988 and 2002. He was sentenced to death in 2018.[96]
  • Gong Runbo: found guilty of the murders of six children and teenagers in aged between nine and 16 from 2005 to 2006 in Jiamusi; executed 2007.[97]
  • Huang Yong: between September 2001 and 2003 killed at least 17 teenage boys; executed in 2003.[98]
  • Shen Changyin and Shen Changping: found guilty of the murders of 11 prostitutes between 1999 and 2004; sentenced to death in 2005.[99]
  • Wang Qiang: 45 murder victims and 10 rapes; executed on 17 November 2005.[100]
  • Wang Zongfang and Wang Zongwei: known as "Er Wang"; murderers who killed soldiers using guns and grenades in Hunan, Hubei and Jiangsu; killed by armed forces in 1983.[101]
  • Yang Xinhai: also known as the "Monster Killer"; confessed to killing 65 people between 2000 and 2003; executed in 2004.[102]
  • Zhang Yongming: killed 11 males between March 2008 and April 2012; executed in 2013.[103]
  • Zhou Kehua: former soldier who targeted ATM users; killed 10 people in Jiangsu and Chongqing and evaded the law for 8 years, before being killed in 2012 in a shootout with police after a year-long manhunt.[104]

Colombia

  • Daniel Camargo Barbosa: also known as "The Sadist of El Charquito", who is believed to have raped and killed over 150 young girls in Colombia and Ecuador during the 1970s and 1980s.[105]
  • Luis Garavito: also known as "The Beast" admitted to murder and rape of 140 young boys.[106]
  • Pedro López: also known as "The Monster of the Andes"; accused of raping and killing more than 300 girls across South America.[107]
  • Manuel Octavio Bermúdez: also known as "El Monstruo de los Cañaduzales" (The Monster of the Cane Fields); confessed to raping and killing at least 21 children in remote areas of Colombia.[108]
  • Luis Gregorio Ramírez Maestre: killed 30 motorists in various municipalities; captured in 2012; expected to be released in 2032.[109]

Croatia

  • Vinko Pintarić: murdered five people, including his wife between 1973 and 1990; escaped from custody three times, killed in a 1991 shootout with the police.[110]

Czech Republic

  • Martin Lecián: responsible for killing 3 policemen and 1 prison officer; executed in 1927.[111]
  • Marie Fikáčková: female nurse in Sušice who was executed by hanging in 1961 for the murders of 10 babies
  • Václav Mrázek: convicted of the murders of seven women around Chomutov; executed in 1957.[112]
  • Hubert Pilčík: killed at least five people whom he had to get across the border from Czechoslovakia into Germany; committed suicide in prison in 1951.[113]
  • Roman Postl: drug addict who shot a man in 1998; was released for good behaviour in 2008 and murdered four people including a police officer; was killed during during with the police in 2008.
  • Ivan Roubal: occultist who murdered five people from 1991 to 1994; sentenced to life imprisonment and died in 2015.[114]
  • Petr Zelenka: male nurse convicted of murdering seven patients in Havlíčkův Brod by lethal injections to "test" doctors; sentenced to life imprisonment.[115]

Denmark

  • Peter Lundin: killed his mother in the United States in 1991, then killed his mistress and her two children in Denmark 9 years later; sentenced to life imprisonment.[116]
  • Dagmar Overbye: childcare provider who killed between nine and twenty-five children; sentenced to death in 1921 then reprieved; died in prison on 6 May 1929.[117]

Ecuador

  • Gilberto Chamba: also known as the "Monster of Machala"; murdered 8 people in Ecuador and one in Spain; sentenced to 45 years in prison in Spain on 5 November 2006

Egypt

  • Ramadan Abdel Rehim Mansour: also known as "Al-Tourbini"; gang leader who raped and murdered homeless children across Egypt by throwing them off trains in the 2000s, sometimes burying them alive; executed in 2010.[118][119][120]
  • Raya and Sakina: Egypt's most famous serial killers and the first Egyptian women to be executed by the modern state of Egypt; executed along with their husbands in 1921.[121]

Estonia

Finland

  • Matti Haapoja: convicted murderer of three, but admitted to the killing of 18. Evidence suggests having killed as many as 22–25 people. Sentenced to life imprisonment, but committed suicide by hanging in a prison cell.
  • Aino Nykopp-Koski: first known Finnish female serial killer; convicted of five murders and five attempted murders. Sentenced to life in prison.[122]

