List of sovereign debt crises

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The list of sovereign debt crises involves the inability of independent countries to meet its liabilities as they become due. These include:

Debts could be owed either to private parties within a country, to foreign investors, or to other countries.

Table[edit]

The following table includes actual sovereign defaults and debt restructuring of independent countries since 1800.[1] It is sortable by location or date.

Area Country Date Type, causes, consequences, and references
Europe  France 1812 State spending during the Napoleonic Wars was extremely high due in large manner to the high level of military expenditures.
Europe  Sweden 1812 Military expenditures as a consequence of the Napoleonic Wars.
Europe  Denmark 1813 The Danish state bankruptcy of 1813.[2]
Europe  Netherlands 1814 Instability resulting from the rule of Napoleon I in France
Africa Egypt 1876 The crisis will cause the ‘Urabi Revolt and the subsequent British invasion of Egypt.
Europe Weimar Republic Germany 1932-07-09 Under the Versailles Treaty ending the First World War, Germany was forced to make war reparations. The Young Plan of 1929 was meant to settle the structure, but after the Wall Street Crash, repayments were becoming impossible. In the Lausanne Conference of 1932, the UK and France agreed to a suspension of payments. The US Congress rejected it, but payments were never continued.
Europe  Romania 1933 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1982-08 Finance Minister, Jesus Silva-Herzog, declared that it was unable to meet its debt repayment obligations as world interest rates had sharply increased since 1979. This signalled the start of a widespread Latin American debt crisis.
Europe  Yugoslavia 1983 [citation needed]
Asia  Thailand 1997-07 1997 Asian financial crisis.
Europe  Russia 1998-08-17 After world commodity prices dropped on major Russian exports (particularly metals and oil) the 1998 Russian financial crisis ensued. Mounting debts led to the government declaring a moratorium on payments to international creditors.
Europe  Greece 2015-06-30 Due to the Greek government-debt crisis, Greece failed to make a €1.6bn payment to the IMF.
Asia  Republic of China (1912–49) 1921 [citation needed]
Asia  Republic of China (1912–49) 1932 [2]
Asia  Republic of China (1912–49) 1939 [citation needed]
Asia  Japan 1942 [citation needed]
Asia  Japan 1946–1952 [2]
Asia  India 1958 [citation needed]
Asia  India 1969 [citation needed]
Asia  India 1972 [3]
Asia  Indonesia 1966 [citation needed]
Asia  Iran 1992 [citation needed]
Asia  Iraq 1990 [citation needed]
Asia  Jordan 1989 [citation needed]
Asia  Kuwait 1990–1991 [2]
Asia  Myanmar 1984 [2]
Asia  Myanmar 1987 [2]
Asia  Myanmar 2002 [citation needed]
Asia  Mongolia 1997–2000 [2]
Asia  The Philippines 1983 [citation needed]
Asia  Solomon Islands 1995–2004 [2]
Asia  Sri Lanka 1980 [citation needed]
Asia  Sri Lanka 1982 [citation needed]
Asia  Sri Lanka 1996 [2]
Asia  Turkey 1876 [citation needed]
Asia  Turkey 1915 [citation needed]
Asia  Turkey 1931 [citation needed]
Asia  Turkey 1940 [citation needed]
Asia  Turkey 1978 [citation needed]
Asia  Turkey 1982 [citation needed]
Asia  Vietnam 1975 [2]
Europe  Albania 1990 [citation needed]
Europe  Archduchy of Austria 1796 [citation needed]
Europe  Archduchy of Austria 1802 [citation needed]
Europe  Austrian Empire 1805 [citation needed]
Europe  Austrian Empire 1811 [citation needed]
Europe  Austrian Empire 1816 [citation needed]
Europe  Austria-Hungary 1868 [citation needed]
Europe  Austria 1938 [citation needed]
Europe  Austria 1940 [citation needed]
Europe  Austria 1945 [2]
Europe  Bulgaria 1932 [citation needed]
Europe  Bulgaria 1990 [citation needed]
Europe  Croatia 1993–1996 [2]
Europe  Germany 1939 [citation needed]
Europe  Germany 1948 See London Agreement on German External Debts[2]
Europe Germany -  Hesse 1814 [citation needed]
Europe Germany -  Prussia 1807 [citation needed]
Europe Germany -  Prussia 1813 [citation needed]
Europe Germany -  Schleswig-Holstein 1850 [citation needed]
Europe Germany -  Westphalia 1812 [citation needed]
Europe  Greece 1826 [citation needed]
Europe  Greece 1843 [citation needed]
Europe  Greece 1860 [citation needed]
Europe  Greece 1893 [citation needed]
Europe  Greece 1932 [citation needed]
Europe  Greece 2012 [4]
Europe  Hungary 1932 [citation needed]
Europe  Hungary 1941 [citation needed]
Europe  Poland 1936 [citation needed]
Europe  Poland 1981 [citation needed]
Europe  Portugal 1828 [citation needed]
Europe  Portugal 1837 [citation needed]
Europe  Portugal 1841 [citation needed]
Europe  Portugal 1845 [citation needed]
Europe  Portugal 1852 [citation needed]
Europe  Portugal 1890 [citation needed]
Europe  Russia 1839 [citation needed]
Europe  Russia 1885 [citation needed]
Europe  Russia 1918 [citation needed]
Europe  Russia 1947 [2]
Europe  Russia 1957 [2]
Europe  Russia 1991 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1557 [5]
Europe  Spain 1575 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1596 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1607 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1627 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1647 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1652 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1662 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1666 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1809 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1820 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1831 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1834 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1851 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1867 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1872 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1882 [citation needed]
Europe  Spain 1936–1939 [2]
Europe  Sweden 1812 [citation needed]
