List of police-related slang terms

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Many slang terms, often derogatory, exist for police officers. These terms are rarely used by the police themselves.

Police services also have their own internal slang and jargon; some of it is relatively widespread geographically and some very localized.

A[edit]

Ayna
A Turkish phrase derived from aynasız, referring to ''those without a mirror'', a pejorative description of police lacking honor and having too much shame to look themselves in the mirror. Often used by Turkish and middle eastern immigrants, particularly to describe police who will beat or assault them when no witnesses are present.

B[edit]

Babylon
Jamaican, establishment systems, often applied to the police. Also used in Black English outside of Jamaica.[1] Derived from the Rastafari movement which, in turn, relies upon a Babylon interpretation symbolising debauchery, corruption and evil-doing in general. The term was used as the title of the 2014 British police drama Babylon.
Bacon
See Pig. Utilized interchangeably with the term "Pig/Pigs" and is often derogatory. Can refer to a single officer or any number of officers.
Barney
Slang term for a town policeman, usually derogatory, named after Barney Fife.
Battenburg 
Referring to yellow/blue large squared, reflective checker pattern on UK police cars - reference is to type of cake. (Update from "Jam Sandwich" of earlier cars.)
Bears
A slang term for the police (CB slang, "Smokey the Bear" in reference to the Highway Patrol campaign hats. Seldomly derogatory and very common with truckers in the US.
The Beast
American term used in this singular form to refer to any number of police officers as well as when referring to an entire police force or to police in general. This linguistic pattern results in an implied sense that individual police are all representative parts of one whole, monstrous creature with a united objective and attitude. Referenced most widely on The Fugees' album The Score.
Beat cop
non offensive slang for patrolling officers
Bill
Also Old Bill. The Bill was the title of a television police series in the UK, based in a fictional London borough.
Bird
US, slang for a police helicopter. See also Ghetto Bird. Not to be confused with the UK parallel to "chicks", a more modern and now more common use of "birds."
Bizzies
UK, said to have been coined in Merseyside, as the police were always too "busy" to help citizens who reported low-level crimes such as house burglaries. An alternative origin is that the police are seen as "busybodies", i.e. they ask too many questions and meddle in the affairs of others.
Black Maria (pronounced Mariah)
Slang term used in the UK and elsewhere meaning police van used to transport prisoners, also used in the 19th century in the US and France with various suggested etymologies including racehorses or an infamous black, large and fierce Liverpool guest house owner Maria Lea.
Blues and Twos
UK, from the roof siren color and the two frequency sirens.
Blueband
UK, from the blue cap band worn by PCSOs.
Bluebottle
Antique name for the police referring to the old style uniform
Blue Canary
Canadian, a term used by Firefighters to josh Police Officers. Miners historically used canaries to monitor the air quality of a mine; when the canary died the air quality was considered too poor to work in. Police officers have been known to put themselves at risk when rendering aid, usually running into a fire or other toxic atmosphere without proper training or personal protective equipment. Antonym: Hose Monkey
Blue Force
American slang term for the police, mainly used in Florida.
Blue Heeler
Rhyming slang for Peeler
Blue Light Special
Slang term for someone being pulled over
Blue Meanies
60s and 70s hippy slang for the police in Britain, referring to the blue uniforms.
Bobby
UK, derived from the Conservative British Home Secretary, Sir Robert Peel ("Bobby" being a nickname for "Robert"), the founder of the Metropolitan Police.[2] Occurs in fixed phrases e.g. "bobby on the beat", "village bobby". Also still used on UK Railways to describe signalmen and women - this dates back to the earliest days of railway operations where a train driver was required to stop only at the behest of a policeman.
Bœuf
Quebec, (“ox”). Probably in opposition to the French term «vache» (“cow”), or for the usual featureless gaze of police officers colloquially called «face de bœuf» (“ox face”). Allows to call a police car an “ox cart” («char à bœufs»).
Booked
UK, usually after being arrested, to be taken to custody suite and held there in a cell. "They took me to the nick and they booked me." (Dizzie Rascal)
Bofia
a derogatory slang in Portugal used for police officers and law enforcement in general.[3]
Booze Bus
Australian slang term referring to a police roadside random breath testing station, which are often specialized buses.
Boy Dem
UK slang term for one or more police officers.[4]
The Boys
Term used by African-American communities in Baltimore.
Boys in blue
In reference to the blue uniform.[5]
Brady Cops
Police officers who have been dishonest are sometimes referred to as "Brady cops".
Bronze
Police slang term used in Mad Max 1 originated in Australia but used in the UK .
BTP
specialized use (mainly on UK railways) - abbreviation of British Transport Police the oldest and only fully UK national police force. Sometimes derogatorily known as "Sleepers" (US railroad "ties") but not due to their position in the track.
Buck Rogers
UK (London and south east) comic/derogatory reference to officer using speed trap gun.
Bull
Railroad police in the US, most prevalent in the first half of the 20th century.
Bulle
German for "the bull". Slang for police officer, often derogatory. Bullerei and the plural bullen refer to the police as a whole.[6][7]
Buttons (The)
American, 1940's, referring to the large brass buttons of the era.
Byling
Old Swedish slang for patrolling officers. The word means "peeler" in Swedish and it is rarely used nowadays.[8]

