List of sovereign states: Difference between revisions

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|valign=top|'''{{flag|Pakistan}}''' – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
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|valign=top|'''{{flag|Pakistan}}''' – The FAILING Islamic Republic of Pakistan
 
*''[[Urdu]]'': پاکستان – اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان {{rom|Pākistān – Islami Jomhuri-ye Pākistān}}
 
*''[[Urdu]]'': پاکستان – اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان {{rom|Pākistān – Islami Jomhuri-ye Pākistān}}
 
*''[[English language|English]]'': Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
 
*''[[English language|English]]'': Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Revision as of 19:07, 25 June 2009

This is a list of sovereign states, containing 203 entries, giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It is arranged alphabetically. It includes both states widely recognized to be de jure sovereign and states that claim de jure sovereignty and exercise de facto control over some territory, but which are not generally recognised.

Contents: Sovereign states: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
Other states
Criteria for inclusion
See also
References
Footnotes

The status of some entries on this list is disputed. For information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, see the section "criteria for inclusion" below.

Internationally recognized sovereign states

Name in English and the official languages of the state[1] Information on status and recognition of sovereignty[2]

A


Abkhazia → Other states

 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Albania – Republic of Albania
  • Albanian: Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Arabic: الجزائر – الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Andorra – Principality of Andorra
  • Catalan: Andorra – Principat d’Andorra
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Angola – Republic of Angola Widely recognized member of the UN. A separatist government in exile claims independence for Cabinda[3]

 Antigua and Barbuda Widely recognized member of the UN. Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[4] and has a division (dependency), Barbuda, with an autonomous status.[5]

 Argentina – Argentine Republic[6]
  • Spanish: Argentina – República Argentina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Argentina is a federation[7] divided in provinces and one federal district. Argentina also claims sovereignty over the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands[8]

 Armenia – Republic of Armenia Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
  • English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Australia is a Commonwealth realm[4] and a federation[7] of states and territories. Australia has sovereignty over:

Australia claims sovereignty over parts of Antarctica as:


 Austria – Republic of Austria
  • German: Österreich – Republik Österreich
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Austria is a federation[7] divided into federal-states (Bundesländer).

 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Azeri: Azərbaycan – Azərbaycan Respublikası
Widely recognized member of the UN. Azerbaijan has one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan, and the autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ,).[5] In Nagorno Karabakh a de facto country in the de jure territory of Azerbaijan has been established.

B


 The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Barbados Widely recognized member of the UN. Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Belarus – Republic of Belarus Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
  • Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
  • French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
  • German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Belgium is a federation[7] divided in linguistic communities and regions.

 Belize Widely recognized member of the UN. Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Benin – Republic of Benin[10]
  • French: Bénin – République du Bénin
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Spanish: Bolivia – Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
  • Quechua: Bulibiya – Bulibiya Mama Llaqta
  • Aymara: Wuliwya – Wuliwya Suyu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Widely recognized member of the UN. As a result of the Dayton Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into two constituent entities, the  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the  Republika Srpska.[11]

 Botswana – Republic of Botswana
  • Tswana: Botswana – Lefatshe la Botswana
  • English: Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
  • Portuguese: Brasil – República Federativa do Brasil
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brazil is a federation[7] divided in states and one federal district.

 Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace Widely recognized member of the UN. Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[12]

 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Burkina Faso[13] Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Burma – Union of Myanmar Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Burundi – Republic of Burundi
  • Kirundi: Uburundi – Republika y'Uburundi
  • French: Burundi – République du Burundi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

C


 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
  • French: Cameroun – République du Cameroun
  • English: Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Canada[15] Widely recognized member of the UN. Canada is a Commonwealth realm[4] and a federation[7] divided into provinces and territories.

 Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
  • Portuguese: Cabo Verde – República de Cabo Verde
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Central African Republic
  • French: République Centrafricaine
  • Sangho: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Chad – Republic of Chad Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
  • Spanish: Chile – República de Chile
Widely recognized member of the UN. Easter Island is a "special territory" of Chile.

 China – People's Republic of China[16] Widely recognized member of the UN.[17] Commonly known as China, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[5]

Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of

  •  Hong Kong (special administrative region of Hong Kong)[18]
  •  Macao (special administrative region of Macao)[19]

It also claims:

Aksai Chin, controlled by the PRC, is claimed by India as a part of Jammu and Kashmir.[22] Tibet and East Turkestan (Xinjiang) have separatist governments in exile.[3]


China, Republic of → Taiwan → Other states

 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
  • Spanish: Colombia – República de Colombia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Colombia is an independent republic with 31 departments (including Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina) and one capital district (Bogotá).


