List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania

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Exclusive economic zones of Oceania and neighboring areas

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in the geographical region of Oceania. Although it is mostly ocean and spans many tectonic plates, Oceania is occasionally listed as one of the continents.

Most of this list follows the boundaries of geopolitical Oceania, which includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. The main continental landmass of Oceania is Australia.[1]

Boundaries of Oceania[edit]

The boundary between Southeast Asia and Oceania is not clearly defined. For political reasons, the United Nations considers the boundary between the two regions to be the IndonesianPapua New Guinean border.[2] Papua New Guinea is occasionally considered Asian as it neighbours Indonesia,[3][4][5] but this is rare, and it is generally accepted to be part of Oceania. Biogeographically and geologically, Papua and West Papua provinces are parts of Oceania.

Likewise, there is also no clearly defined boundary between Latin America and Oceania; the mostly uninhabited oceanic Pacific islands near Latin America have been considered by some as part of Oceania, both historically and in present-day times.[6][7][8][9][10] Nearly all of these islands have become politically associated with the Americas, but none lie on the respective tectonic plates of those continents, nor were any inhabited by Indigenous peoples of the Americas during the pre-Columbian era.[11] Some share strong biogeographical affinities to geopolitical Oceania.[12] The Malay Archipelago has historically been associated with Oceania,[13][9][14][15] however, very few present-day definitions include it as part of Oceania.[16][17] The Malay Archipelago lies on the continental shelf of Asia; Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (both adjacent to the Malay Archipelago) lie on the Australian tectonic plate, and are not politically associated with Asia. The Bonin Islands, which have been politically integrated into Japan, are not geologically associated with the Asian continent, and are biogeographically within Micronesia.

Sovereign states[edit]

United Nations member states[edit]

This section includes all sovereign states located predominantly in Oceania that are member states of the United Nations.[18] All 14 states are full members of the Pacific Islands Forum.[19]

Flag Coat of Arms / National Emblem Map English short and formal names
[20][21][22]
Domestic short and formal names[20][21] Capital
[22][23][24]
Population
[25]
Area
[26]
Flag of Australia.svg
Coat of Arms of Australia.svg Australia (orthographic projection).svg Australia[note 1]

Commonwealth of Australia
English: Australia — Commonwealth of Australia Canberra 23,268,319 7,741,220 km2 (2,988,902 sq mi)
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg
Seal of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg LocationMicronesia.png Federated States of Micronesia English: Federated States of Micronesia Palikir 106,487 702 km2 (271 sq mi)
Flag of Fiji.svg
Coat of arms of Fiji.svg LocationFiji.png Fiji

Republic of Fiji
English: Fiji — Republic of Fiji

Fijian: Viti — Matanitu ko Viti

Fiji Hindi फीजी/Fiji - रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी/ Ripablik ăph Phījī
Suva 896,445 18,274 km2 (7,056 sq mi)
Flag of Kiribati.svg
Coat of arms of Kiribati.svg LocationKiribati.png Kiribati

Republic of Kiribati
English: Kiribati — Republic of Kiribati

Gilbertese: Kiribati — Ribaberiki Kiribati
South Tarawa
Bairiki
101,998 811 km2 (313 sq mi)
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg
Seal of the Marshall Islands.svg LocationMarshallIslands.png Marshall Islands

Republic of the Marshall Islands
English: Marshall Islands — Republic of the Marshall Islands

Marshallese: Aelōn̄ in M̧ajeļ - Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ
Majuro 68,480 181 km2 (70 sq mi)
Flag of Nauru.svg
Coat of arms of Nauru.svg NRU orthographic.svg Nauru

Republic of Nauru
English: Nauru — Republic of Nauru

Nauruan: Naoero - Repubrikin Naoero
No official Capital
Government offices are in Yaren
9,378 21 km2 (8 sq mi)
Flag of New Zealand.svg
Coat of arms of New Zealand.svg New Zealand (orthographic projection).svg New Zealand[note 2] English: New Zealand

Māori: Aotearoa
Wellington 4,570,038 267,710 km2 (103,363 sq mi)
Flag of Palau.svg
Seal of Palau.svg LocationPalau.png Palau

Republic of Palau
English: Palau — Republic of Palau

Palauan: Belau — Beluu er a Belau
Ngerulmud 21,032 459 km2 (177 sq mi)
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
National emblem of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea (orthographic projection).svg Papua New Guinea

