List of solar eclipses in the Middle Ages

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This is a list of selected solar eclipses in the Middle Ages, in particular those with historical significance.

Historically significant solar eclipses[edit]

Date of
eclipse
Time (UTC) Type Central Duration Eclipse Path Notes
Start Mid End
January 27, 632 - 06:38 - annular 01m40s Arabian Peninsula, India, China Occurred at the time of the death of Ibrahim, a 21-month-old son of Muhammad[1]
November 30, 810 - 12:02 - total 01m08s Sweden Believed to be one of multiple signs leading to an inscription on the Rök runestone which speculated a climate crisis of extreme winter.[2]
July 19, 939 - - - total 03m28s Southern Eurasia The eclipse began in the Atlantic, crossed the Iberian Peninsula from Cape San Vicente to Cape Rosas to enter Principality of Hungary, Sea of Azov, Greater Khorasan and North Indian, ending in Nusantara. The chronicle of the eclipse is not because of the eclipse itself, but because of the surprise it provokes in the two opposing sides in the Battle of Simancas
August 2, 1133 - 12:08 - total 04m38s Canada, Greenland, Scotland, Netherlands, Germany, Byzantium, Israel Also referred to as King Henry's Eclipse. Believed to be a bad omen for several political events and disasters. Mentioned in the Peterborough Chronicle, the Annales Halesbrunnenses[3] and the Codex diplomaticus Falkensteinensis.[4]
May 1, 1185 - 13:18 - total 05m10s Central America, Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Kazakhstan Mentioned in the epic poem about Igor Svyatoslavich's army campaign against the Polovtsians.[5] Also recorded in the Laurentian Codex; the description there is the first record of solar prominences.[6]
April 21, 1186 - 05:32 - partial Bulgaria, Hungary This eclipse allowed the Byzantines, led by Isaac II Angelos, to make a counteroffensive against rebels attacking Thrace.[7]

Statistics[edit]

Longest total eclipses[edit]

Below is a list of all total eclipses longer than 7 minutes that occurred between the 5th and 15th centuries.

Date of eclipse Central Duration Reference
23 May 681 07m10s [8]
3 June 699 07m17s [8]
13 June 717 07m15s [9]
25 June 735 07m02s [9]
29 May 1044 07m12s [10]
9 June 1062 07m20s [10]
20 June 1080 07m18s [10]
1 July 1098 07m05s [10]


Solar eclipses by century[edit]

Century No. Eclipse type Longest eclipse[a] Two-eclipse months[b] Ref.
Partial (P) Annular (A) Total (T) Hybrid (H) Length Date
5th 233 80 84 67 2 10m43s 12 November 486 August 463 [11]
6th 251 93 87 65 6 10m41s 22 November 504 August 528, July 539, May 542 [12]
7th 251 90 90 67 4 10m31s 17 December 689 April 618, March 629 [8]
8th 233 77 88 66 2 10m35s 18 December 716 [9]
9th 222 78 74 64 6 08m35s 21 December 884 August 463 [13]
10th 227 76 84 66 1 10m14s 1 November 989 [14]
11th 241 84 90 61 6 11m29s 14 December 1061 May 1063 [10]
12th 250 92 82 61 15 10m27s 16 January 1116 March 1150 [15]
13th 246 87 81 60 18 11m44s 29 December 1274 March 1215 [16]
14th 229 76 75 54 24 11m18s 20 January 1311 August 463 [17]
15th 222 77 65 61 19 09m31s 1 December 1415 [18]
  1. ^ All eclipses listed are annular. See § Longest total eclipses above for longest total eclipses
  2. ^ Months listed in this column had two eclipses occur during that time period

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eclipse Wise
  2. ^ Holmberg, Per; Gräslund, Bo; Sundqvist, Olof; Williams, Henrik (2020). "The Rök Runestone and the End of the World" (PDF). Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies. 9–10: 7–38. doi:10.33063/diva-401040.
  3. ^ Stephenson, F.R. (1969). "The Date of the Book of Joel". Vetus Testamentum. 19 (2): 224–229. doi:10.2307/1516413. JSTOR 1516413.
  4. ^ "The Codex Falkensteinensis (BayHStA KL Weyarn 1)". www.bayerische-landesbibliothek-online.de. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  5. ^ Sviatoslav Hordynsky; Marko Robert Stech (2004). "Slovo o polku Ihorevi". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  6. ^ "1185: The first description of solar prominences" (PDF). History of Solar Physics: A Time Line of Great Moments. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  7. ^ * Stephenson, Paul (2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204. Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN 9780521027564.
  8. ^ a b c "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 0601 to 0700". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 0701 to 0800". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 1001 to 1100". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  11. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 0401 to 0500". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  12. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 0501 to 0600". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  13. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 0801 to 0900". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  14. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 0901 to 1000". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  15. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 1101 to 1200". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  16. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 1201 to 1300". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  17. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 1301 to 1400". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  18. ^ "Catalog of Solar Eclipses: 1401 to 1500". NASA. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.