List of socialist states

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This is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves Socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were Socialist:
  Over 70 years
  60–70 years
  50–60 years
  40–50 years
  30–40 years
  20–30 years
  Under 20 years
Click on image to magnify

The following is a list of self-declared Socialist states—that is to say, past and present states that have declared themselves Socialist or in the process of building socialism. Self-identification is the only criterion used by the list, therefore the list includes all countries that have claimed to be Socialist, even if their claims are disputed. All countries that have not claimed to be Socialist are excluded, even in cases where certain outside observers regarded those countries as Socialist. This list includes countries that assert in their constitutions that they are based on socialism, regardless of their economic or political system. As a result, this list is best understood as a list of countries that explicitly claim to be Socialist and it does not reflect the actual economic systems themselves.

The majority of self-declared Socialist countries have been Marxist–Leninist states, following the model of the Soviet Union or a variant of people's democracy. They share a common definition of "socialism" and they refer to themselves as Socialist states on the road to communism with a leading vanguard party structure. For this reason, they are generally, called "Communist states" albeit erroneously. Meanwhile, the countries in the non-Marxist–Leninist category represent a wide variety of different interpretations of the word "socialism". In many cases, they do not define what they mean by it. Modern uses of the term "socialism" are wide in meaning and interpretation.

A sovereign state is a different entity from the political party that rules that state at any given time, thus a country may be ruled by a Socialist Party, but without the country itself claiming to be socialist. This has occurred in both one-party and multi-party political systems. In particular, there are numerous cases of social democratic and democratic socialist political parties winning elections in liberal democratic states and ruling for a number of terms until a different party wins the elections. For example, the Swedish Social Democratic Party has won most elections in Sweden since 1932, but the country never adopted socialism as its official ideology. This article does not list countries that do not have constitutional references to socialism, even in cases where Socialist Parties have governed those countries for a certain period of time.

On the other hand, countries that do maintain constitutional references to socialism are always listed, even when those countries are ruled by non-Socialist Parties. For example, India is a liberal democracy that has been ruled by non-Socialist Parties on many occasions, but it is listed here because the Indian Constitution makes references to socialism. Certain other countries, such as Hungary,[1] Poland[2] and Croatia,[3] have constitutions that make references to their Communist and Socialist past by recognizing and condemning it, but without claiming to be socialist in the present.

Marxist–Leninist[edit]

Current[edit]

Country Since Duration Party Head of party Head of state Head of government
 People's Republic of China[note 1] 1 October 1949 68 years, 355 days Communist Party of China Xi Jinping
(since 2012)
Li Keqiang
(since 2012)
 Republic of Cuba 1 July 1966 52 years, 82 days Communist Party of Cuba Raúl Castro
(since 2011)
Miguel Díaz-Canel
(since 2018)
 Laos People's Democratic Republic 2 December 1975 42 years, 293 days Lao People's Revolutionary Party Bounnhang Vorachith
(since 2016)
Thongloun Sisoulith
(since 2016)
 Socialist Republic of Vietnam 2 July 1976 42 years, 81 days Communist Party of Vietnam Nguyễn Phú Trọng
(since 2011)
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh
(acting, since 2018)
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
(since 2016)

Former[edit]

