List of ships of the Yugoslav Navy

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Seal of the JRM

The Yugoslav Navy (Jugoslavenska ratna mornarica; JRM) was the naval branch of the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslavenska narodna armija; JNA). Organized as a coastal defence force with the main task of preventing enemy landings on its long and indented coastline, the navy's inventory reflected its foreign relations as well as the growing capabilities of its domestic shipyards and scientific institutions. The period immediately after the end of the Second World War was marked by relying on equipment that was captured, salvaged or obtained from the Western Bloc through reparations or lend-lease programs.[1][2][3]

Improved relations with the Soviet Union after Stalin's death meant the acquisition of Eastern military equipment was once again possible. This was soon after realized with torpedo and missile boats of Soviet origin being commissioned with the JRM. The 1960s and 1970s marked the start of a period of reliance on indigenous designs. Domestic naval programs developed by the Brodarski Institut from Zagreb and built in Yugoslav Shipyards included submarines, frigates, patrol boats, missile boats as well as other support ships, with some of them being exported to other countries.[3][4]

The JRM came to its de facto end in 1991 with the escalation of the Croatian War of Independence. The Navy was engaged in imposing a naval blockade of Croatia which culminated in November with the Battle of the Dalmatian Channels. Having lost the majority of its naval infrastructure which was located in the now independent Croatia, the fleet eventually retreated to Boka Kotorska, Montenegro where it was officially disbanded in early 1992 with the remaining ships being commissioned with the new Navy of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The FR Yugoslav Navy included around 80% of the JRM pre-war fleet, with the remaining 20% being lost or captured by Croatian Forces.[3]

Submarines[edit]

A submariner's badge

The JRM maintained a submarine force throughout its existence. The first submarines to be commissioned were three submarines captured or returned after the Second World War. Starting with the 1950s and the Sutjeska-class Yugoslavia operated domestically built submarines. The Heroj-class marked a significant technological leap in Yugoslav shipbuilding capabilities with the Brodogradilište specijalnih objekata (Special objects shipyard) in Split becoming the shipyard where all of the remaining boats would eventually be built. All submarines with the exception of Mališan and the Heroj-class boats were named after rivers in Yugoslavia.[5][6]

The last class of Yugoslav submarines was the Una-clas midget submarines which, unlike their larger predecessor, did not carry any torpedo armament and were designed for covert special operations. A new class of larger submarines armed with torpedoes and anti-ship missiles, dubbed the Lora-class or Project B-73, was planned but wasn't started due the subsequent Breakup of Yugoslavia. By 1991 the JRM operated eleven submarines homeported in the Lora Naval Base in Split. With the start of the Croatian War of Independence all except one Una-class were relocated to Montenegro where they were commissioned with the FR Yugoslav Navy.[5]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
CB-class
Podmornica CB20 (P901).jpg
Midget submarine
Mališan (P-901)
Caproni, Milan[7]
Former Italian CB-20. Captured by Yugoslav Partisans in 1945 and commissioned as Mališan (P-901).[8] Decommissioned in the early 1950s. Donated to the Technical Museum in Zagreb in 1959.[8]
modified L-class
Submarine
Tara (P-801)
Vickers-Armstrongs, Tyne[9]
Former Royal Yugoslav Navy boat.[9] Stricken in 1954.[9] Deleted in 1958.[3]
Flutto-class
Submarine
Sava (P-802)
Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico, Monfalcone, Kingdom of Italy[10]
Former Regia Marina boat. Sunk in 1944. Raised by Yugoslav Forces after the war and commissioned as Sava.[11] Deleted in 1971.[12]
Sutjeska-class
Submarine
Sutjeska (P-811)
Neretva (P-812)
Uljanik, Pula, SR Croatia[5]
First domestically built submarine class.[5] Decommissioned during the 1980s.[13][5]
Heroj-class
Attack submarine
Heroj (P-821)
Junak (P-822)
Uskok (P-823)
Brodogradilište specijalnih objekata, Split, SR Croatia[5]
Completed during the late 1960s.[14] Relocated to Montenegro at the start of the war.[15]
Sava-class
Attack submarine
Sava (P-831)
Drava (P-832)
Brodogradilište specijalnih objekata, Split, SR Croatia[5]
Completed during the late 1970s and early 1980s.[16] Relocated to Montenegro at the start of the war.[15]
Una-class
Renovated P-913 Zeta submarine at Pivka Military History Park.jpg
Midget submarine
Tisa (P-911)
Una (P-912)
Zeta (P-913)
Soča (P-914)
Kupa (P-915)
Vardar (P-915)
Brodogradilište specijalnih objekata, Split, SR Croatia[5]
Completed during the late 1980s. Last generation of Yugoslav submarines.[17] Soča captured by Croatian Forces and commissioned with the Croatian Navy as Velebit.