C[edit]

Candy cars
Slang term for police cars in the UK due to the livery being yellow and blue. (Ambulances are yellow and green, fire service yellow and red and transport (motorway) yellow and black. except for the black all are reflective. The backs of all vehicles are red/yellow inverted chevrons - only red/yellow because the other colours are not legal on the back.
Cherry Toppers, Cherry Tops, or Cherries
Often used in reference to police cars which in some nations bear red lights on the top of the car. See Cherry top (slang).
Chimps
UK slang term for Community Support Officers, acronym for "Completely Hopeless In Most Policing Situations".[9]
Chien
Québec, (“dog”). Very derogatory.
CHIPS
Used to refer to California Highway Patrol Officers.
Chota
Hispanic American slang term
City Kitties
A slang term for Police officers
Clear
Often shouted when police, FBI or SWAT team have swept the area and no criminal activity is present at specific area of the criminal scene.
Cogne
French, roughly means "to beat up". It is used in Les Misérables among others.
Cop Shop
US, UK, and Australia (and other Commonwealth English) slang for police station. Cop Shop was a long running Australian television series.
Cop, Coppa or Copper
The term copper was the original, unshortened word, originally used in Britain to mean "someone who captures". In British English, the term cop is recorded (Shorter Oxford Dictionary) in the sense of 'to capture' from 1704, derived from the Latin capere via the Old French caper.[10] There is a common but mistaken belief that it refers to the police uniform's buttons or badge being made of copper.[11]
Cosmonaut
See Kosmonavt.
County Mountie
In Canada in reference to county police officers or peace officers who are not members of Royal Canadian Mounted Police (See Mounties). Also used by truckers on their CB's to refer to county sheriffs or county police departments in the US.
Crusher
UK Victorian era slang term for a police officer. from the slang term beetle crushers, in reference to the heavy boots they wore in the era.
Cuntstable
Derogatory UK slang term for a police officer, a portmanteau of constable and cunt.

D[edit]

Ds
Slang for police.[12]
Dibble
The name of fictional police officer in the cartoon Top Cat. "Dibble" has been adopted as a British-English derogatory slang term for police officer.[13]
Dicks
Slang for detectives. Apparently originally coined in Canada and brought south by rumrunners during Prohibition.[citation needed] The fictional comic strip character Dick Tracy was given the first name of "Dick" in token of its being a slang expression for "detective". Dickless Tracy is used in Australia as slang for female police officers.
Divvy Van
Australian slang for police van (divisional van). Term is confined mostly to Victoria and Western Australia.
Dogs
Georgian slang for police.
Donut Patrol or Donut Muncher
Refers to unhealthy police officers in the United States. Comes from night shift officers stopping at doughnut shops for coffee, as they often used to be the only catering establishments open all night long.