Country Full name From Until Duration Constitutional
statement
Afghanistan/ Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 27 April 1978 30 November 1987 9 years, 217 days Preamble: "In the present stage, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, as the initiator and coordinator of the policy of National Reconciliation, actively carries forward together with other political, national and democratic forces this humanitarian policy"[4]
Republic of Afghanistan 30 November 1987 28 April 1992 4 years, 150 days
Total 27 April 1978 28 April 1992 14 years, 1 day
 Albania Democratic Government of Albania 29 November 1944 11 January 1946 1 year, 43 days Section 1, Article 1: "The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a state of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which expresses and defends the interests of all the working people"[5]
People's Republic of Albania 11 January 1946 28 December 1976 30 years, 352 days
People's Socialist Republic of Albania 28 December 1976 22 March 1992 15 years, 85 days
Total 29 November 1944 22 March 1992 47 years, 114 days
 Angola People's Republic of Angola 11 November 1975 27 August 1992 16 years, 290 days Section 1, Article 2: "All sovergenity is vested in the Angolan people. The MPLA, their legitimate representative constituted from a broad front including all patriotic forces engaged in the anti-imperialist struggle, is responsible for the political, economic, and social leadership of the nation"[6]
 Belarus
 Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic 31 July 1920 25 August 1991 70 years, 344 days Section 1, Article 1: "The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic is a socialist state expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia, the working people of all nationalities of the republic"[7]
 Benin People's Republic of Benin 30 November 1975 1 March 1990 14 years, 91 days Legally a socialist state.[citation needed]
 Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria 15 September 1946 7 December 1990 44 years, 83 days Section 1, Article 1: "The People's Republic of Bulgaria is a socialist state of the working people from town and village, headed by the working class"[8]
 Cambodia
 Cambodia
Democratic Kampuchea 17 April 1975 22 June 1982 7 years, 66 days Legally a socialist state from 1979 to 1989, ruled by a communist party from 1975 to 1989, but not internationally recognized by some countries
People's Republic of Kampuchea 10 January 1979 1 May 1989 10 years, 111 days
Total 17 April 1975 1 May 1989 14 years, 14 days
Congo-Brazzaville People's Republic of the Congo 3 January 1970 15 March 1992 22 years, 72 days Presidential oath: "I swear allegiance to the Congolese people, to the Revolution and to the Congolese Labor Party. I shall undertake, while guided by Marxist–Leninist principles, [...] to devote all my strength to the triumph of the proletarian ideals"[9]
 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic 9 June 1948 11 July 1960 12 years, 32 days Section 1, Article 1: "The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic is a socialist state founded on the firm alliance of the workers, farmers and intelligentsia, with the working class as its head"[10]
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 11 July 1960 29 March 1990 29 years, 261 days
Total 9 June 1948 29 March 1990 41 years, 293 days
 Ethiopia Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia 28 June 1974 22 February 1987 12 years, 239 days Country declared Marxist–Leninist in 1974, the Workers' Party of Ethiopia becoming "the formulator of the country's development process and the leading force of the state and in society" in 1987[11]
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 22 February 1987 27 May 1991 4 years, 94 days
Total 28 June 1974 27 May 1991 16 years, 333 days
 East Germany German Democratic Republic 7 October 1949 3 October 1990 40 years, 361 days Section 1, Article 1: "The German Democratic Republic is a socialist state of workers and peasants. It is the political organization of the working people of town and country under the leadership of the working class and its Marxist–Leninist party"[12]
 Hungary Hungarian People's Republic 20 August 1949 23 October 1989 40 years, 64 days Section 1, Article 2: "The Hungarian People's Republic is a socialist state"[13]
 North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 9 September 1948 19 February 1992[14] 43 years, 163 days Section 1, Article 1: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Korean people"[15] (see below)
Mongolia/ Mongolia Mongolian People's Republic 24 November 1924 12 February 1992 67 years, 80 days Section 1, Article 2: "The Mongolian People's Republic is state which exists and is developing in the form of people's democracy"[16]
 Mozambique People's Republic of Mozambique 25 June 1975 1 December 1990 15 years, 159 days Section 1, Article 2: "Power belongs to the workers and peasants united and led by FRELIMO and organs of people's power"[17]
 Poland Polish People's Republic 28 June 1945 30 December 1989 44 years, 185 days Section 1, Article 1: "The Polish People's Republic is a socialist state"[18]
 Romania Romanian People's Republic 30 December 1947 21 August 1965 17 years, 234 days Section 1, Article 3: "The leading force of society in the Socialist Republic of Romania is the Romanian Communist Party"[19]
Socialist Republic of Romania 21 August 1965 30 December 1989 24 years, 131 days
Total 30 December 1947 30 December 1989 42 years, 0 days
 Somalia Somali Democratic Republic 21 October 1969 26 January 1991 21 years, 97 days Section 1, Article 1: "The Somali Democratic Republic is a socialist state led by the working class and is an integral part of the Arab and African entities"[20]
 Russia
 Russian SFSR/ Soviet Union
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 9 November 1917 30 December 1922 5 years, 51 days Section 1, Article 1, Chapter 2: "Bearing in mind as its fundamental problem the abolition of the exploitation of men by men, the entire abolition of the division of the people into classes, the suppression of exploiters, the establishment of a socialist society, and the victory of socialism in all lands"[21][22]