The rest relocated to Montenegro.[15]

Destroyers[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
 —
Destroyer
Split (R-11)
Split[18]
Laid down in 1939 for the Royal Yugoslav Navy.[18] Stricken in 1984. Scrapped in 1986.[19]
W-class
Destroyer
Kotor (R-21)
Pula (R-22)
John Brown, Clydebank, Scotland[20]
Acquired from the Royal Navy in October 1956.[21] Kotor sold for breaking up in 1971.[21] Pula stricken the same year, sold for breaking up in 1972.[20]

Destroyer escorts[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Ciclone-class
Destroyer escort / torpedo boats
Triglav (RE-51)
Biokovo (RE-52)
Former Regia Marina ships transferred to Yugoslavia in 1949 as war reparation.[13] Decommissioned in 1971.[13]
Ariete-class
Destroyer escort / torpedo boat
Durmitor (RE-53)
Učka (RE-54)
Durmitor is a former Regia Marina ship transferred to Yugoslavia in 1949 as war reparation. Učka was damaged while being built at Rijeka. Later rebuilt and completed by Yugoslavia.

Frigates[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Koni-class
Frigate
Split (VPBR-31)
Koper (VPBR-32)
Zelendolsok, USSR[23]
Acquired from the USSR; Split in 1980 and Koper in 1982.[24] Relocated to Montenegro at the start of the war.[15]
Kotor-class
Frigate
Kotor (VPBR-33)
Pula (VPBR-34)
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, SR Croatia[25]
Yugoslav built design based on the Koni-class.[12] Relocated to Montenegro at the start of the war.[15]

Corvette[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Flower-class
Corvette
Partizanka
Harland and Wolff, Belfast[26]
Transferred to Yugoslavia from the RN on 11 January 1944. Commissioned under the name Nada.[26][9] Renamed Partizanka on 17 November 1945.[6] Returned to Great Britain in 1948/49.[26][9]

Fast attack craft[edit]

Kralj Petar Krešimir was laid down as Sergej Mašera, the first ship in a new class of missile boats that was to be built for the Yugoslav Navy just before the Breakup of Yugoslavia.

The JRM operated a large number of fast attack craft, commissioning both torpedo and missile boats of different origin. One of the first torpedo boats to enter service with the JRM after the war were eight American PT boats built by Higgins which received designations from MT1 to MT8. Starting with 1951 up to 1960, Yugoslav shipyards, mainly on the island of Korčula, constructed somewhere between 75 and 96 Higgins torpedo boats, with sources being conflicting regarding the exact number. In the early 1960s a number of them were converted to motor gun boats by removing the torpedo tubes. The last Higgins hulls were deleted by 1979. Improved relations with the Soviet Union from the 1960s made buying eastern military equipment once again possible; acquisition of ten Osa I-class missile boats started in 1965 becoming the first ships of the Yugoslav Navy to be armed with anti-ship missiles. Four Shershen-class torpedo boats were commissioned around the same time with ten additional boats being licence built at the Kraljevica Shipyard.[27][25][4]