 Comoros – Union of the Comoros Widely recognized member of the UN. The Comoros is a federation with autonomous islands.[5][7] The Comoros dispute the French sovereignty over Mayotte and the Glorioso Islands.[8]

 Congo – Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa)[23]
  • French: Congo – République Démocratique du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Congo – Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville)
  • French: Congo – République du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
  • Spanish: Costa Rica – República de Costa Rica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • French: Côte d'Ivoire – République de Côte d'Ivoire
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Croatia – Republic of Croatia
  • Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
  • Spanish: Cuba – República de Cuba
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay is as the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base under the permanent control (with no claim of sovereignty) of the United States which pays rent under terms of treaties with Cuba.

 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus Widely recognized[24] member of the UN and the EU.[9] See Northern Cyprus for the de facto state in the de jure territory of Cyprus.

 Czech Republic[25]
  • Czech: Česko – Česká republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

D


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
  • Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

The Kingdom of Denmark includes also two autonomous areas. For more information, see Rigsfællesskabet.


 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
  • English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Dominican Republic Widely recognized member of the UN.

E


 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[26]
  • Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
  • Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
  • Spanish: Ecuador – República del Ecuador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt Widely recognized member of the UN.

 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
  • Spanish: El Salvador – República de El Salvador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial – República de Guinea Ecuatorial
  • French:Guinée Équatoriale – République de Guinée Équatoriale
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Eritrea – State of Eritrea Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  • Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክTemplate:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Ethiopia is a federation[7] divided in regions and chartered cities.

F


 Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Fijian: Viti – Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti
  • English: Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Hindustani:[27] फ़िजी / فِجی – फ़िजी गणराज्य / فِجی رپبلک

Template:Rom[28]

Widely recognized member of the UN. Fiji has an autonomous region (dependency), Rotuma.[5]

 Finland – Republic of Finland
  • Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
  • Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[5][29]

 France – French Republic
  • French: France – République française
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] The French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion) are legally part of France and France possesses the uninhabited Clipperton Island. French sovereignty also includes the overseas territories of:

French sovereignty over Bassas da India, Europa Island and Juan de Nova is disputed by Madagascar, over Glorioso Islands by Madagascar, the Seychelles and the Comoros, and over Tromelin by Mauritius and the Seychelles.[8]


G


 Gabon – Gabonese Republic
  • French: Gabon – République Gabonaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
  • English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Georgia Widely recognized member of the UN. Georgia has three divisions with an autonomous status,  Adjara,  Abkhazia and  South Ossetia.[5] Both in Abkhazia and South Ossetia de facto states inside the de jure territory of Georgia have been formed.

 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
  • German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Germany is a federation[7] divided in states (Länder).

 Ghana – Republic of Ghana
  • English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Greece – Hellenic Republic Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Greece has sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that is jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

 Grenada Widely recognized member of the UN. Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish: Guatemala – República de Guatemala
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Guinea – Republic of Guinea
  • French: Guinée – République de Guinée
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
  • Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau – República da Guiné-Bissau
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

H


 Haiti – Republic of Haiti Widely recognized member of the UN. Haiti claims the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa.[8]

Holy See → Vatican City

 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
  • Spanish: Honduras – República de Honduras
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Hungary – Republic of Hungary
  • Hungarian: Magyarország – Magyar Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

I


 Iceland – Republic of Iceland
  • Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 India – Republic of India
  • Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्य Template:Rom
  • English: India – Republic of India
  • Assamese: ভাৰত - ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য Template:Rom
  • Bengali: ভারত - ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র Template:Rom
  • Bhojpuri: भारत - भारत गणराज्य Template:Rom
  • Gujarati: ભારત - ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક Template:Rom
  • Kannada : ಭಾರತ - ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ Template:Rom
  • Kashmiri : ہِندوستان Template:Rom
  • Konkani : भारत - भारत गणराज्य
  • Malayalam : ഭാരതം - ഭാരത ഗണരാജ്യം
  • Meitei Manipuri : ভারত - ভারত গণরাজ্য
  • Marathi : भारत - भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक
  • Nepali : भारत - भारत गणराज्य
  • Oriya : ଭାରତ - ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯ
  • Punjabi : ਭਾਰਤ - ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ
  • Sanskrit : भारतम् - भारत गणराज्यम्
  • Sindhi : भारत गणराज्य, ڀارت، - هندستانڀارت، भारत ڀارت،
  • Tamil : இந்தியா - இந்தியக் குடியரசு
  • Telugu : భారత్ - భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యము
  • Urdu: جمہوریہ بھارت - جمہوریہ بھارت
Widely recognized member of the UN. India is a federation[7] divided in states and union territories. The Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[8] India claims sovereignty over and administers part of Kashmir.[22]