Europe  Ukraine 1998–2000 [2]
Europe  Ukraine 2016 [6]
Europe  United Kingdom 1822 [citation needed]
Europe  United Kingdom 1834 [citation needed]
Europe  United Kingdom 1888–89 [citation needed]
Europe  United Kingdom 1932 See War bond § United Kingdom[7][2]
Europe  Yugoslavia 1983 Did not default directly; default was split between the nations once part of Yugoslavia[citation needed]
Africa  Algeria 1991 [citation needed]
Africa  Angola 1976 [2]
Africa  Angola 1985
Africa  Angola 1992–2002 [2]
Africa  Cameroon 2004 [2]
Africa  Central African Republic 1981 [citation needed]
Africa  Central African Republic 1983 [citation needed]
Africa  Congo (Kinshasa) 1979 [2]
Africa  Côte d'Ivoire 1983 [citation needed]
Africa  Côte d'Ivoire 2000 [citation needed]
Africa  Côte d'Ivoire 2011 [citation needed]
Africa  Gabon 1999–2005 [2]
Africa  Ghana 1979 [citation needed]
Africa  Ghana 1982 [2]
Africa  Liberia 1989–2006 [2]
Africa  Madagascar 2002 [2]
Africa  Mozambique 1980 [2]
Africa  Rwanda 1995 [2]
Africa  Sierra Leone 1997–1998 [2]
Africa  Sudan 1991 [2]
Africa  Tunisia Tunisia 1867 [citation needed]
Africa  Tunisia Tunisia 1986 [8]
Africa  Egypt 1984 [citation needed]
Africa  Kenya 1994 [citation needed]
Africa  Kenya 2000 [citation needed]
Africa  Morocco 1983 [citation needed]
Africa  Morocco 1994 [citation needed]
Africa  Morocco 2000 [citation needed]
Africa  Nigeria 1982 [citation needed]
Africa  Nigeria 1986 [citation needed]
Africa  Nigeria 1992 [citation needed]
Africa  Nigeria 2001 [citation needed]
Africa  Nigeria 2004 [citation needed]
Africa  South Africa 1985 [citation needed]
Africa  South Africa 1989 [citation needed]
Africa  South Africa 1993 [citation needed]
Africa  Zambia 1983 [citation needed]
Africa  Zimbabwe 1965 [citation needed]
Africa  Zimbabwe 2000 [citation needed]
Africa  Zimbabwe 2006 See Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe[2]
Americas  Antigua and Barbuda 1998–2005 [2]
Americas  Argentina 1827 Default.[9]
Americas  Argentina 1890 Default. Panic of 1890[9]
Americas  Argentina 1915 Provincial default.[9]
Americas  Argentina 1930 Provincial default.[9]
Americas  Argentina 1982 Default. Latin American debt crisis[9]
Americas  Argentina 1988–1989 Internal debt default. Latin American debt crisis[9]
Americas  Argentina 2001 Default. Following years of instability, the Argentine economic crisis (1999–2002) came to a head, and a new government announced it could not meet its public debt obligations.[9]
Americas  Argentina 2005–2016 Argentine debt restructuring.
Americas  Argentina 2014 [10][11]
Americas  Barbados 2018 Default on its Eurobonds after the uncovering its high sovereign debt in terms of debt-to-GDP ratio.[12]
Americas  Bolivia 1875 [citation needed]
Americas  Bolivia 1927 [2]
Americas  Bolivia 1931 [citation needed]
Americas  Bolivia 1980 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Bolivia 1986 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Bolivia 1989 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1898 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1902 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1914 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1931 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1937 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1961 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1964 [citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1983 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Brazil 1986–1987 [2]
Americas  Brazil 1990 [2]
Americas Canada -  Alberta 1935 [2]
Americas  Chile 1826 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1880 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1931 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1961 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1963 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1966 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1972 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1974 [citation needed]
Americas  Chile 1983 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1826 [citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1850 [citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1873 [citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1880 [citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1900 [citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1932 [citation needed]
Americas  Colombia 1935 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1828 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1874 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1895 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1901 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1932 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1962 [citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1981 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1983 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Costa Rica 1984 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Dominica 2003–2005 [2]
Americas  Dominican Republic 1872 [citation needed]
Americas  Dominican Republic 1892 [citation needed]
Americas  Dominican Republic 1897 [citation needed]
Americas  Dominican Republic 1899 [citation needed]
Americas  Dominican Republic 1931 [citation needed]
Americas  Dominican Republic 1975-2001 Latin American debt crisis[2]
Americas  Dominican Republic 2005 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1826 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1868 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1894 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1906 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1909 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1914 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1929 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1982 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 1984 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 2000 [citation needed]
