List of shibboleths
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Below are listed various examples of words and phrases that have been identified as shibboleths, a word or custom whose variations in pronunciation or style can be used to differentiate members of ingroups from those of outgroups.
Shibboleths used in war and persecution
- Schild en vriend: On 18 May 1302, the people of Bruges killed the French occupiers of the city during a nocturnal surprise attack. According to a famous legend, they stormed into the houses where they knew the tenants were forced to board and lodge French troops serving as city guards, roused every male person from their bed and forced them to repeat the challenge schild en vriend (shield and friend). The Flemings pronounced schild with a separate "s" /s/ and "ch" /x/". Flemings would pronounce vriend with a voiced v whereas French would render those as a voiceless f.
Every Frenchman who failed the test was stabbed on the spot, still in his nightgown. Because the signal for the uprising was the matins bells of the city's churches and monasteries, this became known as the Bruges Matins or Brugse Metten. Like the name of the massacre, the story may have been influenced by the Sicilian uprising mentioned below.
- The problem with this legend is that in Medieval manuscripts of that time, a shield is referred to as "skilde" as in Norse and Norse-influenced English words. Therefore, it is sometimes said that the words must have been "'s gilden vriend" meaning "friend of the guilds." The combination of the 's and the g in "'s gilden" would be pronounced /sx/.
- Ciciri (chickpeas): This was used by native Sicilians to ferret out Angevin French soldiers in the late 13th century during the Sicilian Vespers, the uprising which freed the island from Angevin rule. Both the Italian soft c /tʃ/, and the Italian r, were (and are still) difficult for the French to pronounce as that sequence of sounds seldom appears in French; also, in French, words are primarily stressed on the final syllable.
- Bûter, brea, en griene tsiis; wa't dat net sizze kin, is gjin oprjochte Fries (example (help·info)) means "Butter, rye bread and green cheese, whoever cannot say that is not a genuine Frisian" was used by the Frisian Pier Gerlofs Donia during a Frisian rebellion (1515–1523). Ships whose crew could not pronounce this properly were usually plundered and soldiers who could not were beheaded by Donia himself.
Castilian Spanish–Latin-American Spanish
- During the Latin American wars of independence, the name Francisco was used by Colombian rebels to tell locals from Spaniards. Whoever pronounced it as /fɾanˈθisko/ (as in European Spanish) as opposed to /fɾanˈsisko/ would have been thrown into the Magdalena River.
- The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 (also Tyler's Rebellion, or the Great Rising) was used by the merchants of London in an attempt to get a competitive edge in the trade with the Low Countries by reducing the number of competitors. A massacre among the Flemings in London – not just the Flemish merchants – ensued. "And many fflemmynges loste hir heedes at that tyme and namely they that koude nat say Breede and Chese, but Case and Brode."
- Yksi: Finnish for "one", used by the White Guard to separate Russians from Finns in the Finnish Civil War during the invasion of Tampere. Many of the Russians caught had changed to civilian clothing, so suspected people were rounded up, even from hospitals, and asked to say yksi. If the prisoner pronounced it [juksi], mistaking the front vowel 'y' for an iotated 'u' (ю), he was considered a Russian foreign fighter and was shot on the spot. Any Slav or Balt, Communist or not, was killed, including some members of the White Guard.
- Höyryjyrä: Finnish for "steamroller", used by the Finnish Army in the Second World War. This word is almost impossible to pronounce for anyone not skilled in Finnish, with the frontal 'ö' and 'y' and rolled 'r' [ˈhøy̯ryˌjyræ]. For Russian speakers, the leading 'h' is also difficult.[circular reference]
Spanish–French and Haitian Creole
- Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo conducted a brutal massacre of undocumented Haitian settlers along the Dominican-Haitian border. The action is known as the Parsley Massacre. Suspects not fluent in Spanish either did not know or could not properly pronounce the Spanish word 'perejil' (parsley). The pronunciation of the word by Haitian citizens tended to be with a trilled r, unlike the native Spanish tapped r, and without the 'l' at the end of the word.
- The Azeri word for Hazelnut, fındıq, which Armenians typically pronounce with a [p] instead of an [f].