France

Germany

Ghana

Greece

  • Hermann Duft and Hans Wilhelm Bassenauer: Germans who murdered six persons in Greece, within a short period in 1969, were captured, tried, sentenced to death and executed in 1969.[167]
  • Antonis Daglis: also known as the "Athens Ripper"; convicted in 1997 of the strangulation murder and dismemberment of three women and the attempted murder of six others; committed suicide in police custody in 1997.[168][169]
  • Dimitris Vakrinos: killed five people and attempted seven more murders for minor quarrels between 1987 and 1996; hanged himself in the prison showers in 1997.[170]

Hong Kong

  • Lam Kor-wan: sexual sadist who murdered and dismembered four women in the 1980s; sentenced to death (commuted to life imprisonment as per tradition at that time).[171]
  • Lam Kwok-wai: murdered three women, sentenced to life imprisonment (capital punishment already abolished).

Hungary

Iceland

  • Axlar-Björn: killed at least 9 travellers in the 16th century

India

Indonesia

  • Very Idham Henyansyah: also known as "Ryan" and the "Singing Serial Killer"; convicted and sentenced to death in 2008 for the killing of 11 people.[200]
  • Ahmad Suradji: admitted to killing 42 women around Medan; sentenced to death and executed by firing squad on 10 July 2008.[201]

Iraq

Iran

  • Mohammed Bijeh: also known as the "Tehran Desert Vampire"; killed at least 16 young boys near Tehran; executed in 2005
  • Saeed Hanaei: also known as "The Spider Killer"; killed at least 16 women around Mashhad; executed in 2002.[204]

Republic of Ireland

Israel

  • Muhammad Halabi: Known as the "Tel Aviv strangler", Halabi was a Palestinian from the Gaza Strip who was living in Tel Aviv. He murdered seven people in 1989, and kept the bodies in his apartment. Halabi claimed he had carried out the murders to prove he was not an Israeli collaborator. He was sentenced to life imprisonment.[208][209]
  • Nicolai Bonner: killed four people in 2005 in Haifa, three of them homeless; sentenced to life imprisonment.[210]

Italy

  • Wolfgang Abel and Marco Furlan: German-Italian duo found guilty of 10 of 27 counts of murder in 1987
  • Beasts of Satan: Satanic cult members who committed three notorious ritual murders from 1998 to 2004.[211]
  • Donato Bilancia: also known as the "Monster of Liguria" murdered 17 people in seven months between 1997 and 1998.[212]
  • Luigi Chiatti: also known as the "Monster of Foligno"; kidnapped and killed 2 children in 1992 and 1993; sentenced to two life sentences, but he was found unfit to stand trial and was reduced to 30 years in a mental hospital.[213]
  • Leonarda Cianciulli: also known as the "Soap-Maker of Correggio"; murderer of three women between 1939 and 1940; died in a women's criminal asylum in 1970.[214]
  • Ferdinand Gamper: also known as the "Monster of Merano"; killed 6 people in 1996.[215]
  • Pier Paolo Brega Massone: murdered at least four people in Milan and maimed other dozens of victims through unnecessary surgeries to illegally obtain a large amounts of money refunds; convicted and given a life sentence.[216]
  • Ernesto Picchioni: also known as "The Monster of Nerola"; murdered people around his home; died of cardiac arrest in 1967.[217]
  • Roberto Succo: murdered at least five people, including his parents, committed suicide while in prison in 1988.[218]
  • Giorgio Vizzardelli: shot and killed 5 people around Sarzana from 1937 to 1939; sentenced to life imprisonment; commited suicide by slitting his throat with a kitchen knife in 1973.[219]

Jamaica

  • Lewis Hutchinson: Scottish immigrant convicted of shooting dozens of people in the 18th century; executed in 1773.[220]