F[edit]

Fakabát
An old Hungarian term meaning "wooden-coat". This name comes from the brownish vinyl jackets issued as a part of the uniform during the Socialist era. The term is still widely known today.
Feds
Usually used in the United States to refer to federal law enforcement agencies, especially the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Marshals Service. Also used in Australia to refer to the Australian Federal Police, and in London as general slang for the Metropolitan Police Service, due to influence from U.S. media.
Federales
Spanish, the Mexican Federal Police. The term gained widespread usage by English-speakers due to its popularization in films. The term is a cognate and counterpart to the slang "Feds" in the United States.
Feo
A term which indicates a law enforcement officer approaching the vicinity of the speaker. Taken from the Spanish word for "ugly", this slang term is exclusively used by the Puerto Rican and Dominican communities of Philadelphia and (to a lesser extent) New York City, United States.
Filth
Normally "The Filth", UK, the police. Inspiration for the Irvine Welsh novel Filth.[14] Also common in Australia and New Zealand, as with many other originally British police-related terms (especially given Australia's origins as a Commonwealth Nation with strong British influences, notably in law and policing origins).[citation needed]
Five-O
Derived from the name of the television series Hawaii Five-O, this term is used in the US and the UK. It is sometimes shouted out as a warning by lookouts or others engaged in illegal activity when a police officer is spotted.
Fízl
Czech pejorative term for police officer.
Flatfoot
A term with uncertain origins. Possibly related to the large amount of walking that a police officer would do; at a time when the condition flat feet became common knowledge, it was assumed that excessive walking was a major cause. Another possible origin is the army's rejection of men with flat feet, who would often take jobs in law enforcement as a backup, particularly during war when established police officers would often join up (or be forced to).[15] What is known is that by 1912, flat-footed was an insult among U.S. baseball players, used against players not "on their toes." This may have been applied to police officers sometime later, for similar reasons.[16]
Flic
A French word for police (singular "un flic", but more commonly used in the plural "les flics"), best translated as "cop". Much like "cop," this term is not derogatory.[17]
F ing Big Idiots
Slang abbreviation for the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Fuzz
As "the fuzz", used as slang for police officers; of unknown origin. The term was used in the title of Hot Fuzz, a 2007 police-comedy film and Peter Peachfuzz from The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle.

G[edit]

Gammon
UK, see Bacon
Gestapo
Non-police related slang term for door security (Bouncers) in reference to their white armbands.
Ghetto Bird
US, derogatory, slang for a police helicopter.
Grass
Cockney (English) rhyming slang for a police informant: Grasshopper = Copper.[18] Alternative suggestions are from "Narc in the Park", or the song "Whispering Grass".
Gorra
Argentinian slang, spanish for "hat".
Guards or Guard
Ireland, slang for the Garda Síochána or one of its members. From the old name for the force, the Civil Guards.
Gumshoe
US, derogatory, slang for detectives, who allegedly wear soft-heeled shoes or Hush Puppy shoes so they can follow suspects without being noticed.[citation needed]
Gura
Latin American Spanish slang for police enforcement, derogatory.[19]

H[edit]

Heat or The Heat
Slang for police and law enforcement in general (due to some police vehicles featuring red lights)
Hobby Bobby
UK slang for Special constables.
Hurry up van
Slang term used on Merseyside to describe a police van.

J[edit]

Jack or Jacks
Australian slang for police officer/s. Can also can be used to describe an informant or an unreliable person. "To go jack on a mate" is the act of betraying associates or implicating them in a crime. A "jack (insert colourful name here)" is someone who is considered not be trusted. Also old slang for CID in Liverpool.[20]
Jake/Jake the Snake
Slang term for the police originated in the Bronx (mildly derogatory).
Jam sandwich, or Jam Butty
UK, police traffic car, from the now largely obsolete historical colour-scheme – an overall white vehicle, with a longitudinal red, or red and yellow, stripe on each side. Still used for the metropolitan police in London. Silver cars with a red stripe down the side.
Japsae
South Korean term for the police.

K[edit]

Karao
Used in Kenya to refer to police; seen as derogatory. Its source is the sheng language (mashup of English and Kiswahili).[21]
Keuf
French, used in the plural "les keufs", as slang for the police. This word is more derogatory than "les flics", even though it means the same thing. The word is derived from the pronunciation of "flic" as "FLEE-KUH". In verlan slang, words are often reversed, thus making the word "kuhflee". In turn, "flee" was dropped from the word, leaving "keuf".
Kollegen mat den Rallysträifen
Luxembourgish, literally "colleagues / fellows with the rally stripes". A reference to police officers with their police cars, which in Luxembourg have three stripes on the bonnet and on each side, representing the national colours (red, white, light blue). Due to the fact that the police cars are white as well as the colour of the central stripe, it seems like they only have two stripes on it, like rally cars. It has a more or less humorous character.
Kosmonavt
Russian, referring to an OMON policeman equipped with riot gear (literally "cosmonaut").[22][23]
Krasnopyoriy
Russian, slang, Краснопёрый ("red-feathered"), outdated. Refers to the USSR police uniform of 1975–1990 having red collar insignia of rhombic shape.
Kyttä
Finnish slang term of police, comes from the Finnish word "kytätä" ("watch, lurk"). Slightly disparaging, sometimes used by the police themselves.