The 1970s saw the introduction of six Končar-class missile boats featuring a mixture of Soviet and Swedish weaponry. At the time of the escalation of the Croatian War of Independence, the first ship of a new class of missile boats was being built at the Kraljevica Shipyard. Laid down as Sergej Mašera, the unfinished ship was captured by the Croatians, completed and entered service with the Croatian Navy as Kralj Petar Krešimir IV (RTOP-11).[4][28]

Torpedo boats[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Sea-going torpedo boat Golešnica (91)
Cer (92)
Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, Trieste, Austro-Hungarian Empire Built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy as Tb 76 and Tb 87.
Orjen-class
Torpedo boat
TČ-391
TČ-392
Lürssen, Nazi Germany[29]
Former Royal Yugoslav Navy Durmitor and Kajmakčalan. Commissioned with the JRM as TČ-5 and TČ-6 and renamed later on.[29] Both deleted in 1962/63.[29]
Shershen-class
Torpedo boat
Pionir (TČ-211)
Partizan (TČ-212)
Proleter (TČ-213)
Topčider (TČ-214)
Ivan (TČ-215)
Jadran (TČ-216)
Kornat (TČ-217)
Biokovac (TČ-218)
Streljko (TČ-219)
Crvena Zvijezda (TČ-220)
Borac (TČ-221)
Partizan II (TČ-222)
Partizan III (TČ-223)
Pionir II (TČ-224)
Pionir, Partizan, Topčider and Ivan acquired from the USSR in 1965.[27]

The rest were licence built at the Kraljevica Shipyard from 1968 to 1971.[25]

Partizan II and Streljko were captured by Croatian Forces. Only Partizan II was commissioned with the Croatian Navy while Streljko was sunk as a target on a live fire exercise in 1994.[30]

The rest were relocated to Montenegro and deleted during the 1990s.[13]

Missile boats[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Osa I-class
Missile boat
RČ-301
RČ-302
RČ-303
RČ-304
RČ-305
RČ-306
RČ-307
RČ-308
RČ-309
RČ-310
Rybinskiy Shipyard, USSR[31] Acquired from the USSR from 1965 to 1969.[31] RČ-301 and RČ-310 were captured by Croatian Forces. Only RČ-310 was commissioned with the Croatian Navy.[15]

The rest were relocated to Montenegro.[15]

Končar-class
Missile boat
Rade Končar (RTOP-401)
Vlado Četković (RTOP-402)
Ramiz Sadiku (RTOP-403)
Hasan Zahirović (RTOP-404)
Jordan Nikolov (RTOP-405)
Ante Banina (RTOP-406)
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, SR Croatia[25] Domestically built during the 1970s.[25] Vlado Četković captured by Croatian Forces and commissioned with the Croatian Navy.

The rest were relocated to Montenegro.[15]

Patrol boats[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Kraljevica-class
Patrol boat /
ASW
PBR-501
PBR-502
PBR-503
PBR-504
PBR-504
PBR-505
PBR-506
PBR-507
PBR-508
PBR-509
PBR-510
PBR-511
PBR-512
PBR-513
PBR-514
PBR-515
PBR-516
PBR-517
PBR-518
PBR-519
PBR-520
PBR-521
PBR-522
PBR-523
PBR-524
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, SR Croatia[25] Completed between 1951 and 1957.[25] PBR-502 and PBR-505 sold to Bangladesh in 1975.[32] The remainder were decommissioned by the 1980s.[33]
Mornar-class
Patrol boat /
ASW
Mornar (PBR-551)
Borac (PBR-552)
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, SR Croatia[25] Both completed in 1957.[25] Both deleted in 1992.[33]
Fougueux-class
Patrol boat /
Submarine chaser
Udarnik (PBR-581) FCM, France[34] Acquired in 1956 through US offshore funding.[34] Decommissioned in 1984. Sunk as a target in 1988.[34]
Type 132-class
Patrol boat
PČ-132
PČ-133
PČ-134
PČ-135
PČ-136
PČ-137
PČ-138
PČ-139
PČ-140
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, SR Croatia[25] Completed between 1964 and 1968.[25]
 —
Mirna-class
Patrol boat
Biokovo (PČ-171)
Pohorje (PČ-172)
Koprivnik (PČ-173)
Učka (PČ-174)
Grmeč (PČ-175)
Mukos (PČ-176)
Fruška Gora (PČ-177)
Kosmaj (PČ-178)
Zelengora (PČ-179)
Cer (PČ-180)
Durmitor (PČ-181)
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, SR Croatia[25] Competed between 1980 and 1985.[25] Biokovo, Mukos, Cer and Durmitor captured by Croatian Forces and commissioned with the Croatian Navy.