Japan

  • Satarō Fukiage: raped and killed at least seven girls in the early 20th century; executed 2 July 1926.[221]
  • Hiroaki Hidaka: killed four prostitutes in Hiroshima in 1996; executed 25 December 2006.[222]
  • Miyuki Ishikawa: murdered an estimated 103, but could have been up to 169 infants in the 1940s.[223][224]
  • Chisako Kakehi: poisoned her husband and two other men to death, attempted to kill a fourth man, and is a suspect in another seven deaths; sentenced to death in 2017.[225]
  • Kiyotaka Katsuta: firefighter who shot and strangled at least eight people, some during robberies, between 1972 and 1982.[226]
  • Yoshio Kodaira: rapist thought to have killed 11 people in Japan and China as a soldier; executed on 5 October 1949.[227]
  • Genzo Kurita: killed six women and two children and engaged in rape and necrophilia; executed on 16 January 1959.[228]
  • Hiroshi Maeue: also known as "Suicide Website Murderer"; lured people from suicide clubs promising to kill himself with his victims.[229]
  • Futoshi Matsunaga and Junko Ogata: also known as "House of Horror"; tortured and killed at least seven people between 1996 and 1998, including Ogata's family.[230]
  • Tsutomu Miyazaki: also known as "The Otaku Murderer", "The Little Girl Murderer" and "Dracula"; killed four preschool-age girls and ate the hand of a victim; executed in 2008.[231]
  • Seisaku Nakamura: also known as the "Hamamatsu Deaf Killer", murdered at least nine people; executed in 1943.[232]
  • Akira Nishiguchi: killed five people and engaged in fraud; executed on 11 December 1970.[233]
  • Kiyoshi Ōkubo: also known as "Tanigawa Ivan"; raped and murdered eight young women over a period of 41 days in 1971.
  • Yukio Yamaji: murdered his own mother in 2000, and then murdered a 27-year-old woman and her 19-year-old sister in 2005.[234]

Kazakhstan

  • Nikolai Dzhumagaliev: also known as "Metal Fang"; raped and hacked seven women to death with an axe in Almaty in 1980, then cannibalised them using his unusual false teeth.[235]

Latvia

Macedonia

  • Vlado Taneski: crime reporter arrested in June 2008 for the murder of three elderly women on whose deaths he had written articles; committed suicide in police custody; suspected of killing another woman.[237]

Mexico

Morocco

Netherlands

  • Klaas Annink: robber and murderer who killed along with his wife Anna and son Jannes; both he and his wife were executed in 1775.[265]
  • Willem van Eijk: also known as the "Beast of Harkstede"; convicted of the murders of five women between 1971 and 2001.
  • Koos Hertogs: convicted of the murders of three women between 1979 and 1980.
  • Patrick Soultana: strangled 2 women in 2010, suspected of 3 more murders; sentenced to 25 years plus provision in 2014.[266]
  • Michel Stockx: murdered three children around Assen in 1991; sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1992; died of severe burns from an incident during his work therapy in 2001.[267]
  • Maria Swanenburg: suspected of killing more between 27 and 90 people with arsenic in Leiden in the 1880s; died in prison in 1915.

New Zealand

  • Daniel Cooper: also known as "The Newlands Baby Farmer"; killed two infants and supposedly his first wife; executed 1932.[268]
  • Minnie Dean: Scottish immigrant baby farmer who killed at least three children by laudanum poisoning and suffocation in the 1890s; executed by hanging in 1895.[269]

Norway

  • Arnfinn Nesset: manager of a geriatric nursing home who poisoned 22 residents at the Orkdal Alders-og Sjukeheim institution over a period of years before being convicted in 1983.[270]

Pakistan

  • Javed Iqbal: believed to have raped and killed 100 boys, committed suicide while in prison in 1991.[271]
  • Amir Qayyum: also known as the "Brick Killer"; murdered 14 homeless men in Lahore with rocks or bricks when they were asleep and was sentenced to death in May 2006.[272]

Panama

  • William Dathan Holbert: also known as "Wild Bill"; American expatriate who had the bodies of five other Americans buried on his property; he would kill people to get their money and properties; his wife, Laura Michelle Reese, was also arrested.[273][274]

Peru

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Romania

  • Vera Renczi: poisoned two husbands, one son and 32 of her suitors in the 1920s and 1930s.[296][297]
  • Ion Rîmaru: murdered and raped young women in Bucharest from 1970 to 1971; executed in 1971.[298]
  • Vasile Tcaciuc: also known as "The Butcher of Iași": murdered victims with an axe and confessed to have committed at least 26 murders; shot dead by a policeman while trying to escape from prison.[299]
  • Romulus Vereș: convicted of five murders in the 1970s; sent to a mental institution; died in 1993.[300]