 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia Widely recognized member of the UN. Indonesia has four provinces with special status, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Yogyakarta Special Region, Papua, and Jakarta Special Capital Region.[5] Separatist governments in exile claim independence for the Republic of the South Moluccas, the Republic of West Papua, and the Sultanate of Nangroe Aceh Darusalam[30]

 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran Widely recognized member of the UN. Divided into provinces and counties

 Iraq – Republic of Iraq Widely recognized member of the UN. Iraq's constitution labels the country as a federation[7][31] divided in regions, governorates and the capital district. At present the only region is Iraqi Kurdistan.

 Ireland[32]
  • Irish: Éire - Poblacht na hÉireann
  • English: Ireland - Republic of Ireland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Israel – State of Israel Widely recognized member of the UN.[33] Israel occupies East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally recognized as being part of Israel.[8] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement but is still the occupying power under International law, a status disputed by few.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43] For more information see also Palestinian National Authority.

 Italy – Italian Republic
  • Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Italy has autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[5]

Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire

J


 Jamaica Widely recognized member of the UN. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Japan – State of Japan[44] Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Arabic: الاردن – المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّة Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

K


 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh:Қазақстан Республикасы/Qazaqstan Respwblïkası
  • Russian: Республика Казахстан/Respublika Kazakhstan
  • Ukrainian: Казахстан - Республіка Казахстан
  • German: Kasachstan - Republik Kasachstan
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • English: Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • Swahili: Kenya – Jamhuri ya Kenya
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
  • Gilbertese: Kiribati – Ribaberikin Kiribati
  • English: Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Korea, South – Republic of Korea (South Korea) Widely recognized member of the UN.

Kosovo → Other states

 Kuwait – State of Kuwait Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic Widely recognized member of the UN.

L


 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Lao: ນລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Latvia – Republic of Latvia
  • Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Lebanon – Republic of Lebanon Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • English: Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • Sotho: Lesotho – Mmuso wa Lesotho
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
  • English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Libya – Socialist People's Libyan Arab Great Jamahiriya
  • Arabic : ليبيا – الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
  • German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgian: Lëtzebuerg – Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
  • French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
  • German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

M


 Macedonia[45] – Republic of Macedonia Widely recognized member of the UN, provisionally referred to by many international organisations and some countries as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.

 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
  • Malagasy: Madagasikara – Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
  • French: Madagascar – Republique de Madagascar
Widely recognized member of the UN. Madagascar claims the French possessions of the Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova.[8]

 Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • English: Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • Chewa: Malaŵi – Mfuko la Malaŵi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Malaysia Widely recognized member of the UN. Malaysia is a federation[7] divided in states and federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[12]

 Maldives – Republic of Maldives Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Mali – Republic of Mali
  • French: Mali – République du Mali
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Malta – Republic of Malta
  • Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
  • English: Malta – Republic of Malta
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Marshallese: Aorōkin M̧ajeļ – Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ
  • English: Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claim the United States territory of Wake Island.[8]

 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
  • Arabic : موريتانيا – الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية Template:Rom
  • French: Mauritanie – République Islamique de la Mauritanie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius
  • English: Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[5] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[8]

 Mexico – United Mexican States
  • Spanish: México – Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mexico is a federation[7] divided into states and one federal district.

 Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
  • English: Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. Micronesia is a federation[7] divided into states.

 Moldova – Republic of Moldova Widely recognized member of the UN. Moldova has an autonomous region, Gagauzia.[5] See Transnistria for the de facto state inside the de jure territory of Moldova.

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
  • French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco
  • Monegasque: Múnegu – Principatu de Múnegu
  • Italian: Monaco - Principato di Monaco
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Mongolia Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Montenegro Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco Widely recognized member of the UN. Morocco claims sovereignty over the Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas.[8]

 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
  • Portuguese: Moçambique – República de Moçambique
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Myanmar → Burma

N


Nagorno Karabakh → Other states

 Namibia – Republic of Namibia
  • English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
  • Nauruan: Naoero – Ripublik Naoero
  • English: Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Widely recognized member of the UN.