Americas  Ecuador 2008 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1828 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1876 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1894 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1899 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1921 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1932 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1938 [citation needed]
Americas  El Salvador 1981–1996 [2]
Americas  Grenada 2004–2005 [2]
Americas  Guatemala 1933 [citation needed]
Americas  Guatemala 1986 [citation needed]
Americas  Guatemala 1989 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Guyana 1982 [citation needed]
Americas  Honduras 1828 [citation needed]
Americas  Honduras 1873 [citation needed]
Americas  Honduras 1981 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Jamaica 1978 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1827 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1833 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1844 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1850 [2]
Americas  Mexico 1866 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1898 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1914 [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1928–1930s [citation needed]
Americas  Mexico 1982 Latin American debt crisis
Americas  Nicaragua 1828 [citation needed]
Americas  Nicaragua 1894 [citation needed]
Americas  Nicaragua 1911 [citation needed]
Americas  Nicaragua 1915 [citation needed]
Americas  Nicaragua 1932 [citation needed]
Americas  Nicaragua 1979 [citation needed]
Americas  Panama 1932 [citation needed]
Americas  Panama 1983 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Panama 1987 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Panama 1988–1989 [2]
Americas  Paraguay 1874 [citation needed]
Americas  Paraguay 1892 [citation needed]
Americas  Paraguay 1920 [citation needed]
Americas  Paraguay 1932 [citation needed]
Americas  Paraguay 1986 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Paraguay 2003 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1826 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1850 [2]
Americas  Peru 1876 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1931 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1969 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1976 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1978 [citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1980 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Peru 1984 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Surinam 2001–2002 [2]
Americas  Trinidad and Tobago 1989 [citation needed]
Americas  United States 1779 Devaluation of Continental Dollar[citation needed]
Americas  United States 1790 [citation needed]
Americas  United States 1798 See Quasi-War
Americas  United States 1862 [13]
Americas  United States 1933 See Executive Order 6102[2]
Americas  United States 1971 Nixon Shock[citation needed]
Americas United States - 9 states 1841–1842 [2]
Americas United States - 10 states and many local governments 1873–83 or 1884 [2]
Americas  Uruguay 1876 [citation needed]
Americas  Uruguay 1891 [citation needed]
Americas  Uruguay 1915 [citation needed]
Americas  Uruguay 1933 [citation needed]
Americas  Uruguay 1937 [2]
Americas  Uruguay 1983 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Uruguay 1987 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Uruguay 1990 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1826 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1848 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1860 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1865 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1892 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1898 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1982 Latin American debt crisis[citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1990 [citation needed]
Americas  Venezuela 1995–1997 [2]
Americas  Venezuela 1998 [2]
Americas  Venezuela 2004 [citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reinhart, Carmen M.; Rogoff, Kenneth S. (2009). This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton University Press. pp. 23, 87, 91, 95, 96. ISBN 978-0-691-14216-6. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax Reinhart, Carmen M.; Rogoff, Kenneth S. (2011). "The Forgotten History of Domestic Debt". Economic Journal. 121 (552): 319–350 [pp. 343ff]. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2011.02426.x. JSTOR 41236982. 
  3. ^ The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Economy. p. 627 – via Google Books. 
  4. ^ Zettelmeyer, Jeromin; Trebesch, Christoph; Gulati, Mitu (July 2013). The Greek Debt Restructuring - An Autopsy. 
  5. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/3-centuries-of-booms-and-busts-in-spain-2016-1
  6. ^ "Украина к исходу 31 декабря не заплатила Москве 3 миллиарда долларов для погашения и обслуживания долга". Echo of Moscow. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  7. ^ https://www.bondvigilantes.com/blog/2010/02/02/what-happened-the-last-time-the-uk-defaulted/
  8. ^ MZ Bechri. "The Political Economy of Development Policy in Tunisia" (PDF). The University of Tunisia. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Boggiano, Miguel Ángel. "Historia del Default en Argentina". Carta Financiera. 
  10. ^ Russo, Camila (2014-07-31). "Argentina Declared in Default by S&P as Talks Fail". Bloomberg. 
  11. ^ D&Apos, Andres (2014-07-31). "Argentina defaults on international debt, blames U.S". Los Angeles Times. 
  12. ^ "Barbados announced a technical default on coupon of Eurobonds with maturity in 2035". www.cbonds.com. Retrieved 2018-06-10. 
  13. ^ A Short History of US Credit Defaults, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 15 July 2011

Further reading[edit]