List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia
This article possibly contains original research. (November 2019)
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia. It includes fully recognized states, states with limited but substantial international recognition, de facto states with little or no international recognition, and dependencies of both Asian and non-Asian states. In particular, it lists 49 generally recognized sovereign states (all of which are members of the United Nations), two states with substantial but not general international recognition (of which one is a UN observer state), four largely unrecognized de facto states, and six dependent and other territories.
The 49 generally recognized sovereign states listed here include two countries that are generally classified as European or African nations but with portions of their territory being in Asia, while the two states with substantial but not general recognition are both fully encompassed in Asia. Though a majority of the Russian Federation's land area is located within Asia, it is generally considered a European country because of its historical, cultural, ethnic, and political ties to Europe. Its capital and largest city, Moscow is located within Europe, and the vast majority of its population lives within its European part. In addition, while Egypt extends into Asia through the Sinai Peninsula, it is generally considered to be an African country because most of its population and geographic area is in Africa.
Geographical boundaries of Asia
The divisions between Asia and Europe occur at the Ural Mountains, Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east, the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea, Bosporus Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea in the south. Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey all have territory in both Asia and Europe. Armenia and Cyprus are entirely in Western Asia but are socio-politically European countries and members of the Council of Europe, with Cyprus also being a member of the European Union.
The division between Asia and Africa is usually considered to be the Suez Canal, placing the Sinai peninsula (which is part of Egypt) in Asia, and, therefore, Egypt, an African country, may also be considered to be a country in Asia.
The division between Asia and Australasia (Oceania) is disputed and placed somewhere between Java and New Guinea. Indonesia spans both areas, but is considered to be in Asia. East Timor is sometimes considered to be part of Australasia, but due to its being surrounded by Indonesia and its once being part of Indonesia, it is generally considered to be in Asia. Papua New Guinea is occasionally considered to be in Asia, but it is generally considered to be part of Australasia. The division between Asia and North America is considered to be the Bering Strait. Some of the Aleutian Islands, however, may be considered to be in Asia.
A sovereign state is a political organization with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest. According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states. It is also important to note that these states were categorized accordingly independent of our endorsement or opposition to their statehood and is based solely on their de facto and de jure statuses
United Nations member states
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names
|Domestic short and formal names||Capital
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
|Dari: جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان – افغانستان (Afghānestān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afghānestān)
Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت – افغانستان (Afghān̄istān – Afghānistān Islāmī Jumhūrīyat)
Dari: کابل (Kābul)
Pashto: کابل (Kābul)
|37,171,921||652,230 km2 (251,827 sq mi)|
Republic of Armenia
|Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետությու (Hayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun)||Yerevan
Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
|2,951,745||29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi)|
Republic of Azerbaijan
|Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan – Azǝrbaycan Respublikası||Baku
|9,949,537||86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Bahrain
|Arabic: مملكة البحرين – البحرين (Al Baḩrayn – Mamlakat al Baḩrayn)||Manama
Arabic: المنامة (Al Manāmah)
|1,569,446||760 km2 (293 sq mi)|
People's Republic of Bangladesh
|Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bānglādesh – Gaṇaprajātantrī Bānglādesh)||Dhaka
Bengali: ঢাকা (Ḍhākā)
|161,376,708||147,570 km2 (56,977 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Bhutan
|Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ – འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ (Druk Yul – Druk Gyalkhapb)||Thimphu
Dzongkha: ཐིམ་ཕུ (Thimphu)
|754,388||38,394 km2 (14,824 sq mi)|