   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Widely recognized member of the UN.

 The Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Legally the Netherlands refers to the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the latter consisting of one European country:

and the two overseas (associated) countries:


 New Zealand Widely recognized member of the UN. New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[4] and has responsibilities for the two free associated states of:
  •  Cook Islands. The Cook Islands have received some diplomatic recognition[48]
  •  Niue. Niue established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 2007[49], while New Zealand has responsibility for Niue's external affairs.

The dependent territory of:

New Zealand also claims sovereignty over parts of Antarctica as:


 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
  • Spanish: Nicaragua – República de Nicaragua
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Niger – Republic of Niger
  • French: Niger – République du Niger
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • English: Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nigeria is a federation[7] divided in states and one federal district.

Northern Cyprus → Other states

North Korea → Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway Widely recognized member of the UN. Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty. The overseas uninhabited possessions of Bouvet Island and Jan Mayen are integral parts of Norway. The Norwegian claim of Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) as part of Norway is suspended.[51]

O


 Oman – Sultanate of Oman Widely recognized member of the UN.

P


 Pakistan – The FAILING Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Urdu: پاکستان – اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان Template:Rom
  • English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Pakistan is a federation[7] divided in provinces and territories. |colspan=2|
 Palau – Republic of Palau
  • Palauan: Belau – Beluu er a Belau
  • English: Palau – Republic of Palau
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States.

The Palestinian National Authority → Other states

 Panama – Republic of Panama
  • Spanish: Panamá – República de Panamá
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • English: Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini – Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
Widely recognized member of the UN. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[4] and has an autonomous province, Bougainville Province.[5]

 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
  • Spanish: Paraguay – República del Paraguay
  • Guarani: Paraguái – Tetã Paraguái
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Peru – Republic of Peru
  • Spanish: Perú – República del Perú
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Filipino: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
  • English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Spanish: Filipinas - República de Filipinas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Philippines has an autonomous region, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[5] The Philippines claims sovereignty over the Spratly Islands, Scarborough Shoal and Sabah, which is currently administered by Malaysia.[12]

 Poland – Republic of Poland
  • Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Portugal – Portuguese Republic Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Portugal has two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[5] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.

Pridnestrovie → Other states, Transnistria

Q


 Qatar – State of Qatar Widely recognized member of the UN.

R


 Romania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Russia – Russian Federation Widely recognized member of the UN. Russia is a federation[7][52] divided in Subjects of Russia (oblasts, republics, autonomous okrugs, krays, and federal cities).
Several of the federal subjects are republics:[5]

 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
  • KinyaRwanda: Rwanda – Repubulika y'u Rwanda
  • French: Rwanda – République du Rwanda
  • English: Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

S


Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Other states

 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
  • English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[4] and is a federation[7] of the islands.

 Saint Lucia Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
  • Samoan: Sāmoa – Mālo Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa
  • English: Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
  • Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe – República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe
Widely recognized member of the UN. São Tomé and Príncipe has an autonomous province, Príncipe.[5]

 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Arabic : السعودية – المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّة Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Senegal – Republic of Senegal
  • French: Sénégal – République du Sénégal
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Serbia – Republic of Serbia Widely recognized member of the UN. Serbia considers itself to have two autonomous provinces, Kosovo and Metohija and Flag of Vojvodina.svg Vojvodina,[5] though most of Kosovo is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo, which does not have general recognition.

 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • English: Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • French: Seychelles – République des Seychelles
  • Sesel: – Repiblik Sesel
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Seychelles claim the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French Glorioso Islands and Tromelin.[8]

 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
  • English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
  • Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国 Template:Rom
  • Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Slovakia – Slovak Republic
  • Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
  • Slovenian: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija
  • Italian: Slovenia - Repubblica slovena
  • Hungarian: Szlovénia – a Szlovén Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

 Solomon Islands Widely recognized member of the UN. The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

 Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia
  • Somali: Soomaaliya – Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
  • Arabic: الصومال – جمهورية الصومال Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Somalia is presently fragmented with its Transitional National Government. Somalia disputed the Yemenite sovereignty over Socotra.[8] See Somaliland for the de facto country inside the de jure territory of Somalia.