Independent State of Papua New Guinea
English: Papua New Guinea — Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini — Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
Port Moresby 6,310,129 462,840 km2 (178,704 sq mi)
Flag of Samoa.svg
Coat of arms of Samoa.svg LocationSamoa.png Samoa

Independent State of Samoa
English: Samoa — Independent State of Samoa

Samoan: Samoa — Malo Sa‘oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa
Apia 194,320 2,831 km2 (1,093 sq mi)
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Solomon Islands.svg LocationSolomonIslands.png Solomon Islands English: Solomon Islands Honiara 584,578 28,896 km2 (11,157 sq mi)
Flag of Tonga.svg
Coat of arms of Tonga.svg LocationTonga.png Tonga

Kingdom of Tonga
English: Tonga — Kingdom of Tonga

Tongan: Tonga — Pule'anga Tonga
Nukuʻalofa 106,146 747 km2 (288 sq mi)
Flag of Tuvalu.svg
Coat of arms of Tuvalu.svg LocationTuvalu.png Tuvalu English: Tuvalu

Tuvaluan: Tuvalu
Funafuti 10,619 26 km2 (10 sq mi)
Flag of Vanuatu.svg
Coat of arms of Vanuatu.svg LocationVanuatu.png Vanuatu

Republic of Vanuatu
Bislama: Vanuatu — Ripablik blong Vanuatu

English: Vanuatu — Republic of Vanuatu

French: Vanuatu — République de Vanuatu
Port Vila 256,155 12,189 km2 (4,706 sq mi)

Non-United Nations member states[edit]

Two states, the Cook Islands and Niue, are in free association with New Zealand. While maintaining a close constitutional and political relationship with New Zealand, both states are members of several United Nations specialized agencies with full treaty-making capacity, and have independently engaged in diplomatic relations with sovereign states under their own name. Both are also full members of the Pacific Islands Forum. Because of these features, they are sometimes considered to have de facto status as sovereign states.[27]

Flag Coat of Arms / National Emblem Map English short and formal names[20] Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[26]
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Cook Islands.svg LocationCookIslands.png Cook Islands[22] Self-governing in free association with New Zealand. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship, but is independent in its internal affairs. English: Cook Islands
Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani
Avarua[22][23] 11,124[25] 236 km2 (91 sq mi)
Flag of Niue.svg
Public Seal of Niue.svg LocationNiue.png Niue[22] Self-governing in free association with New Zealand. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship, but is independent in its internal affairs. English: Niue

Niuean: Niuē
Alofi[22][23] 1,311[25] 260 km2 (100 sq mi)

Non-sovereign territories[edit]

The following are entities considered to be within Oceania and that are either:

1. Federal territories of sovereign states located outside these states' mainland.

2. Territories that constitute integral parts of sovereign states in some form other than a federal relationship, where a significant part of the sovereign state's landmass is located outside Oceania or the territory is located outside the sovereign state's mainland. Many of these territories are often described as dependencies or autonomous areas.

3. Dependent territories of sovereign states.

Two of these territories (French Polynesia and New Caledonia) are associate members of the Pacific Islands Forum, while five others (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Tokelau, and Wallis and Futuna) hold observer status within the organization.

Flag Coat of Arms / National Emblem Map English short and formal names[20] Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[26]
Flag of American Samoa.svg
Seal of American Samoa.svg LocationAmericanSamoa.png American Samoa

Territory of American Samoa[22]
Unincorporated territory of the United States English: American Samoa — Territory of American Samoa

Samoan: Amerika Sāmoa
Pago Pago[22][23] 67,242[25] 199 km2 (77 sq mi)
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
AshmoreandCartierIslands.png Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
External territory of Australia English: Ashmore and Cartier Islands None Uninhabited 5 km2 (2 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
LocationBakerIsland.png Baker Island Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Baker Island[28] None Uninhabited[28] 129.1 km2 (49.8 sq mi)
Flag of Christmas Island
Christmas Island on globe (Southeast Asia centered) with borders.svg Christmas Island Territory of Australia English: Christmas Island – Territory of Christmas Island Flying Fish Cove[22] / The Settlement[23] 1,843[29] 135 km2 (52 sq mi)
Flag of France.svg
Clipperton Island in its region.svg Clipperton Island Overseas state private property French: Île de Clipperton None Uninhabited 6 km2 (2 sq mi)
Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands on the globe (Southeast Asia centered).svg Cocos (Keeling) Islands Territory of Australia English: Cocos (Keeling) Islands – Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands West Island[23] / Bantam[22] 544[29] 14 km2 (5 sq mi)
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Wyspy Morza Koralowego.png Coral Sea Islands