- Soczewica, koło, miele, młyn (Old Polish pronunciation: [ˈs̪ɔt͡ʃɛvit͡sʲa ˈkɔɫɔ ˈmʲɛlʲɛ ˈmɫɪn̪]), meaning "lentil, wheel, grinds [verb], mill": In 1312, the Polish Prince Ladislaus the Elbow-high quelled the Rebellion of wójt Albert in Kraków, populated mostly by Silesian, German and Czech citizens. Anyone over the age of 7 who could not pronounce these Polish words was put to death, ejected from the city or had their property confiscated. 'Ł' (then pronounced as a velarized alveolar lateral approximant, aka dark l) and dental [s̪] are both unlikely to be pronounced properly by Germans since they cannot make out the difference from their own sounds [l] and [s]. (The former was approximated by Germans as l, and has evolved now into a sound similar to English w).
- Following the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake occurred in an area with a high Korean population, there were rumors that the local Korean population poisoned the wells. This resulted in the killings of ethnic Koreans. The shibboleth "babibubebo" (ばびぶべぼ) was used to distinguish ethnic Koreans from Japanese, as it was thought that Koreans could not pronounce the shibboleth correctly and would pronounce it as "papipupepo". However, many ethnic Chinese were also killed as they were also unable to correctly pronounce the shibboleth.
Culture, religion and language-specific shibboleths
- English-speaking Allied personnel in Europe, during the Second World War, frequently made use of passwords in which labio-velar approximants (w-sounds) were prominent, as these are unusual in spoken German, and the letter w is normally pronounced "v" by native speakers of German. For instance, following D-Day (1944) US forces used the challenge-response "Flash" – "Thunder" – "Welcome".
- American soldiers can ferret out German infiltrators during their time in the Western Front. German spies were taught British English, which was different from American English. For example, Brits used the word lorry, for truck. American used words to shibboleth Nazi spies.
- Israeli forces during the 1948 Palestine war used passwords chosen to contain voiceless bilabial stops (p-sounds), which are not found in Arabic, and which native speakers of Arabic often replace with a voiced bilabial stop (b-sounds).
- In the Lebanese Civil War of 1975, Christian Lebanese soldiers targeted suspected Palestinians at checkpoints by asking how they pronounced the Arabic word for "tomato", which is pronounced "banadoura" in Lebanese Arabic and "bandoura" in Palestinian Arabic. If they said the former, they were let through; if they said the latter, they were shot on the spot.
- During the Somali Islamic terrorist group al-Shabaab's 2013 shooting and hostage siege attack on the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, the attackers asked for Islamic prophet Muhammad's mother Aminah bint Wahb's name and the shahada as religious shibboleths to determine Muslims and non-Muslims. Muslims were freed, while non-Muslims were targeted. An Indian man who could not name Aminah was shot dead.
- The mostly Christian Filipino ground troops fighting in the 2013 Zamboanga City crisis used the Lord's Prayer as a way to identify Moro insurgents. Those who could not recite the Lord's Prayer in any Philippine language, including English, were immediately suspected of being part of the armed Moro National Liberation Front and detained. All non-Christians, including non-combatant Muslims, would also fail the test.
- ISIL also used shibboleths to ferret out "infidels". One case, in Battle of Marawi, Maute group used the Quran to ferret out Christian villagers, which they either capture or execute.
Other non-English shibboleths
- The sentence De zon in de zee zien zakken (Eye dialect: De son in de see sien sakke) 'to see the sun go under the sea', pronounced [də ˈsɔn ɪn də ˈsei sin ˈsɑkə] (or, in broader accents, [də ˈɕɔn ɪn də ˈɕei ɕin ˈɕɑkə]) is used to identify speakers of the Amsterdam dialect, who lack the /z/ phoneme. The standard Dutch pronunciation of that sentence is [də ˈzɔn ɪn də ˈzeː zin ˈzɑkə(n)]. Contrary to the stereotype, any prevocalic ⟨z⟩ can be voiced in Amsterdam, but then so can any prevocalic ⟨s⟩ through the process of hypercorrection (so that suiker 'sugar', pronounced [ˈsœykər] in Standard Dutch may be pronounced [ˈzɐykər] (spelled zuiker in eye dialect) in Amsterdam).
English shibboleths for native speakers or local natives
- Fish and chips: The accents of Australians and New Zealanders seem very similar, and the term fish and chips is sometimes evoked to illustrate a major difference between the two. In New Zealand pronunciation short i is a central vowel, [ɘ]. This vowel sound is sometimes caricatured as "fush and chups" by Australians. The Australian pronunciation has the front vowel [ɪ] (which is more common in most varieties of English) which, due to an overall vowel shift in New Zealand, sounds like "feesh and cheeps" to the ears of a New Zealander, sounding like an instance of the "Fill–feel merger".