L[edit]

Law, Laws, or The Law
Probably an abbreviation of the phrase "The long arm of the law" (suggesting that no matter how far they run, all criminals are eventually caught and prosecuted successfully).[citation needed]
Legawye (pl)
Russian Легавые sg Легавый. Literally "gundog", "pointer". According to one of a number of theories, this was part of the logo of the Moscow Investigation Department in 1928. But the term also was in XIX century.[24]
Leos
Law enforcement officers.
Local Yokel
A reference to city or town police forces, almost solely used in conjunction with "County Mountie". Mildly derogatory.

M[edit]

Mabando
A term used to imply the presence of law enforcement officers in a particular area. Most commonly used by the Dominican and Puerto Rican communities of Philadelphia.
Mama/Mami
Marathi, slang, मामा/मामी. literally meaning "maternal uncle/his wife", it is one of the most common forms of addressing any male/female strange elder. Used frequently in Pune for traffic police personnel on the roads.
Man, The
Derogatory. Police officer or other government agent who has control, either by force or circumstance. Widely used in the United States, especially among African Americans and prisoners. Popular during the 1960s and 1970s by anti-establishment groups.[25]
Maréchaussée
The police force that preceded the Gendarmerie as the law enforcement agency in rural France. The Maréchaussée was under the control of the Maréchal (Eng: Marshal) de France, hence the name. In the Netherlands, the Koninklijke Marechaussee remains the military police force with civilian powers similar to the French Gendarmerie. The gendarmerie was established after the French revolution. French slang, mostly used in rural areas and aimed to the gendarmes.[citation needed]
Mata
A common slang in both Singapore and Malaysia, mata literally mean eye in malay
Ment
Russian, slang, Мент, pl Менты. Only slightly disparaging, in general use (e.g. Ments is an alternative title for Streets of Broken Lights). The word dates back to the nineteenth century and is originally Hungarian, meaning "cloak" (because the Austro-Hungarian police uniform included a cloak).[26]
Millicents
term originated from A Clockwork Orange
Militia
Romania and various post-soviet countries with roots from the secret police.
Mr. Plod
See Plod.
Moosor
Russian, lit. "garbage" (but countable), offensive. Etymology uncertain, theories suggested include the acronym MUS for "Moscow Criminal Investigation [Office]" (Московский Уголовный Сыск) in Tzarist Russia and Hebrew for "informer." [24]
Mounties
Canada, colloquial, Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Murija
Serbo-Croatian, common colloquial term for "police"; from the Italian word muro, meaning "wall"

N[edit]

Narc or Nark
1. A term used for an informant. 2. An undercover narcotics agent.
Nick
A police station (British slang).
Nicked
To be arrested (British slang).

O[edit]

Old Bill
A term in use in London among other areas, inspiring the television series The Bill. The origin of this nickname is obscure; according to the Metropolitan Police themselves, there are at least 13 different explanations.[27] However, the word is quite old fashioned and is used much less nowadays, especially by younger people. [source?]
One Time
A term used in many English speaking countries, used because one looks at the police one time, so not to attract attention.
Occifer/ossifer
A slang term used to satirically reference the title of a police officer, while implying that the speaker is intoxicated. Popularized by the 1978 Cheech & Chong film Up in Smoke.
Okami
Japanese impolite for "police". "The police are okami ("one who is above"), a word used in reference to the emperor, one's Lord, or the authorities."[28] This term often used by the hero of the Japanese drama Gokusen. The term itself is Japanese pan: the word means “god(s)” Ōkami (大神) but also “wolf(s)” Ōkami ().