Coral Sea Islands Territory
External territory of Australia English: Coral Sea Islands — Coral Sea Islands Territory None Uninhabited 3 km2 (1 sq mi)
Flag of Rapa Nui, Chile.svg
Emblem of Easter Island.svg Orthographic projection centred over Easter Island.png Easter Island Special territory of Chile Spanish: Isla de Pascua

Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui
Hanga Roa 6,148[30] 163.6 km2 (63 sq mi)
Flag of French Polynesia.svg
Coat of arms of French Polynesia.svg Location French Polynesia.png French Polynesia

Overseas Country of French Polynesia[22]
Overseas country of France French: Polynésie française — Pays d'outre-mer de la Polynésie française[20] Papeete[22][23] 294,935[25] 4,167 km2 (1,609 sq mi)
Galapagos Islands topographic map-fi.svg
Galápagos Islands Special territory of Ecuador Spanish: Islas Galápagos Puerto Baquerizo Moreno 35,000 7,880 km2 (3,042 sq mi)
Flag of Guam.svg
Coat of arms of Guam.svg LocationGuam.png Guam

Territory of Guam
Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Guam — Territory of Guam

Chamorro: Guahan[20]
Hagåtña / Agaña[22][23] 183,286[31] 544 km2 (210 sq mi)
Flag of Hawaii.svg
Seal of the State of Hawaii.svg LocationHawaii.png Hawaii

State of Hawaii
State of the United States English: Hawaii — State of Hawaii

Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi — Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi
Honolulu 1,404,054[25] 28,311 km2 (10,931 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
LocationHowlandIsland.png Howland Island Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Howland Island[28] None Uninhabited[28] 138.6 km2 (53.5 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
LocationJarvisIsland.png Jarvis Island Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Jarvis Island[28] None Uninhabited[28] 152 km2 (59 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
LocationJohnstonAtoll.png Johnston Atoll Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Johnston Atoll[28] None Uninhabited[28] 276.6 km2 (106.8 sq mi)
Bandera Juan Fernández.svg
Escudo de Juan Fernández.svg
Orthographic projection centred over Juan Fernandez.png Juan Fernández Islands Special territory of Chile[32] Spanish: Archipiélago Juan Fernández San Juan Bautista 900 99.06 km2 (38.25 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
Orthographic projection over Kingman Reef.png Kingman Reef Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Kingman Reef[28] None Uninhabited[28] 1,958.01 km2 (755.99 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
Orthographic projection centred over midway.png Midway Atoll Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Midway Islands[28] None Uninhabited[28] 2,355.2 km2 (909.3 sq mi)
Flag of France.svg

Flag of FLNKS.svg
Emblem of New Caledonia.svg LocationNewCaledonia.png New Caledonia

Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
Overseas sui generis collectivity of France[22] French: Nouvelle-Calédonie — Territoire des Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances[20] Nouméa[22][23] 256,275[25] 18,575 km2 (7,172 sq mi)
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg
Coat of arms of Norfolk Island.svg LocationNorfolkIsland.png Norfolk Island

Territory of Norfolk Island[22]
External territory of Australia English: Norfolk Island — Territory of Norfolk Island

Norfuk: Teratri of Norf'k Ailen
Kingston[22][23] 2,169[25] 36 km2 (14 sq mi)
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg
Seal of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg LocationNorthernMarianas.png Northern Mariana Islands

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands[22]
Unincorporated territory and commonwealth of the United States English: Northern Mariana Islands — Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Chamorro: Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas

Carolinian: Téél Falúw kka Efáng Ilól Marianas

Saipan[22][23] 46,050[25] 464 km2 (179 sq mi)
Flag of Ogasawara, Tokyo.svg
Emblem of Ogasawara, Tokyo.svg
Map of ogasawara islands ja.png Ogasawara Village Part of Ogasawara Village in Tokyo, Japan Bonin Islands: Japanese: 小笠原群島 (Ogasawara Guntō)

