List of ship launches in 1943

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The list of ship launches in 1943 includes a chronological list of some of the ships launched in 1943.

January[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
2 January  United Kingdom J Harker Ltd Knottingley Empire Rancher Collier For Ministry of War Transport
8 January  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Darby Tug For Ministry of War Transport
8 January  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Joan Tug For Ministry of War Transport
9 January  United Kingdom I Pimblott & Sons Ltd Northwich Empire Coast Coaster For Ministry of War Transport
17 January  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Cowpens Independence-class aircraft carrier Converted cruiser hull
20 January  United Kingdom John Readhead & Sons Ltd South Shields Empire Capulet Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
21 January  United States Newport News Shipbuilding Newport News, Virginia Yorktown Essex-class aircraft carrier
30 January  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Cordova Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Khedive

February[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
6 February  United States Western Pipe and Steel Company San Pedro, California Eastwind Wind-class icebreaker
6 February  United Kingdom Bartram & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Deed Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
6 February  United Kingdom Grangemouth Dockyard Co Ltd Grangemouth Empire Harbour Coastal tanker For Ministry of War Transport
20 February  Australia Evans Deakin & Co Brisbane Ararat Bathurst-class corvette
20 February  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Delgada Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Speaker
20 February  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Estero Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Premier
23 February  United States Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company Newport News, VA Biloxi Cleveland-class light cruiser
25 February  United States Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard Hingham, Massachusetts Daniel T. Griffin Buckley-class destroyer escort
25 February  United Kingdom Redpole Black Swan-class sloop
28 February  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Monterey Independence-class light aircraft carrier Converted cruiser hull
February  United Kingdom Harland and Wolff Belfast, Northern Ireland Powerful Majestic-class aircraft carrier

March[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
6 March  United States William Cramp and Sons Philadelphia, PA Astoria Cleveland-class light cruiser
8 March  United States Western Pipe and Steel Company San Pedro, California Southwind Wind-class icebreaker
8 March  United Kingdom Henry Scarr Ltd Hessle Empire Mascot Tug For Ministry of War Transport
8 March  United Kingdom William Doxford & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Cheer Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
8 March  United Kingdom Sir W G Armstrong, Whitworth & Co (Shipbuilders) Ltd Newcastle upon Tyne Empire Farmer Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
17 March  United States Delta Shipbuilding Company New Orleans Timothy Bloodworth Liberty ship
21 March  India Godavari Black Swan-class sloop
22 March  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Edisto Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Nabob
27 March  United Kingdom A & J Inglis Ltd Glasgow Empire Coppice Coaster For Ministry of War Transport
31 March  United States Western Pipe and Steel Company San Pedro, California Westwind Wind-class icebreaker

April[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
1 April  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Cable Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
1 April  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Preserver Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
1 April  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Shackle Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
3 April  Australia HMA Naval Dockyard Williamstown, Victoria Stawell Bathurst-class corvette
3 April  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Chain Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
4 April  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Cabot Independence-class light aircraft carrier Converted cruiser hull
5 April  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Casablanca Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
8 April  United Kingdom William Doxford & Sons Sunderland Empire Beauty Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
8 April  United Kingdom S P Austin & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Judy Coaster For Ministry of War Transport
8 April  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Huntington Fargo-class light cruiser
8 April  United Kingdom Goole Shipbuilding & Repairing Co Ltd Goole Empire Samson Tug For Ministry of War Transport
8 April  United Kingdom Lithgows Ltd Glasgow Empire Falstaff Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
19 April  United States Fore River Shipyard Quincy, MA Canberra Baltimore-class heavy cruiser
19 April  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Liscome Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
21 April  United Kingdom Lithgows Ltd Greenock Empire Florizel Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
21 April  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Jamaica Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Shah
21 April  United Kingdom Clelands (Successors) Ltd Goole Empire John Tug For Ministry of War Transport
22 April  India Kistna Modified Black Swan-class sloop
22 April  United Kingdom Scott & Sons Ltd Bowling, West Dunbartonshire Empire Griffin Tug For Ministry of War Transport
24 April  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Curb Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
26 April  United States Newport News Shipbuilding Newport News, VA Intrepid Essex-class aircraft carrier