Russia

Slovakia

  • Ondrej Rigo: killed, raped and mutilated 9 women in Amsterdam, Munich and Bratislava, always wearing socks on his hands; he remains the Slovak murderer with the highest number of victims and he is also the most prolific serial killer in modern Slovak history.[331]
  • Jozef Slovák: after serving just 8 years for his first murder from 1978, Slovák killed at least 4 other women in Slovakia and Czech Republic in the early 1990s; highly intelligent, holder of numerous patents in electronics.[332]

Slovenia

  • Silvo Plut: killed three women in Slovenia and Serbia; committed suicide in prison in 2007.[333]
  • Metod Trobec: raped and killed at least five women; committed suicide in prison in 2006.[334]

South Africa

As of October 2014 South Africa had 160 recorded serial killers since 1950. A disproportionately large number of whom were white males whilst no racial group were more likely to be victims.[335]

South Korea

  • Chijon family: gang of cannibals that was sentenced to death for killing five people; sentenced to death in 1994; all members were executed by hanging on November 2, 1995.[362]
  • Yoo Young-chul: cannibal; killed 21 people from September 2003 to July 2004, mainly young women and rich men; sentenced to death in 2004.[363]
  • Kang Ho-sun: sentenced to death in 2010 for killing 10 women, including his wife and mother-in-law.[364]

Spain

  • Francisca Ballesteros: known as La Viuda Negra[365] ("The Black Widow"), poisoned her husband and three children in Valencia between 1990 and 2004 (one survived), sentenced to 84 years in prison in 2005
  • Manuel Blanco Romasanta: travelling salesman who claimed to be a werewolf, confessed to 13 murders and was convicted of eight in 1853; his initial death sentence commuted in order to make a study in clinical lycanthropy, died in prison ten years later.[366]
  • Manuel Delgado Villegas: also known as El Arropiero[365] ("The Arrope Trader"), wandering criminal with XYY syndrome that confessed to 48 murders in Spain, France and Italy, including his girlfriend; considered guilty of seven and interned in a mental institution until his death in 1998
  • Joaquín Ferrándiz Ventura: insurance salesman who murdered 5 women in Castellón Province between 1995 and 1996.[367]
  • Alfredo Galán: also known as "The Playing Card Killer", Spanish Army corporal who killed 6 individuals in 2003.[368]
  • Juan Díaz de Garayo: also known as "The Sacamantecas"; killed 6 people from 1870 to 1879 in Álava. Executed by garrote in 1881.[369][370]
  • Francisco García Escalero: also known as El Mendigo Asesino[365] ("The Killer Beggar"); schizophrenic beggar convicted of 11 murders, confined to a psychiatric hospital since 1995
  • Gila Giraldo: also known as "La Serrana de la Verra"; alleged 15th-16th century serial killer who beheaded men she slept with.
  • Ramón Laso: killed his two wives, child and brother in law in order to pursue extra-marital relationships.[371]
  • Enriqueta Martí: self-proclaimed witch who kidnapped, prostituted, murdered and made potions with the remains of small children in early 20th century Barcelona (12 bodies were identified in her home); murdered in prison while awaiting trial in 1913.[372]
  • Dámaso Rodríguez Martín: El Brujo ("The Warlock"), serial rapist and voyeur imprisoned in 1981 after attacking a couple, killing the man and raping the woman. Escaped from prison to the Anaga mountains in 1991, where he killed two German hikers (one of them was raped). Cornered in an abandoned house, he shot himself unsuccessfully, only to be shot dead in turn by law enforcement..[373]
  • José Antonio Rodriguez Vega: El Mataviejas[365] ("The Old Lady Killer"), raped and killed at least 16 elderly women, sentenced to 440 years in prison in 1995, murdered by fellow inmates in 2002
  • Gustavo Romero Tercero: "The Valdepeñas Killer", killed 3 people from 1993 to 1998.[374]
  • Margarita Sánchez Gutiérrez: known as "The Black Widow of Barcelona"; poisoned family members and relatives, killing 4 of them; acquitted of the crimes but sentenced to 34 years for others crimes.[375]

Swaziland

Sweden

Switzerland

  • Roger Andermatt: also known as the "Death-Keeper of Lucerne"; nurse who killed 22 people from 1995 to 2001; sentenced to life imprisonment.[380]
  • Werner Ferrari: child killer who lured his victims from popular festivals, strangling them afterwards; sentenced to life imprisonment.[381]