 South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
  • Xhosa: Mzantsi Afrika – IRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
  • Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – IRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
  • Ndbele: Sewula Afrika – IRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
  • Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
  • Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
  • Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
  • Swazi: Ningizimu Afrika – IRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
  • Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
  • Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

South Korea → Korea, Republic of

South Ossetia → Other states

 Spain – Kingdom of Spain
  • Spanish: España – Reino de España
  • Catalan: Espanya – Regne d'Espanya
  • Basque: Espainia – Espainiako Erresuma
  • Galician: España – Reino de España
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Spain is divided in autonomous communities and cities. The sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. The sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain disputes the British sovereignty over Gibraltar.[8]

 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකාව – SrilankaFont.png Template:Rom
  • Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan Widely recognized member of the UN. Sudan is a federation[7] divided in states and it has one autonomous region, Southern Sudan, formed out of the Southern Sudanese states.[5]

 Suriname – Republic of Suriname
  • Dutch: Suriname – Republiek Suriname
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • English: Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • Swazi: eSwatini – Umbuso weSwatini
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
  • Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
  • German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
  • French: Suisse – Confédération Suisse
  • Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
  • Raeto-Romance: Svizra – Confederaziun Svizra
  • Latin: Confoederatio Helvetica
Widely recognized member of the UN. Switzerland is a federation[7] divided in cantons.

 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
  • Arabic: سورية – الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Golan is occupied by Israel. Syria disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.[8]

T


Taiwan → Other states

 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan Widely recognized member of the UN. Tajikistan has an autonomous province, Gorno-Badakhshan.[5]

 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
  • Swahili: Tanzania – Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
  • English:Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tanzania is a federacy with an autonomous status for Zanzibar.[5]

 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
  • Thai: ประเทศไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทยTemplate:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Timor-Leste → East Timor

 Togo – Togolese Republic
  • French: Togo – République Togolaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
  • Tongan: Tonga – Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga
  • English: Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Transnistria → Other states

 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Widely recognized member of the UN. Trinidad and Tobago has an autonomous island, Tobago.[5]

 Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Turkmenistan Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Tuvalu Widely recognized member of the UN. Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

U


 Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • English: Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • Swahili: Uganda – Jamhuri ya Uganda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Ukraine Widely recognized member of the UN. Ukraine has an autonomous republic,  Crimea.[5]

 United Arab Emirates Widely recognized member of the UN. The United Arab Emirates is a federation[7] divided into emirates.

 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
  • Scottish Gaelic: An Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mhòr agus Èirinn a Tuath
  • Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
  • Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
  • Cornish: Ruwvaneth Unys Breten Veur hag Iwerdhon Gledh
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[4] divided into four parts. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British Crown has sovereignty over


 United States – United States of America
  • English: United States – United States of America
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United States is a federation[7] divided in states, a federal district, and one territory. The United States has sovereignty over the following (inhabited) territories and commonwealths

Besides these, there are uninhabited territories in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Wake Island (disputed by the Marshall Islands) as well as Navassa Island (disputed by Haiti).[8] Of these only Palmyra Atoll is fully incorporated and considered a part of the US.


 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
  • Spanish: Uruguay – República Oriental del Uruguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek: Ўзбекистон – Ўзбекистон Республикаси Template:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Uzbekistan has an autonomous republic,  Karakalpakstan.[5]

V


 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • Bislama: Vanuatu – Ripablik blong Vanuatu
  • English: Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • French: Vanuatu – République du Vanuatu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

  Vatican City – State of the Vatican City
  • Latin: Civitas Vaticana – Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
  • Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
Widely recognized country.

The  Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by 176 countries, administers the territory of Vatican City; the Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN. Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, with the latter being the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and therefore ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.


 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Spanish: Venezuela – República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Widely recognized member of the UN. Venezuela is a federation[7] divided in states, one federal dependency and one federal district.

 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Widely recognized member of the UN. Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel Islands[21] and the Spratly Islands.[12]

W


Y


 Yemen – Republic of Yemen Widely recognized member of the UN. The Yemenite sovereignty over Socotra is disputed by Somalia.[8]

Z


 Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • English: Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • English: Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Other states

This annex lists states that claim sovereignty and have control over (part of) their claimed territories, but due to disputes over their legitimacy, do not have normal diplomatic relations with the majority of sovereign states. Entities considered to be micronations are not included.