P[edit]

Paco
A derogatory Chilean term for Carabineros, the national police force of Chile. In Costa Rica, a familiar term for police, loosely derogatory. The term comes from the nickname "Paco" given to Francisco Calderón, a Security Minister in the 1940s.[29]
Paddy Wagon
A police van. So named in Liverpool, UK as most of the policemen and prisoners were of Irish extraction.
Panda Car
UK, a police car. Named because they were originally painted with large panels of black and white, or blue (usually light blue) and white. First started by the Lancashire Constabulary in the 1960s. Original Panda cars were the same model of car bought by two adjacent forces - the one in black and the other in white. The doors were then swapped between vehicles giving all the two-tone colour scheme one way round or the other. Bonnets (hoods) could also be swapped. Not clear if boot (trunk) lids were swapped. Not all fitted with a blue beacon. Some fitted with a large box shaped roof sign "police" with the blue beacon on top (or not). Many were Morris 1000, Austin Morris Minis or 1100s. Ford Anglias and later Escorts also used by some forces. Colour scheme later changed to blue (usually light blue) with white doors - or, again, the reverse - light blue with white doors.
Pandu
Marathi, derogatory, पांडू. Used chiefly in Mumbai.[30] This slang for policemen, especially hawaladars, ("हवालदार", meaning constable) came to be from the 1975 Dada Kondke film "Pandu Hawaldar".
Parak
A slang term used for policemen in the Philippines.
Paw Patrol
slang term for K-9 units or Dog Units in the UK
Probinsyano
Another slang term used for policemen in the Philippines due to the famous TV Show Ang Probinsyano.
Party van
Russian, a police car or van, especially one housing an entire squad and sent out to perform a search and seizure and/or an arrest at a specific site. Hints at the party of police officers that it holds and/or the "party" it's going to "throw" at its destination.
Pasma
Derogatory term used in Spain to refer to the police in general.[31] The singular form is "Pasmuti".
Peeler
UK, archaic, although may have survived longer in Ireland than Britain, from Sir Robert Peel (see "Bobby").
Perp
Perpetrator/criminal instigator.
Pharaoh
Russian, old-fashioned. Allegedly refers to Tsarist city policemen and passage guards standing still and emotionlessly on their posts, paying no attention to the bustling of the city around them. In older times, they were also armed with poleaxes or clubs that they were stereotypically holding like a sceptre.
Pig
This derogatory term was frequently used during the 19th century, disappeared for a while, but reappeared during the 20th and 21st century. It became frequently used again during the 1960s and 1970s in the underground and anti-establishment culture. Now prevalent in many English-speaking countries.[32] It is also used in anti-authority punk, goth, metalhead, biker, mobster and hip-hop circles. Oz magazine showed a picture of a pig dressed as a policeman on a front cover[33] and the term inspired "pig cops" in the game Duke Nukem 3D.
Pig Pen
Cop Shop i.e. police station
Pinched
To be arrested (American slang).
Pikachu
In Vietnam, this word refers to traffic police, who wear yellow suits and therefore resemble the Pokémon Pikachu.
Plastic Policeman
UK slang term for Community Support Officers.
Plod, PC Plod or Plodder
Slang, UK and Australia. An allusion to Mr Plod the Policeman in Enid Blyton's Noddy stories for children, to plod meaning to walk doggedly and slowly with heavy steps.[34]
Polda
Czech slang for police officer. Originated as short of word "policista" - Czech term for policeman.
Polis
Scottish slang for police, commonly used in Glasgow (not to be confused with the exaggerated US pronunciation 'po-leece').
Ponda
Slang for policemen in Kashmir region of Jammu & Kashmir, India. It is said to have derived from the British Pound sterling, insinuating that the police are susceptible to bribery.
Pony Soldier
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Po-po, Popo, Popos, PoPo
A street term for police. Originally from Southern California, where bicycle police, beginning in the 1980s, wore T-shirts marked with 'PO', for 'police officer', in block letters.[citation needed] As these officers rode in pairs, their shirts would read 'POPO' when side by side.[citation needed]
Poulet
French derogatory slang for police (literally "chicken"), similar to American English "pig".
Puerco
Hispanic derogatory slang for police (literally "pig").