The rest were relocated to Montenegro.

Mine warfare[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Malinska-class
Mining tender
M-31
M-32
M-33
Kraljevica Shipyard[9]
Former Austro-Hungarian / Royal Yugoslav Navy ships. M31 originally commissioned as M1, M32 as M2, M33 as M3; all three renamed later on.[9]
 —
RD1-class
Minesweeper
ML-301
ML-302
ML-303
ML-304
ML-305
ML-306
ML-307
  • Arsenale di Castellamare di Stabia (ML-301–304)[35]
  • Tosi, Taranto (ML-305–307)[35]
Former Regia Marina ships.[35]
 —
Type 101-class
Inshore minesweeper
M-101
M-102
M-103
M-104
M-106
M-107
M-108
M-109
M-110
M-111
M-112
M-113
M-114
M-115
M-116
Yugoslavia[36]
Completed between 1950–1956.[36] Stricken during the 1960s and 1970s.[36]
Type 117-class
Inshore minesweeper
M-117
M-118
M-119
M-120
M-121
M-122
M-123
Yugoslavia[37]
Completed between 1964–1968.[37] Stricken during the 1980s.[37]
Sirius-class
Minesweeper
Vukov Klanac (M-151)
Podgora (M-152)
Blitvenica (M-153)
Gradac (M-161)
  • Le Havre, France (M-151–153)
  • Yugoslavia (M-161)
Vukov Klanac captured by Croatian Forces but was destroyed soon after by RSK army artillery fire. The rest relocated to Montenegro.[15]
Ham-class
Minesweeper
Maun (M-141)
Brseč (M-142)
Olib (M-143)
(M-144)

Landing craft[edit]

Cetina was laid down as Rab which was to become the second Silba-class ship built for the JRM.

The Yugoslav Partisans captured several landing craft during the last stages of the Second World War. Among them were two former Italian MZ-type craft which were deleted by 1979 and a single ex-German MFP. An unknown number of Siebel ferrys was also commissioned. During the 1950s Yugoslav shipyards built a large number of landing craft based on German war designs designating them as DTMs (Desantni Tenkonosac-Minopolagač, tank landing craft-minelayer), DSMs (Desantna Splav-Minopolagač, landing craft-minelayer) and PDSs (Pomoćna Desantna Splav, auxiliary landing craft). Several of these craft were captured by the Croatians, but only PDS-713, DSM-110 and DTM-110 were commissioned with the Croatian Navy, with the fate of the remaining ones left over in Croatian, unknown.[30][13]