 Abkhazia: Republic of Abkhazia De facto independent state only recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[53] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo De facto independent state that is recognised by UN member states and by the Republic of China. Party to the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA). Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In turn, the Republic of Kosovo claims the part of Kosovo controlled by the Republic of Serbia and still administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).

 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  • Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի ՀանրապետությունTemplate:Rom
De facto independent state that has not been diplomatically recognized by any other state. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Azerbaijan.[54]

 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
De facto independent state that is recognised only by Turkey. It was accepted as an observer state of the Organization of the Islamic Conference under the name of the Turkish Cypriot State since 1979. In addition, the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan (the sovereign state that Nakhichevan belongs to) has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[55]

State of Palestine Palestinian Territories - State of Palestine The Palestinian territories are partially controlled by Israel and partially under control of the Palestinian Authority. Palestine has received a standing invitation to participate as observer at United Nations General Assembly and maintains a permanent observer mission at the UN Headquarters[56] The declared State of Palestine is recognized by 103 countries.[57] In diplomatic relations, the proposed State of Palestine is represented by the Palestinian Authority.[citation needed]

 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali: Soomaaliland – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland
  • Arabic: ارض الصومال – جمهورية ارض الصومال Template:Rom
De facto independent state not diplomatically recognized by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[58]

 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
  • Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикæ Хуссар ИрыстонTemplate:Rom
  • Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная ОсетияTemplate:Rom
De facto independent state only recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[53]

 Taiwan – Republic of China[16] A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islands[12] and has not renounced claims over the territory of the PRC and Mongolia.[60] The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[20] The Republic of China participates in a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei Chinese Taipei.

 Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
  • Russian: Приднестровье: Приднестровская Молдавская РеспубликаTemplate:Rom
  • Ukrainian: Придністров'я: Придністровська Молдавська РеспублікаTemplate:Rom
  • Moldovan: Нистря: Република Молдовеняскэ НистрянэTemplate:Rom
De facto independent state, recognized only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[61]

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR – Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية Template:Rom
De facto independent state recognized by 46 other states. It is a member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of the Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Algeria.

Criteria for inclusion

This list derives its definition of a state from Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention of 1933. According to the Convention, a state should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population, (b) a defined territory, (c) government, and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states. In respect of the last qualification, the role of recognition by other states can often be crucial since it implies acceptance into the international community.[62] The list includes all states which are often regarded as satisfying these criteria and claim to be sovereign and independent. However, in many cases, whether an entity satisfies the Montevideo Convention criteria is disputed. It is also important to note that there is a divergence of opinion in international law on whether the Montevideo Convention criteria alone are sufficient qualities of statehood. Links to different theories on this question are provided below.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 203 entities:

Entities considered to be micronations that are not internationally recognized are not included.

Unlisted above are the following noteworthy entities that do not satisfy all the qualifications in the Montevideo Convention:

  • Antarctica Antarctica as a whole has no government and no permanent population. Seven countries claim parts of Antarctica and five of these have reciprocally recognized one another's claims.[63] These claims, which are regulated by the Antarctic Treaty, are not recognised by any other country.[64]
  • European Union The European Union, a sui generis supranational organization which currently has 27 member states. The member states have transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU has some characteristics of a sovereign state, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union does not claim to be a sovereign state and has only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • The subnational entities called States, in the United States, Australia, and other countries, for which see State. Most such subnational entities do not form relations with foreign states, but there have been exceptions; the member states of the German Empire had consulates abroad, and Ukraine and Belorussia (now Belarus), then a part of the Soviet Union, were founding members of the United Nations.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a UN observer member and is recognized by 103 states, but has no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome. It claims to be a traditional example of a sovereign entity other than a sovereign state.[65]