May[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
1 May  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Coral Sea Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
6 May  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Keweenaw Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Patroller
6 May  United Kingdom Goole Shipbuilding & Repairing Co Ltd Goole Empire Jester Tug For Ministry of War Transport
6 May  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Sara Tug For Ministry of War Transport
6 May  United Kingdom Richards Ironworks Ltd Lowestoft Empire Sportsman coaster For Ministry of War Transport
7 May  United Kingdom Amethyst Modified Black Swan-class sloop
7 May  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Sybil Tug For Ministry of War Transport
11 May  Sweden Öresunds Varve A/B Landskrona Eberhart Essberger Cargo ship For J T Essberger, Hamburg
12 May  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Corregidor Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
18 May  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Prince Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Rajah
20 May  United Kingdom Furness Shipbuilding Ltd Haverton Hill-on-Tees Empire Chieftain Cargo liner For Ministry of War Transport
20 May  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Valve Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
22 May  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Langley Independence-class light aircraft carrier Converted cruiser hull
22 May  United Kingdom Grangemouth Dockyard Co Ltd Grangemouth Empire Wrestler Coastal tanker For Ministry of War Transport
23 May  United Kingdom A & J Inglis Ltd Glasgow Empire Maisie Tug For Ministry of War Transport
26 May  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Mission Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
26 May  United Kingdom Richard Dunston Ltd Thorne Empire Townsman Coaster For the Ministry of War Transport
27 May  Australia Poole & Steel Limited Balmain, New South Wales Cowra Bathurst-class corvette
29 May  United States Philadelphia Naval Yard Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Solar Buckley-class destroyer escort

June[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
2 June  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Niantic Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Ranee
2 June  United Kingdom J S Watson Ltd Gainsborough Empire Mustang Tug For Ministry of War Transport
2 June  United Kingdom Sir W G Armstrong, Whitworth & Co (Shipbuilders) Ltd Newcastle upon Tyne Empire Flag Refrigerated cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
5 June  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Guadalcanal Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
15 June  India Cauvery Modified Black Swan-class sloop
17 June  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Perdido Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Trouncer
19 June  United States Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company Newport News, VA Houston Cleveland-class light cruiser
20 June  United Kingdom R Dunston Ltd Thorne Empire Percy Tug For Ministry of War Transport
23 June  United States Bethlehem Steel Company Quincy, MA Quincy Baltimore-class heavy cruiser
29 June  United Kingdom William Hamilton & Co Ltd Port Glasgow Empire Daring Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
30 June  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Vent Diver-class rescue and salvage ship

July[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
2 July  United Kingdom Charles Connell & Co Ltd Glasgow Empire Celia Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
3 July  Australia Evans Deakin & Co Brisbane Kiama Bathurst-class corvette
5 July  United Kingdom John Crown & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Dolly Tug For Ministry of War Transport
7 July  United Kingdom Hart Modified Black Swan-class sloop
7 July  United States Delta Steamship Company New Orleans John Stagg Liberty ship
10 July  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Manila Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
12 July  Australia State Dockyard Newcastle, New South Wales Strahan Bathurst-class corvette
12 July  United States Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington, California Cape Berkeley Type C1-S-AY1 Landing Ship, Infantry To Ministry of War Transport on completion under Lend-Lease
15 July  United Kingdom William Doxford & Sons Sunderland Empire City Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
15 July  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Sunset Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Thane
16 July  United Kingdom William Pickersgill & Sons Ltdd Sunderland Empire Copperfield Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
16 July  United Kingdom Lapwing Black Swan-class sloop
17 July  United States Fore River Shipyard Quincy, MA Vincennes Cleveland-class light cruiser
20 July  United Kingdom J L Thompson & Sons Ltd Sunderland, Co Durham Empire Duke Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
20 July  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Natoma Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
31 July  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Grasp Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
31 July  United Kingdom J L Thompson & Sons Ltd Sunderland, Co Durham Empire Duke Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport

August[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
1 August  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Bataan Independence-class light aircraft carrier Converted cruiser hull
2 August  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA St. Andrews Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Queen
9 January  United Kingdom William Gray & Co Ltd West Hartlepool Empire Harlequin Tug For Ministry of War Transport
13 August  United Kingdom A Hall & Co Ltd Aberdeen Empire Pierrot Tug For Ministry of War Transport
14 August  United Kingdom Short Brothers Ltd Sunderland Empire Duchess Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
15 August  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Alaska Alaska-class large cruiser
16 August  United States Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington, California Cape Marshall Type C1-S-AY-1 cargo ship For War Shipping Administration
17 August  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Midway Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
17 August  United States Bethlehem Shipbuilding Quincy, MA Wasp Essex-class aircraft carrier
21 August  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA St. Joseph Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Ruler
23 August  United Kingdom Richard Dunston Ltd Thorne Empire Runner Collier For Ministry of War Transport
23 August  United Kingdom Richard Dunston Ltd Thorne Empire Skipper Coaster For Ministry of War Transport
28 August  United Kingdom Lark Black Swan-class sloop
30 August  United States Newport News Shipbuilding Newport News, VA Hornet Essex-class aircraft carrier
31 August  United Kingdom Ailsa Shipbuilding Co Ltd Troon Empire Dirk Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport

September[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
2 September  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Tripoli Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
2 September  United Kingdom Clelands (Successors) Ltd Willington Quay-on-Tyne Empire Winnie Tug For Ministry of War Transport
9 September  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA St. Simon Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Arbiter
11 September  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Wake Island Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
11 September  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Humphrey Tug For Ministry of War Transport
15 September  United Kingdom J Scott & Sons Ltd Bowling Empire Rider Coaster For Ministry of War Transport
15 September  United Kingdom Sir J Laing & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Beresford Tanker For Ministry of War Transport
15 September  United Kingdom Vickers Armstrong Newcastle-upon-Tyne Vivid V-class submarine
18 September  United Kingdom I Pimblott & Sons Ltd Northwich Empire Cricketer Coaster For Ministry of War Transport
25 September  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Current Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
26 September  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ San Jacinto Independence-class light aircraft carrier Converted cruiser hull
27 September  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Vermillion Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Smiter
27 September  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA White Plains Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
30 September  United Kingdom Furness Shipbuilding Co Ltd Haverton Hill-on-Tees Empire Bounty Tanker For Ministry of War Transport
30 September  United Kingdom Hind Black Swan-class sloop

October[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
1 October  United Kingdom Bartram & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Blessing Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
2 October  United Kingdom William Gray & Co Ltd West Hartlepool Empire Beaconsfield Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
6 October  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Nassuk Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull; Transferred to USN before commissioning as USS Solomons
6 October  United Kingdom Spiteful S3 class submarine
11 October  United Kingdom Grangemouth Dockyard Co Ltd Grangemouth Empire Settler Coastal tanker For Ministry of War Transport
14 October  United States Newport News Shipbuilding Newport News, VA Franklin Essex-class aircraft carrier
14 October  United States Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington, CA Cape Argos Type C1 ship For United States Maritime Commission
14 October  United Kingdom Rowhedge Ironworks Ltd Rowhedge Empire Boxer Coastal tanker For Ministry of War Transport
14 October  United Kingdom Richardsons Ironworks Ltd Lowestoft Empire Chuzzlewit Coaster For Ministry of War Transport. Completed as RFA Chattenden for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary.
15 October  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Kalinin Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
16 October  United Kingdom John Readhead & Sons Sunderland Empire Crown Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
24 October  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Kasaan Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
30 October  Australia Evans Deakin & Co Brisbane Parkes Bathurst-class corvette
30 October  Japan Mitsubishi Shipyard Shimonoseki Hishi Maru No 3 Tanker For Mitsubishi Kisen KK
31 October  United Kingdom John Crown & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Belle Tug For Ministry of War Transport

November[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
1 November  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Fanshaw Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
1 November  United Kingdom Henry Scarr Ltd Hessle Empire Charles Tug For Ministry of War Transport
7 November  United States Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington, CA Cape Girardeau Type C1-S-Ay-1 cargo ship For War Shipping Administration
8 November  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Kitkun Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
8 November  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Company Tacoma, WA Willapa Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Puncher
10 November  United Kingdom A & J Inglis Ltd Glasgow Empire Harvest Coastal tanker For Ministry of War Transport
11 November  United Kingdom Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd Dundee Empire Canyon Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
11 November  United Kingdom Mermaid Black Swan-class sloop
12 November  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Guam Alaska-class large cruiser
15 November  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Tulagi Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
15 November  United States Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington, CA Cape St. Vincent Infantry Landing Ship
16 November  Australia Poole & Steel Limited Balmain, New South Wales Junee Bathurst-class corvette
17 November  United Kingdom Short Brothers Ltd Sunderland Empire Camp Refrigerated cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
20 November  United States Basalt Rock Company Napa, California Safeguard Diver-class rescue and salvage ship
22 November  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Gambier Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
22 November  United States Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard Tacoma, WA Winjah Bogue-class escort carrier Converted C3 merchant freighter for Lend-Lease as HMS Reaper
27 November  United Kingdom Cleland's (Successors) Ltd Wallsend Empire Aid Tug For Ministry of War Transport
27 November  United Kingdom R Dunston Ltd Thorne Empire Andrew Tug For Ministry of War Transport
27 November  United Kingdom A Hall & Co Ltd Aberdeen Empire Ann Tug For Ministry of War Transport
28 November  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Nehenta Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
30 November  United States Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington, CA Cape Washington Type C1-S-AY-1 cargo ship For United States Maritime Commission