- Pronunciation of letters of the alphabet:
- H: in Northern Ireland pronounced 'aitch' by Protestants, and 'haitch' by Catholics, per Hiberno-English. Also often pronounced 'haitch' in dialects of English spoken in former colonies of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, usually among non-native English speakers, but in the case of Australia, also among native speakers, especially those of Irish descent.
- Z: in North America pronounced zee in the United States; typically zed in the rest of the world. Known in American history and popular culture for distinguishing American males who fled to Canada from the US to escape the military draft in the 1950s and 60s. The Canadian pronunciation was featured in the Molson Canadian I Am Canadian advertisement in 2000.
- In Highland Dress, for anyone who has served in a Scottish Regiment or played in a pipe band, or whenever said by a Scot, if ‘plaid’ should be used to refer to tartan cloth, it could be pronounced: // (to rhyme with 'had'). NB: This usage, as a synonym for 'tartan', is generally only ever found in North America. More often, however, when referring to the cape-like garment, in its various forms, worn over the left shoulder as part of the traditional or formal Scottish dress, the pronunciation is: // (to rhyme with 'made'); though the OED accepts both pronunciations in this usage. To further stress the difference in pronunciation of the garment versus the cloth, the garment has an alternative spelling 'plaide', though rarely used. Thus: belted-plaid, drummer's plaid, evening-plaid, fly-plaid, full-plaid, piper's plaid, et al., are pronounced // by those who have worn, or are familiar, with the same. Etymology: plaide (Scots) via Scottish Gaelic meaning 'blanket' or 'cloak', (albeit usually made of tartan; most often the same tartan as the wearer's kilt or trews).
- Castlemaine, Victoria: pronounced // KASS-əl-mayn by the locals and // KAH-səl-mayn by those Australians who have a more extensive trap-bath split (see Variation in Australian English).
- Melbourne, Victoria: Generally pronounced locally as /ˈmɛlbərn/, non-Australians, particularly from the UK or USA often pronounce it as /ˈmɛlbɔːrn/, as in Melbourne.
- Newcastle, New South Wales: pronounced // NEW-kah-səl by the locals and // NEW-kass-əl by Victorians.
- Montréal, Québec: Anglophone Montrealers pronounce the name of their city with the STRUT vowel in the first syllable, thus: // MUN-tree-AWL. The tendency of English speakers from elsewhere in North America, especially the US, to pronounce the first syllable with the LOT vowel (thus // MON-tree-AWL), immediately marks them as non-Montrealers to local ears. (However Francophone Montrealers pronounce it [mɔ̃ʁeal], at least in their native French.)
- Newfoundland: Some outsiders pronounce the island almost as if it were three separate words, // new-FOWND-lənd rather than the local pronunciation, // NEW-fən-LAND, rhyming with "understand".
- Regina, Saskatchewan: Pronounced // rij-EYE-nə, rhyming with "china". Familiarity with the standard pronunciation may in some cases distinguish Canadians from Americans.
- Saskatchewan: Most Canadians will pronounce the name of this province with a schwa in all syllables except the second, where the stress is placed: // (listen) sə-SKA-chə-wən, while locals, especially in rural areas, often condense the name even further down to two syllables: // SKA-chwən. In contrast, outsiders frequently stress the first syllable and fully pronounce all of its vowels: // SA-ska-chew-ahn.
- Toronto, Ontario: Toronto is sometimes pronounced with the first syllable elided as if it were a two-syllable word: //. Stronger local forms are // "Toronta" and // "Tronta", with the GOAT vowel reduced to a schwa. but they are both more noticeable and generally less approved of, possibly because they deviate far enough from the spelling as to make the speaker sound potentially semiliterate. This shibboleth was referenced in the Oscar-winning movie Argo.
- Genting Highlands: Malaysians pronounce it as // (with a hard /ɡ/), whereas in English tends to be //.
In the United Kingdom
- Belvoir Park, Belfast: Another French derived place name in Belfast. Belfast locals pronounce it // BEE-vər, as in "Beaver", instead of the French-influenced pronunciation such as // bel-VWAR.