Section 1, Article 1: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country"[23]

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 30 December 1922 26 December 1991 68 years, 361 days
Total 9 November 1917 26 December 1991 74 years, 47 days
 Ukraine
 Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 10 March 1919 24 August 1991 72 years, 167 days Section 1, Article 1: "The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic is the whole people state that expresses the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intellectuals, workers of the republic of all nationalities"[24]
 North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam 2 September 1945 2 July 1976 30 years, 304 days Section 2, Article 9: "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam is advancing step by step from people's democracy to socialism by developing and transforming the national economy along socialist lines, transforming its backward economy into a socialist economy with modern industry and agriculture and an advanced science and technology"[25]
 South Yemen People's Republic of South Yemen 30 November 1967 1 December 1970 3 years, 1 day Section 1, Article 3: "The Yemeni Socialist Party, armed with the Scientific Socialism theory, is the leader and guide of society and state"[26]
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen 1 December 1970 22 May 1990 19 years, 172 days
Total 30 November 1967 22 May 1990 22 years, 173 days
 Yugoslavia Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 29 November 1943 29 November 1945 2 years, 0 days Section 1, Article 2: "The socialist system in Yugoslavia is based on relations between people acting as free and equal producers and creators, whose work serves exclusively to satisfy their personal and common needs"[27]
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 29 November 1945 7 April 1963 17 years, 129 days
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 7 April 1963 27 April 1992 29 years, 20 days
Total 29 November 1943 27 April 1992 48 years, 150 days

Non-Marxist–Leninist[edit]

Current countries with constitutional references to socialism[edit]

Country Since Duration Form of government Constitutional
statement
 People's Republic of Bangladesh 11 April 1971 47 years, 163 days Multi-party system Preamble: "Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process, a socialist society free from exploitation, a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedoms, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens"[28]
 Co-operative Republic of Guyana 6 October 1980 37 years, 350 days Multi-party system Preamble: "Convinced that the organisation of the State and society on socialist principles is the only means of ensuring social and economic justice for all of the people of Guyana; and, therefore, being motivated and guided by the principles of socialism"[29]
 Republic of India 18 December 1976[30] 41 years, 277 days Multi-party system Preamble: "We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens"[31]
 North Korea 19 February 1992 70 years, 12 days total;

26 years, 214 days since revision

De facto one-party state with semi hereditary leadership Preamble: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the socialist motherland of Juche, which has applied the idea and leadership of Kim Il-sung"[32]
   Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal 20 September 2015 3 years, 1 day Multi-party system Section 1, Article 4: "Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state"
 Portuguese Republic 2 April 1976 42 years, 172 days Multi-party system Preamble: "The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people's decision to [...] open up a path towards a socialist society"[33]
 Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 7 September 1978 40 years, 14 days Multi-party system Preamble: "[...] to constitute Sri Lanka into a democratic socialist republic whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of representative democracy, and assuring to all peoples freedom, equality, justice, fundamental human rights and the independence of the judiciary"[34]
 United Republic of Tanzania 26 April 1964 54 years, 148 days Multi-party system Section 1, Article 3: "The United Republic is a democratic, secular and socialist state which adheres to multi-party democracy"[35]

Former[edit]