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
|Malay: Brunei – Negara Brunei Darussalam (بروني – نڬارا بروني دارالسلام)||Bandar Seri Begawan
Malay: Bandar Seri Begawan (بندر سري بڬاوان)
|460,356||5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Cambodia
|Khmer: កម្ពុជា – ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា (Kâmpŭchéa – Preăhréachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchéa)||Phnom Penh
Khmer: ភ្នំពេញ (Phnum Pénh)
|16,249,792||181,035 km2 (69,898 sq mi)|
People's Republic of China
|Chinese: 中国 – 中华人民共和国 (Zhōngguó – Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó)||Beijing
Chinese: 北京 (Běijīng)
|1,427,647,786||9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)|
Republic of Cyprus
|Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía)
Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)
|1,189,265||9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi)|
Arab Republic of Egypt[n 1]
|Arabic: مصر – جمهورية مصر العربية (Miṣr—Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyya)||Cairo
Arabic: القاهرة (al-Qāhirah)
|98,423,598||1,001,449 km2 (386,662 sq mi)|
|Georgia[a][b]||Georgian: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo)||Tbilisi / T'bilisi
Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
|4,002,942||69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi)|
Republic of India
|Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्य (Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇarajya)
Hindi: नई दिल्ली (Naī Dillī)
|1,352,642,280||3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)|
Republic of Indonesia
|Indonesian: Indonesia – Republik Indonesia||Jakarta
|267,670,543||1,904,569 km2 (735,358 sq mi)|
Islamic Republic of Iran
|Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران – ایران (Īrān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān)||Tehran
Persian: تهران (Tehrān)
|83,183,741||1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi)|
Republic of Iraq
|Arabic: العراق – جمهورية العراق (Al 'Irāq – Jumhūrīyat al 'Irāq)||Baghdad
Arabic: بغداد (Baghdād)
|38,433,600||438,317 km2 (169,235 sq mi)|
State of Israel
|Hebrew: יִשְרָאֵל – מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Yisra'el – Medinat Yisra'el)
Arabic: إسرائيل – دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Isrā'īl – Dawlat Isrā'īl)
|Jerusalem (Claimed and de facto)[c]
Hebrew: ירושלים (Yerushalayim)
|8,381,516||20,770 km2 (8,019 sq mi)|
|Japan||Japanese: 日本 – 日本国 (Nihon / Nippon – Nihon-koku / Nippon-koku)||Tokyo
Japanese: 東京 (Tōkyō)
|127,202,192||377,915 km2 (145,914 sq mi)|
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
|Arabic: اﻷرُدن – المملكة الأردنية الهاشميه (Al Urdun – Al Mamlakah al Urdunīyah al Hāshimīyah)||Amman
Arabic: عمان (Ammān)
|9,965,318||89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi)|
Republic of Kazakhstan
|Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy)
Russian: Казахстан – Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan – Respublika Kazahstan)
Russian: Нур-Султан (Nur-Sultan)
|18,319,618||2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi)|
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
|Korean: 조선 – 조선민주주의인민공화국 (Chosŏn – Chosŏn-minjujuŭi-inmin-konghwaguk)||Pyongyang
Korean: 평양 (Phyŏngyang)
|25,549,604||120,538 km2 (46,540 sq mi)|
Republic of Korea
|Korean: 한국 – 대한민국 (Hanguk – Daehan Minguk)||Seoul
Korean: 서울 (Seoul)
|51,171,706||99,720 km2 (38,502 sq mi)|
State of Kuwait
|Arabic: دولة الكويت – اﻟﻜﻮﻳت (Al Kuwayt – Dawlat al Kuwayt)||Kuwait City
Arabic: الكويت (Al Kuwayt)
|4,137,312||17,818 km2 (6,880 sq mi)|
|Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан – Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Respublikasy)
Russian: Кыргызстан – Кыргызская Республика (Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyzskaja Respublika)
Kyrgyz: Бишкек (Bishkek)
Russian: Бишкек (Biškek)
|6,304,030||199,951 km2 (77,202 sq mi)|
Lao People's Democratic Republic
|Lao: ປະເທດລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ (PathetLao – Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxôn Lao)||Vientiane
Lao: ວຽງຈັນ (Viangchan)
|7,061,507||236,800 km2 (91,429 sq mi)|
|Arabic: لبنان – الجمهورية اللبنانية (Lubnān – Al Jumhūrīyah al Lubnānīyah)||Beirut
Arabic: بيروت (Bayrūt)
|6,859,408||10,452 km2 (4,036 sq mi)|
|Malaysia||Malay: Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur[d]
Malay: Kuala Lumpur
|31,528,033||329,847 km2 (127,355 sq mi)|
Republic of Maldives
|Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ – ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ (Dhivehi Raajje – Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa)||Malé / Male'
Dhivehi: މާލެ (Maale)
|515,696||298 km2 (115 sq mi)|
|Mongolia||Mongolian: Монгол – Монгол улс (Mongol – Mongol uls)||Ulaanbaatar
Mongolian: Улаанбаатар (Ulaanbaatar)
|3,170,216||1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi)|
Republic of the Union of Myanmar