- Boucher Road, Belfast: Despite its derivation from the French word for 'butcher', Belfast locals pronounce it // BOW-chər, as in "Voucher", instead of a French-influenced pronunciation such as // boo-SHAY.
- Kingston upon Hull, Sunderland and many other cities and towns in Northern England and the Midlands are pronounced with // by the locals (// HUUL, // SUUN-dər-lənd) and // in Scotland, Southern England and most of Wales (// HUL, // SUN-dər-lənd).
- Magdalene College and Magdalene Bridge, Cambridge: In both cases, locals pronounce Magdalene as // MAWD-lin.
- Magdalen Street, Oxford: The street is pronounced as // MAG-dəl-in while the name of the College is always // MAWD-lin. This inconsistency has non-locals mispronouncing one or the other, regardless of their default way of pronouncing the name.
- Newcastle Upon Tyne: The name is pronounced with penultimate stress and a short // in the region (// new-KASS-əl), whereas in the southeast of England it has an initial stress and a long //: // NEW-kah-səl.
In the United States
- Houston Street, New York City: Locals pronounce the first syllable identically with "house" (// HOW-stən), while most visitors will employ the same pronunciation as in Houston, Texas (// (listen) HEW-stən). Houston Street is actually a corruption of the original name of Houstoun Street, named after Continental Congress Delegate William Houstoun, who pronounced his name in this way.
- Nevada: Nevadans (and other people who live in the Western US) say // niv-AD-ə. Visitors from outside the Western US often say // niv-AH-də. Additionally, there are a number of smaller towns in other states bearing the name Nevada pronounced yet another way, such as // niv-AY-də in Nevada, Missouri and Nevada County, Arkansas.
- The US state of Oregon is home to a county, city, river, bay, state forest, museum, Native American tribe, and dairy processing company called Tillamook. Residents pronounce it as //, while nonresidents often mistakenly say //.
- Portland, Oregon's Couch Street is //, rhyming with "pooch," unlike the identically-spelled sofa synonym pronounced //.
- Boise, Idaho: The city's name is commonly pronounced // BOY-zee. However, locals actually pronounce it as // BOY-see.
- Buena Vista, Colorado. Unlike other places bearing this name in the United States (typical pronunciations include / , -, - -/ BWE-nə VIS-tə, BWAY-, -VEES-) the town in Colorado is called / / BEW-nə VIS-tə by locals. Buena Vista, Virginia is pronounced the same way.
- Quincy, Massachusetts: The city's name is commonly pronounced by non-locals as // KWIN-see. However, locals will pronounce it // KWIN-zee.
- Dacula, Georgia: Residents local to Gwinnett County pronounce the city as // də-KEW-lə while those unfamiliar with the area may pronounce the name of the town as // DAK-uul-ə.
- Likewise, Hull, Massachusetts would seem to be pronounced //, as in the exterior of a ship, but locals will invariably render it // homophonous to "hall", as in a corridor.
- Louisville, Kentucky: The name is pronounced by locals as // (listen) LOO-iv-il. However, non-locals will usually use // (listen) LOO-ee-vil.
- Manvel, Texas: Pronounced by locals as // MAN-vil, though outsiders will mispronounce as // MAN-vel
- Miami, Oklahoma: Locals from northeastern Oklahoma pronounce the name as // my-AM-ə, while others pronounce the name like the city in Florida, // my-AM-ee.
- Newark, Delaware: The town is pronounced // NEW-ark though many outsiders will conflate the pronunciation with Newark, New Jersey, pronounced // NEW-ərk.
- Appalachia: Residents of the region pronounce it as //, with short vowels, but non-locals rather pronounce it as / - /,. The name was originally Native American, but came to English via Spanish as the local pronunciation is based on the Spanish equivalent.
- Pierre: South Dakotans read the name as // rhyming with "beer," not like the French given name French pronunciation: [pjɛʁ].
- Punta Gorda, Florida: Locals will pronounce it / / PUN-tə GOR-də whereas others tend to pronounce the first component as // PUUN-tə, more in line with its Spanish origin.
- Natchitoches, Louisiana: Locals will recognize the city and parish name as being pronounced // NAK-it-əsh while people unfamiliar with the name may pronounce it as // NAT-shit-OH-shiz or similar.
- Zion National Park: Utah, particularly Southern Utah locals typically pronounce the park as //, with the second syllable sounding similar to "gun," while interstate or international visitors will often pronounce it as //, rhyming with "lawn."