During the 1970s and 1980s the "Montmontaža Greben Shipyard" on the island of Korčula built a large number of Type 11 and Type 22 landing-assault craft intended for transporting troops and cargo. Although sharing a common design, the two types featured a different carrying capacity, propulsion system and weapons. The last class of landing ships to be commissioned with the Yugoslav Navy was the Silba-class landing ship-minelayers. At the start of the Croatian War of Independence one ship was in active service while another one was being built. Named Rab, the unfinished ship was captured by the Croatians, completed and commissioned with the Croatian Navy as Cetina (DBM-81).[17][38][13]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Type-21
Landing-assault craft
DJČ-601
DJČ-602
DJČ-603
DJČ-604
DJČ-605
DJČ-606
DJČ-607
DJČ-608
DJČ-609
DJČ-610
DJČ-611
DJČ-612
DJČ-613
DJČ-614
DJČ-615
DJČ-616
DJČ-617
DJČ-618
DJČ-619
DJČ-620
Montmontaža Greben, Vela Luka, SR Croatia[38] Domestic design completed during the 1970s.[13] 602, 603, 612, 613 and 615 captured by Croatian Forces and commissioned with the Croatian Navy. The rest were relocated to Montenegro[39][40][41]
Type-22
Landing-assault craft
DJČ-621
DJČ-622
DJČ-623
DJČ-624
DJČ-625
DJČ-626
DJČ-627
DJČ-628
DJČ-629
DJČ-630
DJČ-631
DJČ-632
Montmontaža Greben, Vela Luka, SR Croatia[38] Completed during the 1980s; improved Type-11 with a larger carrying capacity.[38] 623 and 624 captured by Croatian Forces and commissioned with the Croatian Navy.[39]
According to the Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, three additional Type-22 of unknown designations were captured but weren't commissioned with the Navy. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships states that 622 was also captured. The rest were relocated to Montenegro[39][30]
Silba-class
Landing ship-minelayer
Krk (DBM-241) Brodogradilište specijalnih objekata, Split, SR Croatia[17] Completed in 1986[17] Relocated to Montenegro.[42]

Auxiliaries[edit]

Tugboats[edit]

Class Image Type Boats Shipyard History Fate
Harbour tugboat
LR-67
LR-68
LR-69
LR-70
LR-71
LR-72
LR-73
LR-74
LR-71 and LR-73 captured by Croatian forces and commissioned with the Croatian Navy under their existing designations.
Coastal tugboat PR-37
Tunj (PR-38)
PR-39
PR-40
Tito's Kraljevica Shipyard, Kraljevica, SR Croatia (PR-38 and PR-39) PR-38 completed in 1957 and PR-39 in 1958. Relocated to Montenegro
Coastal tugboat Orada (PR-41) Tito's Shipyard Beograd, Belgrade, SR Serbia Relocated to Montenegro

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Library of Congress.
  2. ^ Gardiner 1995, p. 641.
  3. ^ a b c d Gardiner 1995, p. 642.
  4. ^ a b c Jelavić.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Sušačka revija.
  6. ^ a b UHDDR HRM.
  7. ^ Gardiner 1980, p. 311.
  8. ^ a b Tehnički muzej.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner 1980, p. 358.
  10. ^ Gardiner 1980, p. 310.
  11. ^ Fontenoy 2007, p. 242.
  12. ^ a b Gardiner 1995, p. 644.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner 1995, p. 646.
  14. ^ Heroj.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Šoštarić & 7 August 2008.
  16. ^ Sava.
  17. ^ a b c d BSO.
  18. ^ a b Gardiner 1995, p. 643.
  19. ^ Freivogel.
  20. ^ a b HMS Wager.
  21. ^ a b Naval History.
  22. ^ a b Navypedia.
  23. ^ Koni.
  24. ^ Bernadić 2013.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kraljevica.
  26. ^ a b c uboat.net.
  27. ^ a b c Russian Ships.
  28. ^ Wertheim 2007, p. 145.
  29. ^ a b c Gardiner 1980, p. 359.
  30. ^ a b c Gardiner 1995, p. 649.
  31. ^ a b Osa.
  32. ^ Wertheim 2007, p. 42.
  33. ^ a b Gardiner 1995, p. 647.
  34. ^ a b c Fougueux.
  35. ^ a b c RD1.
  36. ^ a b c Gardiner 1980, p. 648.
  37. ^ a b c Gardiner 1995, p. 648.
  38. ^ a b c d Saunders 2004, p. 653.
  39. ^ a b c Wertheim 2007, p. 147.
  40. ^ Wertheim 2007, p. 148.
  41. ^ Bernadić 2006.
  42. ^ Kalajdžić & 16 April 2004.

References[edit]

Books

News reports

Other sources