|Burmese: မြန်မာ – ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် (Myanma – Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw)||Nay Pyi Taw
Burmese: နေပြည်တော် (Nay Pyi Taw)
|53,708,320||676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi)|
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
|Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल (Nepāl – Saṁghīya Loktāntrik Ganạ tantra Nepāl)||Kathmandu
Nepali: काठमाडौं (Kāṭhmāḍauṁ)
|28,095,714||147,516 km2 (56,956 sq mi)|
Sultanate of Oman
|Arabic: عُمان – سلطنة عُمان ('Umān – Salţanat 'Umān)||Muscat
Arabic: مسقط (Masqaţ)
|4,829,473||309,500 km2 (119,499 sq mi)|
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
|English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Urdu: پَاکِسْتَان – اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان (Pākistān —Islāmī Jamhuriyah-e-Pākistān)
Urdu: اسلام آباد (Islāmābād)
|212,228,286||881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)|
Republic of the Philippines
|English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
Filipino: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
|106,651,394||343,448 km2 (132,606 sq mi)|
State of Qatar
|Arabic: قطر – دولة قطر (Qatar – Dawlat Qatar)||Doha
Arabic: الدوحة (Ad Dawḩah)
|2,781,682||11,586 km2 (4,473 sq mi)|
|Russian: Росси́я – Российская Федерация (Rossija – Rossijskaja Federacija)||Moscow
Russian: Москва (Moskva)
|145,734,038146,748,590 (including Crimea)
|17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
|Arabic: السعودية – المملكة العربية السعودية (As Su‘ūdīya – Al Mamlakah al 'Arabīyah as Su‘ūdīyah)||Riyadh
Arabic: الرياض (Ar Riyāḑ)
|33,702,756||2,149,690 km2 (830,000 sq mi)|
Republic of Singapore
|Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国 (Xīnjiāpō – Xīnjiāpō Gònghéguó)
English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு (Chiṅkappūr – Chiṅkappūr Kuṭiyarachu)
Chinese: 新加坡 (Xīnjiāpō)
Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் (Chiṅkappūr)
|5,757,499||697 km2 (269 sq mi)|
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
|Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකාව – ශ්රී ලංකා ප්රජාතාන්ත්රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Shrī Laṁkā – Shrī Laṁkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajaya)
Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு (Ilaṅkai – Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Choṣhalichak Kuṭiyarachu)
|Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte
Sinhala: ශ්රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ (Shrī Jayavardhanapura Koṭṭe)
Tamil: ஶ்ரீ ஜெயவர்த்தனபுர கோட்டை (Shrī Jĕyavarttaṉapura Koṭṭai)
|21,228,763||65,610 km2 (25,332 sq mi)|
Syrian Arab Republic
|Arabic: سورية / سوريا – الجمهورية العربية السورية (Sūrīyah / Sūriyā – Al Jumhūrīyah al 'Arabīyah as Sūrīyah)||Damascus
Arabic: دمشق (Dimashq)
|16,945,05717,500,657||185,180 km2 (71,498 sq mi)|
Republic of Tajikistan
|Tajik: Тоҷикистон – Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tojikiston – Jumhurii Tojikiston)||Dushanbe
Tajik: Душанбе (Dushanbe)
|9,100,835||143,100 km2 (55,251 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Thailand
|Thai: ไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai – Ratcha Anachak Thai)||Bangkok
Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon)
|69,428,453||513,120 km2 (198,117 sq mi)|
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
|Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
|1,267,974||14,874 km2 (5,743 sq mi)|
Republic of Turkey
|Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti||Ankara
|82,340,088||783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)|
|5,850,901||488,100 km2 (188,456 sq mi)|
|United Arab Emirates||Arabic: اﻹﻣﺎرات – دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة (Al Imārāt – Al Imārāt al 'Arabīyah al Muttaḩidah)||Abu Dhabi
Arabic: أبوظبي (Abu Dhabi)
|9,630,959||83,600 km2 (32,278 sq mi)|
Republic of Uzbekistan
|Uzbek: O‘zbekiston – O‘zbekiston Respublikasi||Tashkent
|32,476,244||447,400 km2 (172,742 sq mi)|
|Vietnam / Viet Nam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
|Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam||Hanoi
Vietnamese: Hà Nội
|95,545,96296,208,984||332,698 km2 (128,455 sq mi)|
Republic of Yemen
|Arabic: اليمن – الجمهورية اليمنية (Al Yaman – Al Jumhūrīyah al Yamanīyah)||Sana'a (de jure)[h]
Arabic: صنعاء (Şan‘ā')
|28,498,683||527,968 km2 (203,850 sq mi)|
States with limited, but substantial, international recognition
In this list, Palestine is a state with substantial international recognition and UN observer-state status but without practical control over tangible territory, while Taiwan is a de facto state with full practical sovereignty over its territory and unofficial ties with most of the international community but not widely recognized de jure. Although a founding member of the United Nations as the Republic of China, since 1971 Taiwan is no longer recognized by the United Nations.