Q[edit]

Queen's Cowboys
Canadian slang term for members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

R[edit]

Rati
Argentinean slang term for police officers derived from "rata" (rat). Also derived from vesre pronunciation of tira ("strap"), since older police uniforms would feature a leather strap across the officer's chest.[35]
Rent-a-cop
Not actually used to refer to police officers, but instead a derogatory term applied to any privately hired security guard who is not acting as a bouncer or bodyguard.
Rollers
US, Black slang for police officers widely used on the East and West coasts during the early 1970s.
Roussin
French.[36] In the 18th century undercover detectives in high society were dressed in a reddish (roussâtre) long jacket.
Rozzers
UK, slang for police officers, first recorded in the late 1800s.[37]

S[edit]

Shades
Garda Síochána, the police force of the Republic of Ireland.[38][39][40] Derived from Traveller Cant, it is said to refer either to the two shades of blue on the Garda uniform, or to the practice of wearing peaked uniform caps, casting a "shade" over their eyes.[41][42]
Shickalon[e]y
Garda Síochána, the police force of the Republic of Ireland. Based on a mispronunciation of Síochána.[43][44][45]
Slops
A "back-slang" formation from "police" spelled backwards - "ecilop" = "slop". Common before World War Two in the UK. Rare today.
Smokey
State police or troopers. Derived from over-the-road trucker CB radio calls, as popularized by the 1977 film Smokey And The Bandit. Not necessarily derogatory.:
Snut
A Norwegian slang used by teenagers about cops.
Stater/Statie
A state trooper, as opposed to a local county or federal police officer of the US.
Sweeney, The
UK slang term for the Flying Squad of London's Metropolitan Police Service. From Cockney rhyming slang: "Sweeney Todd" = "Flying Squad".

T[edit]

The Thin Blue Line
The role of the police in being the barrier between civilized society and chaos, inspiring a UK sitcom and two documentaries of the same name. This has led to police involved in entrapment of gays being described as "the thin blue jeans".[citation needed]
Thulla
ठुल्ला. A North Indian slang for policemen. One theory is that it is derived from "thulla", a name used in Eastern India for the jute gunny sack, which resembles the khaki uniforms worn by many police forces in the country.
Tombo
A Peruvian, Colombian and other South American countries' slang term, comes from switching the syllabes of "Botón" , which means button, an allusion to the ribbons or medals that police officers use to wear on their uniforms.
Tira
A Brazilian Portuguese slang word (colloquial) for police officers, its origin cames from tira [ˈt͡ʃi.ɾa], since older police uniforms had a strap across the chest. It is usually translated as "cop".
Town Clown
Town or city police officers, contrasted with county or state police. Usually considered derogatory.[46]

V[edit]

Vics
US slang term for the police in the 1990s and 2000s referring to the Ford Crown Victoria, a car model commonly used by police departments.
Slang term used in Victoria, Australia for the Victoria Police.
Also used by the police to refer to crime victims in the US.

W[edit]

Walloper
Australian slang for a police officer. Commonly used in the 19th to 20th centuries for the policeman on the beat, carrying a truncheon.
Whiter-than-White, The
Derisive term for a police force perceived to be predominantly full of racist white officers, British-English in origin.
Woodentop
A uniformed police officer. Derisory term used by British plain-clothes detectives.
Woody
A plastic police officer. Derisory term used for British police.

#[edit]

12
A term to refer to multiple police officers or any other law enforcement agencies. The origin of the slang comes from the TV series Adam-12, which ran from 1968 to 1975. It is idiomatic to say "fuck 12", meaning "fuck the police", especially in hip hop music. Residents from Fulton and Dekalb County in Georgia popularize the term "12", when referring to police, because that is how many letters were in Dekalb County, and Fulton County, which was on the side of the police vehicles.[citation needed]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "'bobby' – Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford University Press. April 2010. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2011. 
  3. ^ "bofia" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  4. ^ "The Dictionary of Slang". The Dictionary of Slang. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  5. ^ "the boys in blue". The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
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  7. ^ "Duden Entry for Bullerei". Archived from the original on 5 July 2017. 
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  9. ^ "ex DS Roddy Llewelyn". Archived from the original on 2 January 2012. 
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  13. ^ "Definition of 'dibble'". Collins English Dictionary. Harper Collins Publishe. Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Noun, British slang, a policeman 
  14. ^ "Definition for filth – Oxford Dictionaries Online". Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011. 
  15. ^ ""Flatfoot"- a Detective, and a Problem - Troy, MI Foot Doctor". www.stopfeetpainfast.com. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "What Does the French Word Un Flic Mean?". Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. 
  18. ^ Farmer and Henley's 1893 Dictionary of Slang
  19. ^ "gura" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  20. ^ Lern Yerself Scouse published by Scouse Press
  21. ^ "Sheng Kamusi. Search or translate for sheng words". Sheng.co.ke. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
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