Marcus Island: Japanese: 南鳥島 (Minamitori Shima)

Parece Vela Reef: Japanese: 沖ノ鳥島 (Okinotori Shima)

Rosario Island: Japanese: 西之島 (Nishino Shima)

Volcano Islands: Japanese: 火山列島 (Kazan Rettō)
Ōmura (大村) 2,871[33] 104.35 km2 (40 sq mi)[33]
Flag of the United States.svg
Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll.png Palmyra Atoll[20] Incorporated territory of the United States English: Palmyra Atoll[28] None Uninhabited[28] 12 km2 (5 sq mi)
Papua in Indonesia.svg Papua

Papua Province
Province of Indonesia Indonesian: Papua Jayapura 3,486,432[25] 319,036.05 km2 (123,181 sq mi)
Flag of Pitcairn Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Pitcairn Islands on the globe (French Polynesia centered).svg Pitcairn Islands

Pitcairn Group of Islands
British overseas territory English: Pitcairn Islands — Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands

Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen
Adamstown[22][23] 48[25] 47 km2 (18 sq mi)
Flag of Tokelau.svg
Badge of Tokelau.svg LocationTokelau.png Tokelau[22] Dependent territory of New Zealand Tokelauan: Tokelau

English: Tokelau
Each Atoll has its own administrative centre.[22][23] 1,384[25] 12 km2 (5 sq mi)
Flag of the United States.svg
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg LocationWakeIsland.png Wake Island Unincorporated territory of the United States English: Wake Island[28] None Uninhabited[28] 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)
Flag of Wallis and Futuna.svg
Coa Wallis Futuna.svg LocationWallisAndFutuna.png Wallis and Futuna

Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
Overseas collectivity of France French: Wallis et Futuna — Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna[20] Mata-Utu[22][23] 15,398[25] 142 km2 (55 sq mi)
West Papua in Indonesia.svg West Papua

West Papua Province
Province of Indonesia Indonesian: Papua Barat Manokwari 760,855[25] 140,375.62 km2 (54,199 sq mi)

See also[edit]

Oceania-related[edit]