Country Full name From Until Duration Constitutional
statement
 Algeria People's Democratic Republic of Algeria 8 September 1969 23 February 1989 26 years, 76 days Preamble: "The democratic and popular Algerian Republic will direct its activities toward the construction of the country in accordance with the principles of socialism"[36]
 Burma Union of Burma 2 March 1962 3 January 1974 11 years, 307 days Chapter XVI General Provisions: "In order to overcome this deterioration and to build Socialism, the Revolutionary Council of the Union of Burma assumed responsibility as a historical mission, adopted the Burmese Way to Socialism and also formed the Burma Socialist Programme Party"[37]
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma 3 January 1974 18 September 1988 14 years, 259 days
Total 2 March 1962 18 September 1988 26 years, 200 days
 Cape Verde Republic of Cape Verde 5 July 1975 22 September 1992 17 years, 79 days Chapter 1, Article 1: Cape Verde is a sovereign, democratic, laic, unitary, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist state [38]
 Egypt Republic of Egypt 18 June 1953 22 February 1958 4 years, 249 days Preamble: "The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic, socialist state based on the alliance of the working forces of the people"[39]
United Arab Republic 22 February 1958 28 September 1961 3 years, 218 days
Arab Republic of Egypt 28 September 1961 26 March 2007 45 years, 179 days
Total 18 June 1953 26 March 2007 53 years, 281 days
 Grenada People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada 13 March 1979 25 October 1983 4 years, 226 days [citation needed]
 Iraq Iraqi Republic (Ba'athist) 17 July 1968 9 April 2003 34 years, 266 days Chapter 1, Article 1: "Its [the country's] basic objective is the realization of one Arab State and the build-up of the socialist system"[40]
 Libya Libyan Arab Republic 1 September 1969 2 March 1977 7 years, 182 days Section 1, Article 6: "The aim of the state is the realization of socialism through the application of social justice which forbids any form of exploitation"[41]
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2 March 1977 15 April 1986 9 years, 44 days
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 15 April 1986 23 October 2011 25 years, 191 days
Total 1 September 1969 23 October 2011 42 years, 52 days
 Madagascar Democratic Republic of Madagascar 30 December 1975 12 September 1992 16 years, 257 days Malagasy constitutional referendum, 1975
 Seychelles Republic of Seychelles 5 June 1977 27 December 1991 14 years, 205 days Preamble: "Seychelles is declared to be a sovereign socialist republic"[42]
 Sudan Democratic Republic of the Sudan 25 May 1969 10 October 1985 16 years, 138 days Preamble: "In the belief of our pursuit of freedom, socialism and democracy to achieve the society of sufficiency, justice and equality"[43]
 Syria Syrian Arab Republic 8 March 1963 27 February 2012 48 years, 356 days Section 1, Article 8: "The leading party in the society and the state is the Socialist Arab Ba'ath Party. It leads a patriotic and progressive front seeking to unify the resources of the people's masses and place them at the service of the Arab nation's goals"[44]

Multi-party states with governing Socialist Parties[edit]

Country Party Electoral Coalition Election Lower house Upper house Official ideology
 Angola People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola 2017 election
150 / 220
Democratic socialism
 Barbados Barbados Labour Party 2018 election
30 / 30
11 / 21
Democratic socialism
 Bolivia Movement for Socialism 2014 election
84 / 130
25 / 36
Socialism of the 21st century[45][46][47]
 Congo Congolese Party of Labour 2017 election
90 / 151
Democratic socialism
 Ecuador PAIS Alliance United Front (es; zh) 2017 election
74 / 137
Socialism of the 21st century
 El Salvador Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 2018 election
31 / 84
Socialism
 Ethiopia Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front 2015 election
500 / 547
Socialism
 Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde 2014 election
57 / 102
Democratic socialism
 Greece Syriza 2015 election
145 / 300
Socialism[48]
 Mauritius Militant Socialist Movement 2014 election
42 / 69
Democratic Socialism
Muvman Liberater Democratic Socialism
Rodrigues People's Organisation Democratic Socialism
 Mozambique Mozambique Liberation Front 2014 election
144 / 250
Democratic Socialism
 Namibia South West African People's Organisation 2014 election
77 / 96
Socialism
   Nepal Nepal Communist Party 2017 election
190 / 275
44 / 59
People's Multiparty Democracy
Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal Democratic Socialism
 Nicaragua Sandinista National Liberation Front 2016 election
71 / 92
Sandinismo[49]
 People's Republic of Bangladesh Bangladesh Awami League Grand Alliance 2014 election
293 / 350
Socialism
Workers Party of Bangladesh Marxism–Leninism
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal Socialism
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Unity Labour Party 2015 election
8 / 15
Democratic Socialism
 Suriname National Democratic Party 2015 election
26 / 51
Democratic Socialism
 Tanzania Party of the Revolution 2015 election
276 / 384
Democratic Socialism
 Uruguay Communist Party of Uruguay Broad Front 2014 election
50 / 99
15 / 30
Marxism–Leninism
Movement of Popular Participation Socialism of the 21st century
 Venezuela United Socialist Party of Venezuela Great Patriotic Pole 2015 election
55 / 167
545 / 545