Tunisia

Turkey

  • Süleyman Aktaş: also known as the "Nailing Killer"; killed five people and nailed them in the eyes and head; he is kept in a psychiatric hospital.[384]
  • Adnan Çolak: also known as "The Beast of Artvin"; killed 17 elderly women in Artvin, Turkey from 1992 to 1995; in 2000 he was sentenced to death six times, and 40 years in prison. However, since October 1984, Turkey has not executed any prisoners, and as of 2004, Turkey does not have capital punishment.
  • Özgür Dengiz: serial killer from Ankara, who killed four people and cannibalized at least one.[385]
  • Atalay Filiz: fugitive suspected of 4 murders from 2012 to 2016.[386]
  • Ali Kaya: also known as "The Babyface Killer"; responsible for 10 murders.[387]
  • Yavuz Yapıcıoğlu: also known as "The Screwdriver Killer"; responsible for at least 18 murders.[388]

Ukraine

  • Sergei Dovzhenko: killed between 17 and 19 people in his native home of Mariupol for "mocking" him; sentenced to life imprisonment.[389]
  • Ruslan Khamarov: seduced and murdered 11 women in his home from 2000 to 2003; sentenced to life imprisonment.[390]
  • Oleg Kuznetsov: also known as "The Balashikha Ripper"; killed a total of 10 people in Russia and Ukraine; sentenced to death but commuted to life imprisonment.[391]
  • Anatoly Onoprienko: also known as "The Terminator"; murdered 52 people from 1989 until his capture in 1996; died in prison in 2013.[392][393]
  • Serhiy Tkach: convicted of raping and murdering 36 women between 1980 - 2005; claims the total is 100.[394][395]
  • Vladyslav Volkovich and Volodymyr Kondratenko: also known as the "Nighttime Killers"; charged with shooting, stabbing and bludgeoning 16 victims to death in Kiev between 1991 and 1997; Kondratenko committed suicide in prison during the trial; Volkovich was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment.[396]

United Kingdom

England

Scotland

Wales

  • John Cooper: also known as "The Wildman" and "The Bullseye Killer"; Pembrokeshire burglar responsible for the robbery and shotgun double-murders of a brother and sister in 1985 and a couple in 1989.[458]
  • Peter Moore: also known as "The Man in Black"; businessman who killed four men at random in North Wales in 1995.[459]

Northern Ireland

  • Shankill Butchers: The Shankill Butchers was an Ulster loyalist gang—many of whom were members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)—that was active between 1975 and 1982 in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The gang was based in the Shankill area and were responsible for the deaths of at least 23 people, most of whom were killed in sectarian attacks.[460]

United States

Uruguay

Venezuela

Yemen

  • Abdallah al-Hubal: killed 7 people in 1990 after the Yemeni reunion; fled prison and killed a young couple and three other people in 1998; killed in a shootout with the police.[466]
  • Zu Shenatir: 5th-century Yemeni serial killer.[467]

Zambia

Unidentified serial killers

This is a list of unidentified serial killers. It includes circumstances where a suspect has been arrested, but not convicted.

Australia

Belgium

Brazil

  • Paturis Park murders: also known as the "Rainbow Maniac"; series of 13 gunshot murders of gay men between July 2007 and August 2008 in Paturis Park (Parque dos Paturis) in Carapicuiba.[477]

Canada

India

Italy

Japan

  • Paraquat murders: series of indiscriminate poisonings carried out in Japan in 1985 where twelve people were killed.

Mexico

Namibia

Portugal

South Korea

United Kingdom

United States

See also

References

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  2. ^ «Fito Páez foi suspeito de chacina de parentes», artículo en portugués del 1 de enero de 1996, en el diario Folha de São Paulo (Brasil). Menciona que el apellido es De Giusti.
  3. ^ ElOrtiba.org Artículo del periodista Horacio Verbitsky que menciona a un policía ferroviario llamado Walter Alfredo De Giusti, que estuvo relacionado con el traslado de armas para perpetrar la masacre de Ezeiza del 20 de junio de 1973.
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  5. ^ "El fusilamiento de Cayetano Grossi (1900)". AccionTV. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
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  9. ^ "Gallery: NSW's worst killers". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
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  11. ^ "Killer caught with jail list". Sunday Herald Sun. 13 October 2006. 
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  27. ^ Thomas Jeffries convict No. 3634, conduct record, State Archives of Tasmania.
  28. ^ Felon families: Stories of women prisoners and their families National Trust of Australia (Victoria)
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