Island countries[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australia has two external territory in the Antarctic, the Heard Island and McDonald Islands and the claimed Australian Antarctic Territory.
  2. ^ New Zealand has five island groups in the Subantarctic. New Zealand claims territory in the Antarctic as the Ross Dependency.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2003-08-20. Retrieved 2010-08-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2010-08-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Frank Barton, Thomas (1978). "Papua New Guinea: Tenth country of Southeast Asia?". Journal of Geography. 77 (7): 269–272. doi:10.1080/00221347808980139. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  4. ^ Quan, Jinqiang; Cai, Yuan; Yang, Tianliang; Ge, Qianyun; Jiao, Ting; Zhao, Shengguo (2020). "Phylogeny and conservation priority assessment of Asian domestic chicken genetic resources". Global Ecology and Conservation. 22: e00944. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00944. S2CID 213962014.
  5. ^ "First night-flowering orchid found in Asia".
  6. ^ "Oceania Bibliography" (PDF). Helictite: Journal of Australasian Cave Research. 25 (1). 1987. Retrieved 16 March 2022. This paper covers the region from Irian Jaya (Western New Guinea, a province of New Guinea) in the west to Galapagos Islands (Equador) and Easter Island (Chile) in the east.
  7. ^ Review of the Protected Areas System in Oceania (PDF). International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 1986. Retrieved 17 January 2022. Easter Island on the east has been included on the basis of its Polynesian and biogeographic affinities even though it is politically apart. The other islands of the eastern Pacific (Galapagos, Juan Fernandez, etc.) have sometimes been included in Oceania.
  8. ^ Todd, Ian (1974). Island Realm: A Pacific Panorama. Angus & Robertson. p. 190. ISBN 9780207127618. Retrieved 2 February 2022. [we] can further define the word culture to mean language. Thus we have the French language part of Oceania, the Spanish part and the Japanese part. The Japanese culture groups of Oceania are the Bonin Islands, the Marcus Islands and the Volcano Islands. These three clusters, lying south and south-east of Japan, are inhabited either by Japanese or by people who have now completely fused with the Japanese race. Therefore they will not be taken into account in the proposed comparison of the policies of non - Oceanic cultures towards Oceanic peoples. On the eastern side of the Pacific are a number of Spanish language culture groups of islands. Two of them, the Galapagos and Easter Island, have been dealt with as separate chapters in this volume. Only one of the dozen or so Spanish culture island groups of Oceania has an Oceanic population — the Polynesians of Easter Island. The rest are either uninhabited or have a Spanish - Latin - American population consisting of people who migrated from the mainland. Therefore, the comparisons which follow refer almost exclusively to the English and French language cultures.
  9. ^ a b Brown, Robert (1876). "Oceania: General Characteristics". The countries of the world. Oxford University. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Oceania Military Guide". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  11. ^ Flett, Iona; Haberle, Simon (2008). "East of Easter: Traces of human impact in the far-eastern Pacific" (PDF). In Clark, Geoffrey; Leach, Foss; O'Connor, Sue (eds.). Islands of Inquiry. ANU Press. pp. 281–300. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.593.8988. hdl:1885/38139. ISBN 978-1-921313-89-9. JSTOR j.ctt24h8gp.20.
  12. ^ Udvardy, Miklos D.F. "A Classification of the Biogeographical Provinces of the World" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  13. ^ Parley, Peter (1866). Tales about Europe, Asia, Africa, America, & Oceania. Oxford University. p. 2. Retrieved 12 March 2022. Oceania consists of Australasia, Polynesia and Malaysia. Australasia means South Asia. It comprises New Holland or Australia, Van Diemen's Land or Tasmania, Papua or New Guinea, Norfolk Island, New Zealand and some smaller islands. Polynesia is the term given to the various islands in the Pacific Ocean, which, as you may see on the map, are situated to the eastward of Australia, including the Philippine Islands. Malaysia is the name given to the islands of the Malay Archipelago, which are principally inhabited by the Malay race, comprising Borneo, the Sunday Isles, Celebes, Moluccas [...]
  14. ^ Cornell, Sophia S. (1859). Cornell's First Steps in Geography. The University of Michigan. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  15. ^ Chambers's New Handy Volume American Encyclopædia: Volume 9. The University of Virginia. 1885. p. 657. Retrieved 13 March 2022. the whole region has sometimes been called Oceania, and sometimes Australasia—generally, however, in modern times, to the exclusion of the islands in the Indian archipelago, to which certain writers have given the name of Malaysia [...] we have the three geographical divisions of Malaysia, Australasia and Polynesia, the last mentioned of which embraces all the groups and single islands not included under the other two. Accepting this arrangement, still the limits between Australasia and Polynesia have not been very accurately defined; indeed, scarcely any two geographers appear to be quite agreed upon the subject; neither shall we pretend to decide in the matter. The following list, however, comprises all the principal groups and single island not previously named as coming under the division of Australasia: 1. North of the equator—The Ladrone or Marian islands. the Pelew islands, the Caroline islands, the Radack and Ralick chains, the Sandwich islands, Gilbert's or Kingstnill's archipelago. and the Galapagos. 2. South of the equator—The Ellice group, the Phoenix and Union groups. the Fiji islands, the Friendly islands, the Navigator's islands. Cook's or Harvey islands, the Society islands. the Dangerous archipelago, the Marquesas islands, Pitcairn island, and Easter island.
  16. ^ Henderson, John William (1971). Area Handbook for Oceania. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 5. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  17. ^ "Oceania | Definition, Population, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com.
  18. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  19. ^ "Member Countries". Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
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  21. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Field Listing :: Capital". CIA. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  24. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA. July 2012. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  26. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Area". CIA. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  27. ^ http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10289/7589/thesis.pdf?sequence=3[bare URL PDF]
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "How are U.S. states, territories, and commonwealths designated in the Geographic Names Information System?". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  29. ^ a b Australian Government – Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. "2016 Census: Christmas Island" (PDF). Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  30. ^ "COMUNAS: ACTUALIZACIÓN POBLACIÓN 2002-2012 Y PROYECCIONES 2013-2020". National Statistics Institute (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  31. ^ "Guam". CIA. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  32. ^ "Weekly Analysis: Chile's Pacific Presence. | 36th Parallel Assessments (NZ)".
  33. ^ a b 管内概要|小笠原支庁 Archived 2017-07-24 at the Wayback Machine (in Japanese).