(Constituent Assembly)
Socialism of the 21st century[50]
Communist Party of Venezuela Marxism–Leninism
Republican Bicentennial Vanguard Chavism
 Zambia Patriotic Front 2016 election
89 / 156
Democratic Socialism

Unrecognized[edit]

These are territories which have claimed independence, declared themselves "socialist" under some interpretation of the term and created stable institutions of governance that have lasted for a considerable period of time, but which are not recognized as independent states by the international community. According to international law, these territories belong to other states.

Ephemeral[edit]

These are short-lived political entities that emerged during wars or revolutions (mostly in the aftermath of World War I) and declared themselves "socialist" under some interpretation of the term, but which did not survive long enough to create a stable government or achieve international recognition.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Not including Hong Kong and Macau, under official policy. See "One Country, Two Systems".
  1. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. "ICL – Hungary Index". www.servat.unibe.ch. 
  2. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. "ICL – Poland Index". www.servat.unibe.ch. 
  3. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. "ICL – Croatia Index". servat.unibe.ch. 
  4. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Afghanistan (30 November 1987)
  5. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (28 December 1976)
  6. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Angola (1976)
  7. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (14 April 1978)
  8. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (18 May 1976)
  9. ^ Presidential Oath Maarseveen written constitutions by H.Van Maarseveen and G.Van Der Tanq (Nov 21, 1978)
  10. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (11 July 1960)
  11. ^ "{title}". Archived from the original on 2004-10-29. Retrieved 2004-10-29. 
  12. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the German Democratic Republic (7 October 1974)
  13. ^ Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Hungarian People's Republic (20 August 1949)
  14. ^ In 1992, all references to Marxism–Leninism in the DPRK constitution were dropped and replaced with Juche. [1]
  15. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (27 December 1974)
  16. ^ Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Mongolian People's Republic (6 July 1960)
  17. ^ "The African Communist". South African Communist Party. 16 February 1974 – via Google Books. 
  18. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland (22 July 1952)
  19. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Romania (21 August 1965)
  20. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Somali Democratic Republic (25 August 1979)
  21. ^ Article I (R.S.F.R.S. Constitution)
  22. ^ 1936 Constitution of the USSR, Part I
  23. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (7 October 1977)
  24. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (20 April 1978)[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ Article 9, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (9 November 1946)
  26. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (31 October 1978)
  27. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (7 April 1963)
  28. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (4 November 1972)
  29. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana (20 February 1980)
  30. ^ "THE CONSTITUTION (AMENDMENT)". indiacode.nic.in. Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  31. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of India (26 November 1949)
  32. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (9 September 1948)
  33. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (25 April 1976)
  34. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (7 September 1978)
  35. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978)
  36. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (28 August 1963)
  37. ^ Article XVI, Section General Provisions of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (2 March 1974)
  38. ^ Template:Cape Verde is a sovereign, democratic, laic, unitary, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist state.
  39. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Egypt (22 July 1957)
  40. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Iraq (21 September 1968)
  41. ^ Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (11 December 1969)
  42. ^ "The 1979 constitution for Seychelles". Commonwealth Law Bulletin. 5: 1329–1332. doi:10.1080/03050718.1979.9985562. 
  43. ^ Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan (13 March 1973)
  44. ^ Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (12 April 1973)
  45. ^ Ediciones El País. "Evo Morales insta a "erradicar el capitalismo" para salvar el planeta". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  46. ^ "Evo Morales: Ten commandments against capitalism, for life and humanity". Climate & Capitalism. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  47. ^ "Evo Morales: "Capitalism is the worst enemy of humanity"". Climate & Capitalism. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  48. ^ "SYRIZA – GUE/NGL". European United Left–Nordic Green Left. Retrieved 5 June 2018. 
  49. ^ "Central America and Caribbean: Nicaragua – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  50. ^ "Communist Party of Venezuela" [PCV – Partido Comunista de Venezuela]. Communist Party of Venezuela. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  51. ^ cahoon, ben. "German States since 1918". worldstatesmen.org. 

External links[edit]