- Tulalip, Washington: Locals pronounce it with the stress on the penultimate: // tuu-LAY-lip. Some non-locals analyze it by extension from tulip and try // TOO-lə-lip.
- Moyock, North Carolina: Locals pronounce it as // MOH-yok, while most visitors pronounce it as // MOY-ok.
- Forked River, New Jersey: Locals pronounce the first word as // FOR-kid, while most visitors pronounce it as // FORKT.
- Hampton Roads, Virginia: Locals pronounce the name of Norfolk, Virginia as // NOR-fuuk, while most visitors pronounce it as // NOR-fohlk. Similarly, Suffolk, Virginia is pronounced as // SUF-uuk by locals and as // SUF-ohlk by visitors (but not British visitors, who are likely to render the names as // NOR-fək and // SUF-ək, following the British pronunciation of the counties in East Anglia).
- Long Island, New York: Residents pronounce it as //, while non-residents pronounce it as / /.
- Detroit: Most residents (as well as most speakers of African-American Vernacular English) pronounce it as // with the stress on the first syllable, while non-locals pronounce it as (//, with the stress on the second syllable.
- Albany, New York: Locals pronounce the first syllable as "all" (// (listen) AWL-bə-nee), whereas many non-locals pronounce the first syllable like the male name "Al."
- In Southern California, locals generally use the article "the" preceding the number of a freeway. Northern California locals generally do not use "the" before a numerical freeway name. For example, Southern Californians usually refer to Highway 101 as "The 101," whereas Northern Californians will refer to it as simply "101." By comparison, people in the rest of the United States more often precede a freeway's route number with its highway classification, as in "U.S. 101" for a Federal highway or "Interstate 5" or "I-5" for an interstate highway.
- Long-time Democratic residents of Washington, D.C., will refer to Reagan National Airport as simply as "National," while Republicans and visitors to the area are more likely to call it by the name of the former president.
- Additionally, some residents of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area will refer to it as "The DMV" (the District, Maryland, and Virginia, specifically referencing the Fairfax, Alexandria, and Arlington Counties of Virginia; the city itself; and the Montgomery and Prince George's Counties of Maryland). This frequently leads to outsiders confusing it with the local Department of Motor Vehicles, or "Delmarva", the portmanteau of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia (referring to the combined areas of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, Eastern Shore of Virginia, and Delaware), both of which can also be abbreviated to "DMV".
- Language analysis for the determination of origin
- List of names in English with counterintuitive pronunciations
- Phil Lee (2002), The rough guide to Bruges & Ghent, pp. 22–3, ISBN 9781858288888
- McNamara, Timothy; Carsten Roever (2006). Language testing: the social dimension. John Wiley and Sons. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-4051-5543-4.
- "Greate Pier fan Wûnseradiel" (in Western Frisian). Gemeente Wûnseradiel. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Centro Virtual Cervantes. "III Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Española. Paneles y ponencias. Raúl Ávila". congresosdelalengua.es.
- Chronicles of London; Oxford University Press, 1905; ed. C. L. Kingsford; p. 15
- Heikki Ylikangas, Tie Tampereelle
- "Untitled Document". upenn.edu.
- Shahmuratian. Sumgait Tragedy, Interview with Vanya Bazyan, p. 159; also: Vahagn Martirosyan, interview (Alexandre Billette, Hervé Dez (2014) - Transkraïna, online, retrieved 2014.02.13
- Węgłowski, Adam (21 June 2012). "Soczewica, Koło, Miele Młyn z Albertem" (in Polish). Focus.pl. Retrieved 13 June 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Ambrose, Stephen E. (1994). D-Day. New York: Touchstone. p. 191. ISBN 0-684-80137-X.
- Ross, Stuart. Teach Yourself - The Middle East Since 1945. Hodder Education. p. 98.
- "Nairobi siege: What we know". BBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
An Indian man who was standing next to him was asked for the name of the Prophet's mother and when he was unable to answer, he was shot dead, the witness told him.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Explosions inside mall as stand-off nears end". The New Zealand Herald. Agence France-Presse. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (27 September 2013). "Peace groups warn of empty victory in Zambo siege". The PCIJ Blog. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved 31 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Nu.nl-column: 'De trein rijdt van zijn naar zijn' | Genootschap Onze Taal | Onze Taal". Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- Ilka Ludwig (2007), Identification of New Zealand English and Australian English based on stereotypical accent markers, p. 22
- Laurie Bauer, Paul Warren (2008), New Zealand English: phonology, ISBN 978-3-11-019637-5
- Philippe Laplace; Eric Tabuteau (2003). Cities on the Margin, on the Margin of Cities: Representations of Urban Space in Contemporary Irish and British Fiction. Presses Univ. Franche-Comté. p. 186. ISBN 978-2-84867-018-8.