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ The names of the items in the list are given in English and include both an English version of the short official names (e.g. Afghanistan) and an English version of the (longer) official names (e.g. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), as well as the same names in the (de jure or de facto) official languages on national level of the entity. Main source for the names in the official languages are the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the CIA World Fact Book (both retrieved 14 August 2007). If needed, they have been transliterated into Romanized characters, but original scripts (such as Cyrillic or Chinese characters) are included. When possible, the Romanization preferred by the country has been used.The sources for both flag and names, official languages and Romanizations are the main articles on these entities. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. See for a gallery of flags Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
  2. ^ Information is included on
  3. ^ a b More information on separatism can be found at the List of active autonomist and secessionist movements and the main articles.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p The Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states, see Sovereignty of the Realms.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  6. ^ Argentina is also named Argentine Nation for purposes of legislation.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u More information on territorial disputes can be found at the List of territorial disputes and the main articles.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa The member countries of the European Union transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU
  10. ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  11. ^ See form more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina Dayton Agreement and the text of the The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  12. ^ a b c d e f The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  13. ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  14. ^ The Burmese short name in Burmese writing system is not available in Wikipedia.
  15. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  16. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as China, while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as Taiwan. The ROC is also diplomatically occasionally known as Chinese Taipei or other names.
  17. ^ The People's Republic of China is currently not recognized by 23 UN member states and the Holy See which recognise the Republic of China, see PRC's diplomatic relations, Foreign relations of the PRC.
  18. ^ Government of Hong Kong
  19. ^ Government of Macau
  20. ^ a b In 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost control of mainland China to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and relocated to the island of Taiwan. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the ROC lost the China seat at the United Nations to the PRC: most states recognize or acknowledge the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN reckons the former as Taiwan, Province of China. The ROC is currently recognized by the Holy See and UN member states as the government of China and has de facto relations with most others. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  21. ^ a b The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes).
  22. ^ a b The sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed by India and Pakistan, smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China (and the Republic of China). De facto Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and China. See the List of territorial disputes.
  23. ^ Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa; also formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  24. ^ Cyprus is recognized by the Holy See and all UN member states except Turkey, see Foreign relations of Cyprus
  25. ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  26. ^ The government of East Timor uses Timor-Leste as English translation.
  27. ^ Hindustani uses both the Hindi and Urdu script
  28. ^ Source for the romanization is Geonames.
  29. ^ Åland It was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  30. ^ See List of active autonomist and secessionist movements.
  31. ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  32. ^ Ireland is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish Ireland from island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  33. ^ Israel is currently non-recognized by 34 countries, see Foreign relations of Israel.
  34. ^ Israel and the Palestinians: Key terms, BBC Newswatch, accessed, 8 April 2009.
  35. ^ Dore Gold, JCPA Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3, August 26, 2005.
  36. ^ International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 29 28 January 2008.
  37. ^ Israeli MFA Address by Israeli Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), January 22, 2008.
  38. ^ Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status, University of Virginia School of Law, November 17, 2005.
  39. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation" Human Rights Watch. October 29, 2004
  40. ^ "Human Rights Council Special Session on the Occupied Palestinian Territories" July 6, 2006"
  41. ^ Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs office on Occupied Palestinian Territory web site.
  42. ^ Summary of the Advisory Opinion: Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, International Court of Justice, July 9, 2004.
  43. ^ Richard Falk, Statement by Prof. Richard Falk, United Nations Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, United Nations Human Rights Council, December 27, 2008.
  44. ^ The translation of Nihon-koku was found at the Afrikaans Wikipedia.
  45. ^ Though the sovereignty of the Republic of Macedonia is not disputed, Greece disputes its name. Therefore, the republic is referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
  46. ^ Some argue that Albanian is the second official language, others argue that Albanian is not used as a second official language. See for more information Talk:Republic of Macedonia. See also Macedonian language naming dispute.
  47. ^ Moldovan is often considered to be the same language as Romanian, see Moldovan language.
  48. ^ E.g. the Federal Republic of Germany has diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands, Source: German foreign ministry, retrieved 14 August 2007. For more information: Foreign relations of the Cook Islands
  49. ^ Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue, China Internet Information Center, retrieved 25 May 2009
  50. ^ Tokelau remains a dependent territory after referendums. Source: New Zealand Herald, retrieved 8 August 2008
  51. ^ The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty. All claims are suspended. Claiming countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. There is also an informal Brazilian claim.
  52. ^ Whether or not the Russian Federation is a genuine federation is a matter of dispute. See: Russian Federation section.
  53. ^ a b "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com. 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  54. ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  55. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  56. ^ Source for observership: UN Website.
  57. ^ See for more information Proposals for a Palestinian state.
  58. ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  59. ^ Romanization in Pinyin.
  60. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. 
  61. ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  62. ^ "State", pp. 512–3 in Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. Evans, Graham & Newnham, Jeffrey. 1998. (ISBN 0-14-051397-3). London: Penguin Books Ltd.
  63. ^ Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, p. 204, ISBN 0754644197  "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  64. ^ CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  65. ^ Bilateral relations with countries, Order of Malta, Retrieved 2009-01-27

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