December[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
4 December  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Hoggatt Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
7 December  United States Philadelphia Naval Shipyard Philadelphia, PA Wisconsin Iowa-class battleship
8 December  United Kingdom William Doxford & Sons Ltd Sunderland Empire Earl Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
10 December  United Kingdom Shipbuilding Corporation Ltd Newcastle upon Tyne Empire Abbey Refrigerated cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
11 December  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Kadashan Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
11 December  United Kingdom Peacock Black Swan-class sloop
11 December  United Kingdom J Harker Ltd Knottingley Empire Alderney Coastal tanker For Ministry of War Transport
13 December  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Silas Tug For Ministry of War Transport
13 December  United Kingdom Goole Shipbuilding & Repairing Ltd Goole Empire Sophy Tug For Ministry of War Transport
14 December  United Kingdom Cochrane & Sons Ltd Selby Empire Betsy Tug For Ministry of War Transport
14 December  United States Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company Newport News, VA Vicksburg Cleveland-class light cruiser
16 December  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Marcus Island Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
21 December  United Kingdom Short Brothers Ltd Sunderland, Co Durham Empire Cromer Refrigerated cargo liner For Ministry of War Transport
22 December  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Savo Island Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
24 December  United States New York Shipbuilding Corporation Camden, NJ Wilkes-Barre Cleveland-class light cruiser
24 December  United Kingdom John Readhead & Sons Sunderland, Co Durham Empire Curzon Cargo ship For Ministry of War Transport
28 December  United States Bethlehem Steel Company Quincy, MA Pasadena Cleveland-class light cruiser
27 December  United Kingdom Grangemouth Dockyard Co Ltd Grangemouth Empire Daughter Collier For Ministry of War Transport
29 December  United States Kaiser Shipyards Vancouver, WA Ommaney Bay Casablanca-class escort carrier Converted S4 merchant hull
30 December  United States Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation Hingham, Massachusetts Robert I. Paine Buckley-class destroyer escort
30 December  United Kingdom Cammell Laird Birkenhead, England Venerable Colossus-class light carrier
30 December  United Kingdom Henry Scarr Ltd Hessle Empire Walter Tug For Ministry of War Transport

Unknown date[edit]

Country Builder Location Ship Class Notes
 Sweden Gävle Varvs & Verkstads Nya AB Gävle Aletta Noot Cargo ship For Franz Haniel & Cie GmbH
 Germany Gutehoffnungschutte AG Walsum Binz Coastal tanker For Kriegsmarine
 United Kingdom W.J. Yarwood & Sons Northwich Empire Billow Water carrier For Ministry of War Transport
 United Kingdom Grangemouth Dockyard Company Grangemouth Empire Citizen Collier For Ministry of War Transport
 Germany Greifenwerft AG Stettin Georg Coastal tanker For Kriegsmarine
 Sweden Lidingö Nya Varv & Vaerkstaeder AB Lidingö Glücksburg Coaster For H C Horn, requisition by Kriegsmarine on completion
 Sweden Helsingborgs Varfs AB Helsingborg Heidberg Cargo ship For August Bolten Wm Müllers Nachtfolger
 Netherlands Duivendijks Scheepwerke Lekkerkerk Wilhelmshaven Cargo ship For Hamburg Amerikanische Packetfahrt AG

See also[edit]

Ship events in 1943
Ship launches: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948
Ship commissionings: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948
Ship decommissionings: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948
Shipwrecks: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948