- Cynthia Cockburn (1998). The Space Between Us: Negotiating Gender and National Identities in Conflict. Zed Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-85649-618-6.
- Frederick Ludowyk. "AB(H)OMINABLE (H)AITCH" (PDF). Ozwords. Australian National Dictionary Centre.
- Think. International Business Machines Corp. 1958. p. 9.
- Science Digest. Science Digest, Incorporated. 1958. p. 44.
- Blame Canada and Molson for brilliant 'Rant' at States, Advertising Age, 8 May 2000
- English Language & Usage:"Is there any difference between 'plaid' and 'tartan'?"
- "plaid", Collins English Dictionary.
- Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition. Melbourne: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2005. ISBN 1-876429-14-3.
- Wells, J. C. (John Christopher) (2008). Longman pronunciation dictionary (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited/Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0. OCLC 213400485.
- Story, George Morley, et al., Dictionary of Newfoundland English (Toronto, University of Toronto Press:1982), "Newfoundland", p. 344.
- Merriam-Webster Audio File, Regina
- "You heard what? Because Jon Ryan went to University of Regina". CJME. 2 February 2015. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Saskatchewan book of everything : everything you wanted to know about Saskatchewan and were going to ask anyway. Riess, Kelly. Lunenburg, N.S.: MacIntyre Purcell Pub. 2007. ISBN 978-0-9738063-9-7. OCLC 166321297.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Urban Toronto How do you pronounce 'Toronto' — Where is this Trawna thing coming from?". Compiled by Rob Roberts of the ‘National Post’, with citations from Judy Maddren of the CBC, and Jack Chambers, Professor of Linguistics at the University of Toronto
- "J.K. (Jack) Chambers, Professor of Linguistics, University of Toronto". 1967-70 Ph.D. University of Alberta. General Linguistics
- "Curriculum Vitae for J.K. (Jack) Chambers, Ph.D." (PDF). Professor of Linguistics, University of Toronto; (in .PDF format and current to January 2020).
- "National Post Day-Oner Rob Roberts appointed new editor-in-chief: 'I'm a Postie to my bones'".
- "Postmedia names Rob Roberts editor-in-chief of National Post".
- "Casino shuffles the pack with revamp". blackpoolgazette.co.uk.
- Jones, Daniel, eds. P.Roach, J.Setter and J.Esling Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th Edition, 2011, Cambridge University Press
- "New York Bookshelf; An Oddly Named Street, A Dark Night, a Gamy Club". The New York Times. 8 February 2004. p. CY12.
- "Nevada County - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". encyclopediaofarkansas.net.
- Connelly, Dolly (1 March 1970). "Mush!...And Then Some: A Tour of the Great Northwest". Los Angeles Times West Magazine. Los Angeles: 20–30.
- Greiner, Tony; Bridgewater, Rachel (2014). "Portland: An eclectic introduction". College & Research Libraries News. 75 (8): 422–426. doi:10.5860/crln.75.8.9173.
- Green, Julia (25 August 2010). "Idaho Pronunciation Guide – Say it like a local". Boise Weekly.
- "Quincy, MA - 404". Quincyma.gov. Retrieved 31 July 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Facts for Kids: Miami Indians (Miamis)". Bigorrin.org. Retrieved 31 July 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Walls, David (2006). "Appalachia." The Encyclopedia of Appalachia (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press), pp. 1006–07.
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1993), p. 102.
- Geyer, G. (2001). ""The" Freeway in Southern California". American Speech. 76 (2): 221–224. doi:10.1215/00031283-76-2-221. S2CID 144010897.
- "Roadshow: The Debate on Highway Names Roars On". The San Jose Mercury News. 23 October 2015.
- "Why Southern Californians Say "The" Before Freeway Numbers". Mental Floss. 21 November 2015.
- "National? Reagan? DCA? 17 years later, locals still can't agree on the name of the airport in question". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 February 2017.