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names||Status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital||Population 2018
|Area||Primary head of state|
State of Palestine
|Recognized by 138 UN member states. See International recognition of the State of Palestine. One of two United Nations non-member observer states||Arabic: فلسطين – دولة فلسطين (Filasṭīn – Dawlat Filasṭīn)||Ramallah (de facto)
Arabic: رام الله
|4,862,9795,051,000||6,220 km2 (2,402 sq mi)||Mahmoud Abbas|
Republic of China
|Claimed as part of the People's Republic of China. Officially recognized as sovereign by 14 UN member states and the Holy See, which deem it to be the rightful government of all of China. In addition, Taiwan maintains unofficial relations with most other countries and is de facto recognized by most sovereign states. See Political status of Taiwan for more information about the situation.||Traditional Chinese: 臺灣/台灣 – 中華民國 (Táiwān—Zhōnghuá Mínguó)||Taipei
Traditional Chinese: 台北 (Táiběi)
|23,726,46023,796,000||35,980 km2 (13,892 sq mi)||Tsai Ing-wen|
De facto states with little or no international recognition
The four de facto states on this list have little or no international recognition and are not members of the United Nations. All are defined as states by the declarative theory.
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names||Status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital||Population (2011)||Area||Primary head of state|
Republic of Abkhazia
|Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by six UN states.||Abkhazian: Аҧсуа (Apswa)||Sukhumi / Sukhum
Abkhazian: Аҟəа (Akwa)
|250,000||8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)||Aslan Bzhania|
Republic of Artsakh
|Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. Recognised only by three non-UN states.||Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ Հանրապետություն (Lernayin Gharabaghi – Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yun)||Stepanakert
Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Stepanakert)
|141,400||3,170 km2 (1,224 sq mi)||Arayik Harutyunyan|
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
|Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey.||Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti||North Nicosia
|285,356||3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)||Ersin Tatar|
Republic of South Ossetia
|Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN states.||Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)
Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)
Ossetian: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
|70,000||3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)||Anatoly Bibilov|
Dependencies and other territories
The four territories in this list are controlled by a state of which they are not considered to be a part.
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names||Status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital||Population||Area||Primary head of state|
|Akrotiri and Dhekelia
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
|British overseas territory||English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia – Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Episkopi Cantonment
English: Episkopi Cantonment
|15,700[e]||254 km2 (98 sq mi)||Robert Thomson|
|British Indian Ocean Territory||British overseas territory||English: British Indian Ocean Territory||Camp Justice||4,000[f]||54,400 km2 (21,004 sq mi)||Ben Merrick|
Territory of Christmas Island
|Territory of Australia||English: Christmas Island – Territory of Christmas Island||Flying Fish Cove / The Settlement||1,843||135 km2 (52 sq mi)||Gordon Thomson|
|Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
|Territory of Australia||English: Cocos (Keeling) Islands – Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos Islands Malay: Pulu Kokos (Keeling)
|West Island / Bantam||544||14 km2 (5 sq mi)||Seri Wati Iku|
Special areas of internal sovereignty
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names||Status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital||Population||Area||Primary head of state|
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
|Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China||Traditional Chinese: 香港 – 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
English: Hong Kong – Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
|Hong Kong||7,582,000||2,755 km2 (1,064 sq mi)||Carrie Lam|
|Macau / Macao
Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
|Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China||Traditional Chinese: 澳門 – 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區
Portuguese: Macau – Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China
|Macau / Macao||693,000||28.2 km2 (10.9 sq mi)||Ho Iat-seng|
- List of Asian countries by GDP
- List of predecessors of sovereign states in Asia
- List of states with limited recognition
- Area and population figures given are for the whole state, including areas located outside of Asia. Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey all contain territory in Europe. The border between Asia and Oceania is not clearly defined, and Indonesia and East Timor are sometimes placed in Oceania.
- The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
- Jerusalem was declared the capital of Israel in 1950. The 1980 Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel", and the city serves as the seat of the government, home to the President's residence, government offices, supreme court, and parliament. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem. Foreign countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and other Israeli cities.
- Akrotiri and Dhekelia are British military bases, with the population including 8,000 United Kingdom personnel and dependents.
- Represents total land area. Including claimed ocean area, total area 54,400 km2 (21,004 sq mi).
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